# Design and Development of Road Speed Breaker for The Generation of Electricity

Project Supervisor
Prof. Dr . Syed Amjad Ahmed Prof. Dr. Ahmed Shafi Mr .Yasir Javaid

Presented By
M.Bilal Awan Osama Shakeel M.Asim Jameel Adnan Mushtaq M.Umair Manzoor

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       Objective. Introduction Basic principle Types of Speed Breaker Working Model What we achieved Future Scope
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Objectives
• To use a non–conventional source of energy to generate electricity • To generate electricity at low cost • To tap a readily available source of energy • To reduce load on the national grid

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Why this project?
 According to TEPA power consumption of street lights in Lahore is 15-20MW.  Currently we have 1500MW shortfall of electricity with a maximum of 6000MW in summer.  A large number of speed breaker are present in Pakistan on major roads and toll plazas

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The generated power can be used for the lamps.Introduction A large amount of energy is wasted at the speed breakers through the dissipation of heat and also through friction. near the speed breakers and resulting in saving a lot of energy which is spent on street lights. 1/27/2013 5 . There is great possibility of tapping this energy and generating power by making the speed-breaker as a power generation unit. every time a vehicle passes over it.

Basic Principle  Law of conservation of energy.  Simple energy conversion from Mechanical to Electrical.  To generate electricity using the vehicle weight (potential energy) as input 1/27/2013 6 .

Roller mechanism II.Types of Speed breaker Mechanism Possible using 3 different mechanisms: I. Crank-shaft mechanism III.Pinion mechanism 1/27/2013 7 . Rack.

Roller mechanism Top view 1/27/2013 8 .

Roller Mechanism Side view 1/27/2013 9 .

1/27/2013 10 .Problems • Generation of electricity depends upon the velocity of the car • Maintenance will be very difficult • Maximum velocity of the roller will be low.

So. • Whenever the vehicle going on the speed breaker the speed breaker goes downwards . the potential energy is converted into kinetic energy of the crank shaft 1/27/2013 11 .Crankshaft mechanism • The crankshaft is a mechanism that transforms linear movement into rotary movement and vice versa.

Crankshaft Mechanism 1/27/2013 12 .

• Secondly any occurrence of variable load leads to balancing problem.Problems • Crank-shafts are required to be mounted on bearings which creates balancing problem leading to mechanical vibrations which in turn damage the bearings. 1/27/2013 13 .

Rack and Pinion • A rack and pinion gears system is composed of two gears. The normal round gear is the pinion gear and the straight or flat gear is the rack. • The rack has teeth cut into it and they mesh with the teeth of the pinion gear. 1/27/2013 14 .

Working of rack and pinion • The rack and pinion is used to convert between rotary and linear motion. • Rack and pinions are commonly used in the steering system of cars to convert the rotary motion of the steering wheel to the side to side motion in the wheels 1/27/2013 15 . Rack and pinion can convert from rotary to linear of from linear to rotary. • The diameter of the gear determines the speed that the rack moves as the pinion turns.

PINION • Rack-Pinion assembly gives good mounting convenience • Maximum gear losses– 3 to 5% • Efficiency– 95% 1/27/2013 16 .RACK.

Block diagram Speed Breaker Arrangement Rack pinion and chain sprocket arrangement Gear Drives Street Lights Inverter and Battery Generator 1/27/2013 17 .

Working model 1/27/2013 18 .

Components • • • • • Rack and pinion Sprocket and chain DC Generator Flywheel Spring 1/27/2013 19 .

Assuming no loss in energy conversion from potential to kinetic the max output energy in 1 sec that is available theoretically PE=mgh M= mass of the car G= acceleration of gravity H=height of the rack moved by car 1/27/2013 20 .Design and Calculations • The system is designed for a maximum load of 50kg.

Maximum Power Output P.E  50*9.3  147W NP f  120 1/27/2013 21 .81*0.

Where f= frequency of the alternating current in Hz P= no. 1/27/2013 22 . of poles of the electric generator N= RPM of the electricity generator • To generate a 50 Hz voltage we can use a 2 pole or 4 pole generators.

For 2 pole generator • Rpm required is 1/27/2013 23 .

For 4 pole generator 1/27/2013 24 .

