Stack: Logical Level
“An ordered group of homogeneous items or elements in which items are added and removed from only one end.” A stack is also called a Last In First Out (LIFO) data structure.

Stack: Logical Level
Stack Operations: Boolean IsEmpty () Boolean IsFull () Push (ItemType newitem) void Pop () ItemType Top ()

Stack: Application Level • A runtime stack of activation records (ar) is maintained as a program executes to track function calls and scopes. • Each activation record contains – space for local variables and parameters – ptr to dynamic parent – ptr to static parent – return address .

return 0. } // -----------------------------int main ( ) { A (). } .// ------------------------------ Consider this code outline: void B ( ) { } // -----------------------------void A ( ) { B ().

Consider the following: main begins executing main calls function A function A calls function B function B returns function A returns main returns B A main Push (main’s ar) Push (A’s ar) Runtime Stack Push (B’s ar) Use info in Top ar to return control to A Pop Use info in Top ar to return control to main Pop Use info in Top ar to return control to OS Pop .

) ( ( {xxx} ) x [ ] xx) is well-formed ( ( {xxx} x [ ] ) is ill-formed .Stack: Application Level Stacks can be used to analyze nested expressions with grouping symbols to determine if they are well-formed (all grouping symbols occur in matching pairs and are nested properly.

General Algorithm ( ( { x x x } ) x [ ] x x ) get next symbol set balanced flag to true while (there are more input symbols and expression still balanced) if (next symbol is opening symbol) Push symbol onto stack else if (next symbol is closing symbol) if (stack is empty) set balanced to false else use Top to get copy of opening symbol on top of stack Pop the stack if (opening symbol does not match closing symbol) set balanced to false else ignore symbol get next symbol if (balanced and stack is empty) well-formed else ill-formed { [ ( ( Stack .

1] .Stack: Implementation Level Using an array: [MAX_ITEMS . . . [0] items -1 top .

. .1] Push ( 70 ) . 70 items [0] 0 top .Stack: Implementation Level Using an array: [MAX_ITEMS .

.1] Push ( 70 ) Push ( 28) . .Stack: Implementation Level Using an array: [MAX_ITEMS . 28 70 items [0] 1 top .

.1] Push ( 70 ) Push ( 28) Push ( 88) .Stack: Implementation Level Using an array: [MAX_ITEMS . 88 28 70 items [0] 2 top . .

88 28 70 items [0] 1 top . .1] Push ( 70 ) Push ( 28) Push ( 88) Pop . .Stack: Implementation Level Using an array: [MAX_ITEMS .

1] Push ( 70 ) Push ( 28) Push ( 88) Pop Push ( 95) . . 95 28 70 items [0] 2 top . .Stack: Implementation Level Using an array: [MAX_ITEMS .

.1] Push ( 70 ) Push ( 28) Push ( 88) Pop Push ( 95) Pop .Stack: Implementation Level Using an array: [MAX_ITEMS . 95 28 70 items [0] 1 top . .

. 95 28 70 items [0] 0 top .1] Push ( 70 ) Push ( 28) Push ( 88) Pop Push ( 95) Pop Pop .Stack: Implementation Level Using an array: [MAX_ITEMS . .

95 28 70 items [0] -1 top .1] Push ( 70 ) Push ( 28) Push ( 88) Pop Push ( 95) Pop Pop Pop . .Stack: Implementation Level Using an array: [MAX_ITEMS . .

Stack: Implementation Level Using a linked list: NULL top .

Stack: Implementation Level Using a linked list: 70 top NULL Push ( 70 ) .

Stack: Implementation Level Using a linked list: 28 top 70 NULL Push ( 70 ) Push ( 28 ) .

Stack: Implementation Level Using a linked list: 88 top 28 70 NULL Push ( 70 ) Push ( 28 ) Push ( 88 ) .

Stack: Implementation Level
28 top 70 NULL Push ( 70 ) Push ( 28 ) Push ( 88 ) Pop

Stack: Implementation Level
95 top 28 70 NULL Push ( 70 ) Push ( 28 ) Push ( 88 ) Pop Push ( 95 )

Stack: Implementation Level
28 top 70 NULL Push ( 70 ) Push ( 28 ) Push ( 88 ) Pop Push ( 95 ) Pop

Stack: Implementation Level Using a linked list: 70 top NULL Push ( 70 ) Push ( 28 ) Push ( 88 ) Pop Push ( 95 ) Pop Pop .

Stack: Implementation Level Using a linked list: NULL top Push ( 70 ) Push ( 28 ) Push ( 88 ) Pop Push ( 95 ) Pop Pop Pop .

