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SWITCHED RELUCTANCE MOTORS

By : K.Chakrapani 098A1A0242 EEE

HISTORY

INVENTED BY DAVIDSON OF SCOTLAND IN 1838 WAL`KER INVENTED VARIABLE RELUCTANCE MOTOR IN 1920 BEDFORD AND HOFT FILED US PATENTS ON SRM IN 1971 HEWLETT PACKARD- USED SRM IN VOLUME APPLICATION (DRAFTMASTER PLOTTER)
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INTRODUCTION

Principle of stepper motor; magnetic material suspended in magnetic field align in direction of field due to torque Basically stepper motor; i.e. rotate through fixed angle [step angle] when input pulse is applied Speed proportional to pulse frequency; pulse<200Hz-discrete rotation and pulse>16KHzcontinous rotation When step angle decreases, number of steps / rev increases Stepper motors:#sr motors #pm motors #hybrid motors

PRIMARY CHOICE FOR SERVO APPLICATIONS LIKE AC MACHINES,SRM DO NOT REQUIRE COMMUTATOR AND BRUSHES HIGH PEAK TORQUE,POWER DENSITY,TORQUE INERTIA RATIO VARIABLE SPEED MACHINE

RELUCTANCE MOTOR IS SALIENT POLE SYNCHRONOUS MOTOR WITH NO FIELD WINDINGS WHEN ARMATURE COILS ARE EXCITED, ROTOR ALIGNS IN THE DIRECTION OF MINIMUM RELUCTANCE[RELUCTANCE TORQUE] 2 T=3V [Xd-Xq]Sin2{LOAD ANGLE} 2wXdXq V:PER PHASE RMS VOLTAGE W=SYNC SPEED RAD/SEC Xd:DIRECT AXIS RELUCTANCE Xq:QUAD AXIS RELUCTANCE

CONSTRUCTION

STATOR AND ROTOR ARE SALIENT IN STRUCTURE STATOR WINDINGS ARE INDEPENDENT CONCENTRATED WINDINGS WHICH ARE EXCITED WITH SWITCHES FROM SOURCE NO FIELD WINDINGS HENCE SINGLY EXCITED

FOR BIDERCTIONAL CONTROL AND SELF STARTING,NUM OF ROTOR POLES ARE LESS THAN NUM OF STATOR POLES
SINGLE STACK AND MULTI STACK CONSTRUCTION POSSIBLE

WORKING

FIG SHOWS AN 8/6 SINGLE STACK WHICH HAS 4 PHASES A,B,C,D WHEN PHASE A IS EXCITED RELUCTANCE TORQUE CAUSES ROTOR TO TURN UNTIL IT ALIGNS WITH AXIS OF PHASE A. EXCITATION IS CHANGED TO B AND A IS DEEXCITED BEFORE ALIGNMENT ROTATION IS IN DIRECTION OF ENERGISATION DIRECTION OF ROTATION REVERSED BY REVERSING SEQUENCE OF EXCITATION SPEED DEPENDS ON MAGNITUDE OF INPUT MICROSTEPPING CAN BE DONE FOR SINGLE STACK ONLY 1 ROTOR AND STATOR

TORQUE CHARACTERISTICS

DUE TO SALIENCY OF STATOR AND ROTOR,INDUCTANCE IS A FUNCTION OF ROTOR POSITION A 6 ROTOR MACHINE HAS 6 MAX AND MIN VALUES OF INDUCTANCE IF APPLIED INPUT IS V, V{inst}=Ri+Ldi/dt +WmidL/d0 BACK EMF,e=WmidL/do i V{inst}=Ri2+d(Li2/2)/dt +Wmi2dL/d0 T=i2/2dL/dO INPUT=WINDING HEAT LOSS+RATE OF CHANGE OF STORED MAGNETIC ENERGY+MECH POWER OUTPUT

MODES OF OPERATION

CONSTANT TORQUE MODE[CURRENT CONTROL CONSTANT POWER MODE[ANGLE CONTROL]

CONSTANT POWER*SPEED MODE[FORCEDCURRENT CONTROL WITH EXTERNAL RESISTANCE] WITH SOURCE VOLTAGE CONSTANT,Eb INCREASES WITH SPEED ENOUGH TIME IS NOT AVAILABLE FOR CURRENT TO DEVELOP

IN MODE II :WINDING IS CONNECTED TO SOURCE EARLIER THAN ANGLE AT WHICH INDUCTANCE BEGINS TO RISE
CURRENT REACHES MAX VALUE;Eb INCREASES HENCE CURRENT BEGINS TO FALL DUE TO CONSTANT DC SOURCE, FLUX INCREASES UNIFORMLY UNTIL CURRENT IS REVERSED AFTER WHICH FLUX DECREASES UNIFORMLY

HENCE CURRENT AND FLUX BECOMES ZERO WHEN NEGATIVE CYCLE OF VOLTAGE IS COMPLETED
OPERATES IN THIS MODE UPTO UPPER THRESHOLD SPEED,Wmp

AT LOW SPEEDS[MODE I] Eb IS SMALL, TIME FOR CURRENT IS LARGE


TO LIMIT CURRENT TO SAFE VALUES THE SWITCHES ARE OPENED AND CLOSED SEQUENTIALLY LIKE CHOPPER AVERAGE TORQUE IS CONTROLLED BY AMPLITUDE OF CURRENT WORKS IN THIS MODE UPTO BASE SPEED,Wmb

CONSTANT VOLTAGE DRIVE[CONSTANT POWER MODE] CURRENT FORCED DRIVE[CONSTANT POWER*SPEED MODE] CHOPPER DRIVE [CONSTANT TORQUE MODE]

FEATURES
ADVANTAGES
ROTOR HAS NO WINDINGS COMMUTATOR OR BRUSH TORQUE INERTIA RATIO IS HIGH HIGH RELIABILITY,WIDE SPEED RANGE,LOW COST FAST RESPONSE,RUGGEDNESS,FAULT TOLERANCE NO SHOOT THROUGH AND CROSS OVERS IN CONVERTER NO PERMANENT MAGNET OC VOLTAGE AND SHORT CIRCUIT CURRENT AT FAULTS IS ZERO

DISADVANTAGES
ROTOR POSITION SENSORS REQUIRED
TORQUE RIPPLES ARE HIGH ACOUSTIC NOISE IS PRESENT

APPLICATIONS

FLUID PUMPS,VACUUM BLOWERS PROCESS CONTROL INDUSTRIES HYBRID/ELECTRIC VEHICLES ELECTROMECHANICAL BRAKE SYSTEM ELECTRIC POWER STEERING STARTER GENERATOR SYSTEM FUEL PUMP OPERATION