Effluent Recycling, Reuse and Zero liquid discharge systems

Major consumers of water in power station
2000 1500

1000
500 0

: 55 m3/h Coal dust suppression : 35 m3/h Total : 2000 m3/h for a typical 500MW Power Plant .Continued.. • • • • • • Cooling tower make up : 1725 m3/h Ash disposal : 650* m3/h DM water make up : 60 m3/h Potable & service water : 125 m3/h Clarifier sludge etc.

Sources of effluents • • • • • Clarifier sludge Filter back wash CT blow down Regeneration waste of DM plant & CPU Boiler blow down .

operational.Factors influencing wastewater reuse • Quality. maintenance and labour costs and space requirements. capital. • Wastewater treatment technologies available. • Environmental restrictions on the quantity and quality of any wastewater that may be discharged . either directly or after suitable treatment. • Possibility of recycling wastewater streams to other processes. quantity and cost of raw water available • Quality and quantity of water needed for various processes.

Wet slurry disposal system .High Concentration Slurry Disposal(HCSD) .Recirculating ash pond water .Using CT blowdown for makeup .Opportunities for Water Reuse • Ash handling system .

11.Opportunities for Water Reuse • Ash handling system “As per MOE&F’s notification dated 3.2009. all new coal based power stations are required to progressively achieve 100% utilization of fly ash by fourth year from date of commissioning of the project” .

Cycles of concentration .1% of CW flow .5% of CW flow 2.Makeup water addition .Opportunities for Water Reuse • Cooling water system .Using Boiler blowdown water for makeup Cycles of concentration 3 5 Make up water requirement 2.

Recover water from sludge using treatment .Opportunities for Water Reuse • Clarifier system wastes .Initially clarifier sludges were disposed off .Recycle it back to clarifier inlet along with wash water from filters of DM plant .

Centralised Monitoring Basin Storage vessel having influents from • Unused CT blowdown • Boiler Blowdown • Treated plant drains and filter backwash .

Zero liquid discharge system .

and the bulk of the wastewater becomes reusable • “Minimise site water usage and maximise water recycling” .Zero liquid discharge • By definition. or eliminated. reduced or zero liquid discharge (ZLD) processes treat significant volumes of low quality wastewater. such that the waste stream is greatly reduced.

include the following: • Evaporation basins. • Brine concentrators. • Crystallisers. • Membrane processes .Components of ZLD system Processes that have been used for ZLD systems and cooling tower blowdown treatment. individually or in combination.

000ppm TDS) can be reduced to dry solids in a crystalliser or spray drier.Brine concentrators • Capable of recovering greater than 95% of a wastewater flow as high purity distillate (< 10ppm TDS) • The distillate is generally reused as either cooling tower make up or as feedwater for demineralisation plant • The concentrated brine slurry produced (> 150. or sent to an evaporation pond. .

Brine concentrator – How does it work?? .

where heat is transferred to the cooler brine within the tubes. a small portion is evaporated and drawn through mist eliminators to a compressor. • This causes a small amount of internally circulating brine to evaporate and condenses the external vapour as distilled water. • The compressed vapour then flows over the outer tube surfaces. • The distillate is pumped back through a heat exchanger to pre-heat the incoming wastewater.Brine concentrator – How does it work?? • As the brine falls back down the tubes into the sump due to gravity. .

typically between 80 to 100kWh per 1000 USgallons of wastewater treated • To minimise the size of brine concentrator required.Disadvantages • High Capital cost: Use of titanium or stainless steel alloys for heat exchanger surfaces to tolerate the extremely corrosive conditions experienced when treating saline wastewaters.Brine concentrators . reverse osmosis is used frequently for wastewater volume reduction beforehand . • High operating cost: Large power consumption.

it is relatively easy to remove75% to 95% of water by falling film evaporator • As water is evaporated from a solution. as does the boiling point of the solution • This increase in boiling point is causing difficulties in evaporation and needs further processing .Need for Crystallizers • For most wastewaters containing 1% to 5% TDS by weight. the concentration and ionic strength of soluble salts increase.

Steam-driven crystallizer .

crystals form. where it swirls in a vortex • As water is evaporated from the brine. the slurry enters the crystallizer vapor body at an angle. . the slurry is under pressure and will not boil • After it is heated.Steam-driven crystallizer • Slurry from the evaporator (waste brine) is pumped to the crystallizer shell and tube heat exchanger (heater) • The tubes are flooded. Most of the brine is recirculated back to the heater • A small stream from the recirculating brine is sent to a centrifuge or filter to separate the remaining water from the crystals.

but add electrical demand and are very susceptible to operational upsets. • Crystallisers require highly alloyed materials. which again incurs a high capital cost.Disadvantages • The use of steam for heating simplifies the design. but does result in significant steam and cooling water requirement • Vapor recompression crystallisers eliminate steam and cooling water requirements. . such as foaming.Steam-driven crystallizer .

Crystallizer with Vapor compressor .

Spray dryers • Spray driers are alternatives to crystallisers for reducing concentrated brine solutions to solids for disposal. .000rpm that sprays the brine slurry into a hot. gas-filled chamber • Water instantly evaporates from the brine droplets and the solids are drawn into bag filters. • The spray drier consists of an atomising wheel spinning at approximately 17.

Spray dryers .

Reverse Osmosis Principle .

RO Membrane – Cutaway view .

for example in a brine concentrator and/or crystalliser. silica and organic matter. Microfiltration and Ultrafiltration are the pretreatment process before RO .Reverse Osmosis . or reused in low quality water applications • Clarifier.Advantages • Least costly method of wastewater volume reduction • It can be used to concentrate wastewaters containing high levels of dissolved salts. • The concentrated reject stream is either processed further. • The purified permeate water is of suitable quality for reuse in most plant areas.

.High Efficiency Reverse Osmosis(HERO) Need for HERO: • Membrane fouling due to silica solubility • Increasing pH to take advantage of higher silica solubility Advantages: • Greater rejection of weakly ionised species • Higher permeate recovery rates (≥ 90%) • Prevention of biological fouling.

ZLD Cycle .

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