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Chapt er

Communicati on

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Copyright 2002, Authors

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MANAGEMENT text and cases, V S P Rao, V Hari Krishna

Excel Books

25 Nature of Communication

Communicati on

Communication refers to the process of passing information and understanding from one person to another. It involves an exchange of facts, ideas, opinions or emotions by two or more individuals. The essential features of communication are: Two people Sequential process

Continuous activity
Pervasive function Transference of meaning and understanding

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MANAGEMENT text and cases, V S P Rao, V Hari Krishna

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25 Importance of Communication
Basis of action Facilities planning Helps in decision-making Means of coordination Improves relationships

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Improves motivation and morale

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MANAGEMENT text and cases, V S P Rao, V Hari Krishna

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25 The Process of Communication


The process of communication involves the following steps: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Sender Encoding Message Channel Receiver Decoding Feedback Noise

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MANAGEMENT text and cases, V S P Rao, V Hari Krishna

Excel Books

25 Channels of Communication

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A communication channel is the route through which messages flow from the sender to the receiver. There are basically two types of channelsformal and informal - which are used by managers.
Formal Communication
Official and authentic channel. Planned and systematic. Charts depict formal routes. Focus on organisational goals and tasks. Fairly inflexible, rigid and prescribed route through which messages flow up and down. Official channels process information slowly. Impersonal way of sending messages. If messages are structured properly, very little chance of distortions.

Informal Communication
Unofficial channel. Unplanned and spontaneous. Grapevine can take any direction. Emphasis primarily on individual needs and aspirations. Very loose, flexible and unpredictable routes. Messages pass through various routes at a stunningly faster rate. Personal and social. Rumours have no basis; they spread like wild fire and as such subject to loose interpretation.
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MANAGEMENT text and cases, V S P Rao, V Hari Krishna

Excel Books

25 Communication Media or Methods

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Typically, there are three main types of communication media, namely: (i) Oral or verbal communication

(ii)

Written communication and

(iii) Non-verbal communication.

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MANAGEMENT text and cases, V S P Rao, V Hari Krishna

Excel Books

25 Distinction between Oral and Written Communication


Oral Communication
In oral communication, two roles are involved-talking and listening.
It takes the form of group meeting, individual conversation, face-to-face meeting, or telephone and television talks, etc. Oral communication is generally informal. The feedback in oral communication is quick and instantaneous. It is normal, flexible and no commitment is involved from the receiver. Unsuitable when information is long and highly technical. It is liable to misunderstanding.

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Written Communication
The roles required in written communication are reading and writing. Message may be delayed in written communication.
However, the written form of communication is appropriate when the information is to be sent in an organised and formal way. Written communication is normally formal. Feedback is very late and there is no in-built mechanism for feedback. It connotes the commitment seriously. It is expensive, rigid but has the highest advantage of being 'clear and elaborate'.

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MANAGEMENT text and cases, V S P Rao, V Hari Krishna

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25

Communicati on

Non-verbal Communication or Body Language


Non-verbal communication (NVC) refers to messages sent through human actions and behaviours rather than through words. Facial expressions Eye-contact Dress Posture

Distance
Gesture Handshakes Tone of voice

Use of space or proxemics


Use of time or chronometry

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MANAGEMENT text and cases, V S P Rao, V Hari Krishna

Excel Books

25 Communication Networks

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A communication network is the pattern through which the members of a group communicate. Researchers exploring group dynamics have found the following networks consisting of three, four and five members. a. b. c. d. e. Wheel Y pattern Chain Circle All channel (Star)

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MANAGEMENT text and cases, V S P Rao, V Hari Krishna

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25 Barriers to Communication

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Several factors may disrupt the communication process or come in the way of effective communication. These can be listed thus: Semantic Barriers Interpersonal Barriers Can't express effectively Filtering Credibility Inattention Perceptual differences Jealousy Information overload Emotions Time pressures Structural Barriers Hierarchy Status Specialisation Copyright 2002, Authors
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MANAGEMENT text and cases, V S P Rao, V Hari Krishna

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25 Good Communication: Ten Commandments

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The following ten commandments may help a manager improve his communication skills: Clarity Purpose Physical and human setting Participation Word choice and body language Empathy


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Actions
Use of feedback Communicate for tomorrow as well as today Be a good listener
Copyright 2002, Authors

MANAGEMENT text and cases, V S P Rao, V Hari Krishna

Excel Books