)” A queue is also called a First In First Out (FIFO) data structure.Queue: Logical Level “An ordered group of homogeneous items or elements in which items are added at one end (the rear) and removed from the other end (the front. .

Queue: Logical Level Queue Operations: Boolean IsEmpty () Boolean IsFull () void Enqueue (ItemType newitem) void Dequeue (ItemType& newitem) .

Queue: Application Level • Perfect for modeling a waiting line in a simulation program • Key simulation parameters – # of servers – # of queues (waiting lines) – statistics for customer arrival patterns • Want to minimize customer waiting time • Want to minimize server idle time .

Queue: Application Level • Queues found all over operating system! – I/O buffers – Job queues waiting for various resources – Spool (print) queue .

.Queue: Implementation Level Using an array: Option 1 items [0] front .1] . [MAXQUEUE .fixed at [0] (similar to bottom of stack) rear -1 . .

.Queue: Implementation Level Using an array: Option 1 items A [0] front . .1] . [MAXQUEUE .fixed at [0] (similar to bottom of stack) rear 0 Enqueue (A) .

[MAXQUEUE .fixed at [0] (similar to bottom of stack) rear 1 Enqueue (A) Enqueue (B) B . .Queue: Implementation Level Using an array: Option 1 items A [0] front . .1] .

[MAXQUEUE . .Queue: Implementation Level Using an array: Option 1 items A [0] front .fixed at [0] (similar to bottom of stack) rear 2 Enqueue (A) Enqueue (B) Enqueue (C) B C . .1] .

. not [0] Need to shift remaining items down! . [MAXQUEUE .fixed at [0] (similar to bottom of stack) rear 2 Enqueue (A) Enqueue (B) Enqueue (C) Dequeue(ch) B C .Queue: Implementation Level Using an array: Option 1 items A [0] front .1] But now front is at position[1] . .

[MAXQUEUE . . .Queue: Implementation Level Using an array: Option 1 items B [0] front .1] After the shifting Is this a very efficient implementation? .fixed at [0] (similar to bottom of stack) rear 1 Enqueue (A) Enqueue (B) Enqueue (C) Dequeue(ch) C .

Queue: Implementation Level Using an array: Option 2 items [0] front rear 0 -1 [4] Note: Let MAXQUEUE = 5 for the example Keep track of both front and rear Note: queue is empty when (front – 1) == rear .

Queue: Implementation Level Using an array: Option 2 items A [0] front rear 0 0 [4] Enqueue (A) Note: Let MAXQUEUE = 5 for the example Keep track of both front and rear Note: queue is empty when (front – 1) == rear .

Queue: Implementation Level Using an array: Option 2 items A [0] front rear 0 1 B [4] Enqueue (A) Enqueue (B) Note: Let MAXQUEUE = 5 for the example Keep track of both front and rear Note: queue is empty when (front – 1) == rear .

Queue: Implementation Level Using an array: Option 2 items A [0] front rear 0 2 B C [4] Enqueue (A) Enqueue (B) Enqueue (C) Note: Let MAXQUEUE = 5 for the example Keep track of both front and rear Note: queue is empty when (front – 1) == rear .

Queue: Implementation Level Using an array: Option 2 items A [0] front rear 0 3 B C D [4] Enqueue (A) Enqueue (B) Enqueue (C) Enqueue (D) Note: Let MAXQUEUE = 5 for the example Keep track of both front and rear Note: queue is empty when (front – 1) == rear .

Queue: Implementation Level Using an array: Option 2 items A [0] front rear 1 3 B C D [4] Enqueue (A) Enqueue (B) Enqueue (C) Enqueue (D) Dequeue (ch) Note: Let MAXQUEUE = 5 for the example Keep track of both front and rear Note: queue is empty when (front – 1) == rear .

Queue: Implementation Level Using an array: Option 2 items A [0] front rear 2 3 B C D [4] Enqueue (A) Enqueue (B) Enqueue (C) Enqueue (D) Dequeue (ch) Dequeue (ch) Note: Let MAXQUEUE = 5 for the example Keep track of both front and rear Note: queue is empty when (front – 1) == rear .

. Queue now appears full. .Queue: Implementation Level Using an array: Option 2 items A [0] front rear 2 4 B C D E [4] Enqueue (A) Enqueue (B) Enqueue (C) Enqueue (D) Dequeue (ch) Dequeue (ch) Enqueue (E) Hmm . but there are two unused positions in array! Why not let Queue elements “wrap around” in array? Note: Let MAXQUEUE = 5 for the example Keep track of both front and rear Note: queue is empty when (front – 1) == rear .

