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Presented By : 1. Devendra Kumar Meena (09007024) 2. Vikram Singh (09007023) 3. G Shiva Chaitanya (09D07046)
It is found that honey bees among other animal species are able to perceive skylight polarization and use it to as compass in both foraging flights and communication dances The underwater world is polarized and many of its habitant are aware of it They have polarized vision P-vision in Octopuses Reflection Haidinger’s fringes(polarization detection capacity of human eyes)
Introduction History Types of Polarization Methods of Polarization Applications Liquid Crystal Display in Detail. Summary
the polarization of light is described by specifying the orientation of the wave's electric field at a point in space over one period of the oscillation.Introduction Electromagnetic waves are the solutions of Maxwell’s equations in a vacuum : In order to satisfy all four equations. . By convention. the waves must have the E and B fields transverse to the propagation direction.
. all perpendicular to the direction of propagation. Any direction is possible as long as it is perpendicular to the propagation.Introduction The electric field is vibrating in many directions. Polarized light is unique in that it vibrates mostly in one direction.
. exhibit polarization. Sound waves in a gas or liquid do not have polarization because the medium vibrates only along the direction in which the waves are travelling. such as light.Introduction Electromagnetic waves.
a Danish mathematician at the University of Copenhagen. Erasmus Bartholinus. but also performed some experiments and wrote a 60-page memoir about the results. In 1669.History Bartholinus sees double (1669) A naturally occurring transparent crystal (optical quality Calcite. . This was the first scientific description of a polarization effect. CaCO3) commonly known as Iceland Spar separates an image into two displaced images when looked through in certain directions. not only saw double.
The polarization is described by the geometric figure traced by the electric field vector upon a stationary plane perpendicular to the direction of propagation. .Types of Polarization The electric field vector is perpendicular to both the direction of travel and the magnetic field vector. as the wave travels through that plane.
Types of Polarization Assuming the direction of wave propagation is along z axis. Assuming the fields are time harmonic in nature E and H field will lie in x-y plane Locus of the tip of Electric Field is given by .
Linear Polarization If the oscillation does take place in only one direction then the wave is said to be linearly polarized (or plane polarized) in that direction For φ=0. Ex=Ey the wave is linearly polarized .
Circular Polarization For φ=90. left circular and right circular . Ex=Ey the wave is Circular polarized It can be of 2 types.
Circular Polarization .
Elliptical Polarization For φ=90 and Ex != Ey then the wave is elliptical polarization The three polarization states we have found so far are the special cases of elliptical polarization The sign of φ decides the sense of rotation for the ellipse .
Methods of Polarization It is possible to transform Unpolarized light into polarized light There are a variety of methods of polarizing light. Some of which are : Polarization by Use of a Polaroid Filter Polarization by Transmission Polarization by Reflection Polarization by Refraction Polarization by Scattering etc… .
The filter can be thought of as having long-chain molecules that are aligned within the filter in the same direction. .Polarization by Use of a Polaroid Filter Most Common method polarization involves the use of a Polaroid filter A Polaroid filter is able to polarize light because of the chemical composition of the filter material.
As unpolarized light strikes the filter. The general rule is that the electromagnetic vibrations that are in a direction parallel to the alignment of the molecules are absorbed. The alignment of these molecules gives the filter a polarization axis.Polarization by Use of a Polaroid Filter During the fabrication of the filter. This polarization axis extends across the length of the filter and only allows vibrations of the electromagnetic wave that are parallel to the axis to pass through. the portion of the waves vibrating in the vertical direction are absorbed by the filter. the long-chain molecules are stretched across the filter so that each molecule is aligned in say the vertical direction. .
Thus.Polarization by Use of a Polaroid Filter Any vibrations that are perpendicular to the polarization axis are blocked by the filter. . a Polaroid filter with its long-chain molecules aligned horizontally will have a polarization axis aligned vertically Such a filter will block all horizontal vibrations and allow the vertical vibrations to be transmitted.
Transmission of Polarized Light through an Analyzer .
Applications: Polaroid glasses The glare from reflecting surfaces can be diminished with the use of Polaroid glasses The polarization axes of the lens are vertical. as most glare reflects from horizontal surfaces .
Non-metallic surface Refractive Index 𝑚 Polarizing angle ip 𝑚 = tan 𝑖𝑝 ) ( At 𝑖𝑝 reflected component & refracted are mutually ∟ [Brewster’s law] .
window camera .
transmitted scene IT reflected scene I R window camera .
6 0.8 0.4 0.reflected scene Ir transmitted scene It t It r Ir polarizer t It 0.2 r Ir camera t=1-r window Optical coding r r 60 80 Yoav Schechner. Nahum Kiryati ‘99 20 40 . Joseph Shamir.
Sunlight is not polarized We can divide it into 2 components Horizontal and vertical More of a horizontal component is reflected from a surface The polarized sunglasses used by fishermen have polarized filters with the transmission axis oriented vertically to block the light reflected by the water surface .
Something Practical Edwin Land ? Prodigious Inventor Sheet polarizer No. of patents 535 Eliminate the glare danger of Automobile Headlights .
Two sets of polarizers At headlight beams At windshield Both 45 degree from vertical Intensity is lost(25-50%) Other possible solutions .
Applications : Photography Polarization concepts are used in different photography techniques Reduce sun glare Reduce reflections Darken sky Increase color saturation Reduce Haze .
Applications : Photography Provides better color saturation Darkens the sky .
Applications : Photography Haze De-hazed .
Applications : Photography Reduce reflections .
The basic LCD unit is made of: Polarizer’s(plane of polarization perpendicular to each other) Transparent glass with groves Liquid crystal layer phase A light source .
The liquid crystal filled between two transparent glass sheets align itself along the groves. The two glass have these grooves perpendicular two each other So the liquid molecule are twisted along the path joining two glasses .
Light bends by of it’s total journey through the liquid. The other polarizer is also aligned with 𝜋 2 𝜋 2 shifted of the earlier polarizer So the light pass through it as both have the same plane of polarization .The light also rotates as it passes through the twisted liquid crystals.
The alignment of the molecules along the grooves under absence of any electric field is as shown in the figure below. When the electric field is applied the change is significant to obstruct the path of light .
To get color LCD we use color filter By changing the intensity of each color various other colors are obtained. Intensity changed by varying the voltage across the liquid crystal .
.A sky clock The skylight polarization will change as the sun moves in the sky dome. thus providing the basis for a polarization clock. This is the principle of the "polar clocks" invented by Sir Charles Wheastone.
Reference http://www.com http://en.htm .wikipedia.org/wiki/Polarization_(waves) http://electronics.howstuffworks.com/lcd.polarization.