We need to design the length of the rack and gear box with a gear ratio accordingly • Length of rack= 13inch • Pitch of rack teeth’s=1/8inch • Number of teeth’s on rack =104 1/27/2013 25 .• So will be using 2 pole DC generators .

• Number of teeth of the sprocket on the first shaft= 74 1/27/2013 26 .Gear box First shaft • Number of teeth on pinion on first shaft attach to rack=10 • Pinion to rack ratio=10 means it will give us 10 rpm on the first shaft.

11 • It will give 4.Second shaft • Number of teeth of the small sprocket on the 2nd shaft= 18 • Large sprocket to small sprocket ratio=4.11*10=41 rpm on the second shaft • Number of teeth of the gear on the 2nd shaft=120 1/27/2013 27 .

Third shaft • Number of teeth of the gear on the 3rd shaft=10 • Gear ratio=12 • It will give 41*12=492 rpm on the 3rdshaft • Number of teeth of the gear on the 3rd shaft=60 1/27/2013 28 .

Generator shaft • Number of teeth of the gear attach to generator shaft=15 • Gear ratio=4 • So generator shaft will rotate at 492*4=1968 Rpm . 1/27/2013 29 .

theoretical output=147W • Output=47W • Efficiency=47/147=32% (without assuming losses) 1/27/2013 30 .DC generator • Installed capacity of generator=180W • Max.

• Material is Alloy steels such as chrome .Springs • Helical Compression Spring is being used. 1/27/2013 31 .

26 = 1.6 KN/m Lf=24 inch = 609.26 K=Stiffnes of spring K=mg/x = 50*9.Design and Calculations F=kx x=deflection of spring=0.81/.6 mm Lf=Free length of spring Number of turns=n=40 1/27/2013 32 .

1 ) / 40 = 8 mm Where d= Wire dia 1/27/2013 33 .15*254) d = (609.Design and Calculations • P= Lf / n-1 = 609.6 – 254 – 38.6 / 39 = 15 mm • Lf=(n*d)+x+(0.15x) =(40*d)+254+(0.

Design and Calculations K = Gd^4 / 8D^3 n Where G=70 GPa D = 82 mm = 3 inch Where D= Dia of the Spring 1/27/2013 34 .

E = ½ I 2 E=200 J m= 8 kg Since I = m k2. E = ½ I k22 K=4.Flywheel • Material used for manufacturing of flywheel is cast iron • Kinetic energy of fly wheel.7 inch 1/27/2013 35 .

I m k  = = = = moment of inertia of fly wheel about the axis. mass of fly wheel in Kg radius of gyration of fly wheel in meters mean angular speed in rad/sec. 1/27/2013 36 .

1/27/2013 37 . • This is a immediate solution to energy crisis in Pakistan.What We Achieved • Although we got less electrical output. we have successfully explained our idea of generating electricity from speed breaker.

thus increasing input torque and ultimately output of generator.Future Scope • Such speed breakers can be designed for heavy vehicles. • More suitable and compact mechanisms to enhance efficiency 1/27/2013 38 .

Advantages • • • • • Low budget electricity production Less floor area No obstruction to traffic Easy maintenance Suitable at parking of multiplexes. malls. toll booths. etc. • Uses: Charging batteries and using them to light up the streets. etc 1/27/2013 39 . signals.

• No manual work necessary during generation.Advantages • Pollution free power generation. 1/27/2013 40 . • No consumption of any fossil fuel which is nonrenewable source of energy. and easy maintenance. • No fuel transportation problem. • Simple construction. mature technology. • Energy available all year round.

Achieving proper balance of speed and torque.Disadvantages • • • • • Selecting suitable generator. It gives low electric output It can get rusted in rainy season 1/27/2013 41 . Selection of springs.

Conclusion • In order to overcome energy crisis. of power plants which is wasted in illuminating the street light. • Such a mechanism will save a lot of electricity. 1/27/2013 42 . third world countries like Pakistan should implement such projects to share a burden of National Grid.

Natural gas and oil are depleting very fast and by the turn of century man will have to depend upon non conventional sources of energy for power generation. 1/27/2013 43 .Conclusion • Conventional sources of energy like coal.

Questions? 1/27/2013 44 .