Queue: Implementation Level Using an array: Option 2 items F [0] front rear 2 0 B C D E [4] Enqueue (A) Enqueue (B) Enqueue (C) Enqueue (D) Dequeue (ch) Dequeue (ch) Enqueue (E) Enqueue (F) Note: Let MAXQUEUE = 5 for the example Note: to advance the rear indicator : rear = (rear + 1) % MAXQUEUE Keep track of both front and rear Note: queue is empty when (front – 1) == rear .

Queue: Implementation Level Using an array: Option 2 items F [0] front rear 2 1 G C D E [4] Enqueue (A) Enqueue (B) Enqueue (C) Enqueue (D) Dequeue (ch) Dequeue (ch) Enqueue (E) Enqueue (F) Enqueue (G) Note: Let MAXQUEUE = 5 for the example Note: to advance the rear indicator : rear = (rear + 1) % MAXQUEUE Now queue REALLY IS full! But look at values of front and rear . . (front-1) == rear Yikes! This is supposed to mean queue is empty !!! Keep track of both front and rear Note: queue is empty when (front -1) == rear . .

Queue: Implementation Level Using an array: Option 3 items [0] front rear 4 4 [4] front indicates position just before actual front This position must remain unused.) . effectively reducing size of queue by 1 Note: Let MAXQUEUE = 5 for the example Still keep track of both front and rear queue is empty when front == rear queue is full when (rear + 1) % MAXQUEUE == front (when next Enqueue would put item in unused position.

Queue: Implementation Level Using an array: Option 3 items A [0] front rear 4 0 [4] Enqueue (A) Note: Let MAXQUEUE = 5 for the example Still keep track of both front and rear .

Queue: Implementation Level Using an array: Option 3 items A [0] front rear 4 1 B [4] Enqueue (A) Enqueue (B) Note: Let MAXQUEUE = 5 for the example Still keep track of both front and rear .

Queue: Implementation Level Using an array: Option 3 items A [0] front rear 4 2 B C [4] Enqueue (A) Enqueue (B) Enqueue (C) Note: Let MAXQUEUE = 5 for the example Still keep track of both front and rear .

Queue: Implementation Level Using an array: Option 3 items A [0] front rear 4 3 B C D [4] Enqueue (A) Enqueue (B) Enqueue (C) Enqueue (D) Note: Let MAXQUEUE = 5 for the example (Note: queue full) Still keep track of both front and rear .

Queue: Implementation Level Using an array: Option 3 items A [0] front rear 0 3 B C D [4] Enqueue (A) Enqueue (B) Enqueue (C) Enqueue (D) Dequeue (ch) Note: Let MAXQUEUE = 5 for the example Still keep track of both front and rear .

Queue: Implementation Level Using an array: Option 3 items A [0] front rear 1 3 B C D [4] Enqueue (A) Enqueue (B) Enqueue (C) Enqueue (D) Dequeue (ch) Dequeue (ch) Note: Let MAXQUEUE = 5 for the example Still keep track of both front and rear .

Queue: Implementation Level Using an array: Option 3 items A [0] front rear 2 3 B C D [4] Enqueue (A) Enqueue (B) Enqueue (C) Enqueue (D) Dequeue (ch) Dequeue (ch) Dequeue (ch) Note: Let MAXQUEUE = 5 for the example Still keep track of both front and rear .

Queue: Implementation Level Using an array: Option 3 items A [0] front rear 3 3 B C D [4] Enqueue (A) Enqueue (B) Enqueue (C) Enqueue (D) Dequeue (ch) Dequeue (ch) Dequeue (ch) Dequeue (ch) (Note: queue empty) Note: Let MAXQUEUE = 5 for the example Still keep track of both front and rear .

Queue: Implementation Level Using a linked list: NULL front NULL rear .

Queue: Implementation Level Using a linked list: A front NULL rear Enqueue (A) .

Queue: Implementation Level Using a linked list: A front B NULL rear Enqueue (A) Enqueue (B) .

Queue: Implementation Level Using a linked list: A front B C NULL rear Enqueue (A) Enqueue (B) Enqueue (C) .

Queue: Implementation Level Using a linked list: B front C NULL rear Enqueue (A) Enqueue (B) Enqueue (C) Dequeue (ch) .

Queue: Implementation Level Using a linked list: C front NULL rear Enqueue (A) Enqueue (B) Enqueue (C) Dequeue (ch) Dequeue (ch) .

Queue: Implementation Level Using a linked list: NULL front NULL rear Enqueue (A) Enqueue (B) Enqueue (C) Dequeue (ch) Dequeue (ch) Dequeue (ch) .