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Classroom Instruction that Works: Effective Instructional Strategies Session 1
Three Elements of Effective Pedagogy
Instructional Strategies Management Techniques Curriculum Design
• Classroom Instruction that Works by Robert Marzano • Nine instructional strategies that have been identified as having the greatest impact on student performance
• Percentile – The percent of ranked scores falling below a specific score – e. and lower than 10% of the students .Percent vs.g.g. percentile • Percent . John placed in the 90th percentile on a nationally normed exam.One part in a hundred – e. John correctly answered 90% of the items on the test. he scored higher than 90% of the tested students.
23-point percentile gain All students’ scores Average student at ineffective school Average student at effective school .
1% 13.Effect size and percentile gain Mean -3 -2 -1 +1 +2 +3 2.1% 2 s.0 translates into a 47.6% 34. = effect size 2.0 An effect size of 2.1% 34.7 point percentile gain (pg 160) .1% 13.6% 2.d.
4 .Basic research and meta-analysis Study 1 Effect size 0.7 Study 2 Effect size 0.6 Synthesis study Average effect size 0.2 Study 2 Effect size 1.1 Study 3 Effect size -0.
75 .Categories of Instructional Strategies that Affect Student Achievement Category Avg.73 . and advance organizers 1.77 .59 45 34 29 28 27 27 23 23 22 .00 . Effect size Percentile gain Identifying similarities & differences Summarizing and note taking Reinforcing effort & providing recognition Homework and Practice Nonlinguistic representations Cooperative learning Setting objectives and providing feedback Generating & testing hypothesis Questions.61 1. cues.61 .80 .61 .
61 .00 .75 .73 .59 45 34 29 28 27 27 23 23 22 Setting objectives and providing feedback . Effect size Percentile gain Identifying similarities & differences Summarizing and note taking Reinforcing effort & providing recognition Homework and Practice Nonlinguistic representations Cooperative learning Generating & testing hypothesis Questions. and advance organizers 1.80 .Categories of Instructional Strategies that Affect Student Achievement Category Avg. cues.77 .61 .61 1.
” –Yogi Berra • General student population – Goals narrow student focus – Not too specific – Students should personalize the teacher’s goals • English Language Learner population – Clearly defined goals – Combine content and language objectives .Setting Objectives and Providing Feedback • Setting objectives = goal setting • “You got to be careful if you don't know where you're going. because you might not get there.
. • Use contracts to outline the specific goals that students must attain and the grade they will receive if they meet those goals. Sentence starters like "I want to know" and "I want to know more about ." get students thinking about their interests and actively involved in the goal-setting process. and then encourage students to personalize that goal by identifying areas of interest to them. .Goal Setting in the Classroom • Set a core goal for a unit. .
com/2008/04/google-forms-for-student-goals.Surveys/Forms Student goal form created in Google Documents.html) . Source:339 Web (http://339web.blogspot.
. wikis. blogs. etc. learning logs. kwhl+ charts.Providing “Dollops” of Feedback • Should be “corrective” in nature – Explanation of why an answer is correct or incorrect • Should be timely – Immediate feedback is the most effective • Should be specific to a criterion – Addresses a specific knowledge and skill • Students can effectively provide some of their own feedback – Rubrics.
4te achers.org) .Rubrics Creative writing rubric created using Rubistar (http://rubistar.
Feedback in the Classroom Class blog Teacher comment .
X X X Student Self-Assessment Rubric .Feedback in the Classroom Objective 4—Very Competent 3—Somewhat Competent 2-Some Key Questions Remain 1—Very Uncomfortable Identify causes of the Great Depression Evaluate governmental responses to the Depression Describe longterm effects of the Depression still felt today.
Feedback in the Classroom Classroom Performance System .
-Robert Marzano X . setting objectives and providing feedback are frequently underused in terms of their flexibility and power.Don’t We Do This Already? • Although common practice in most K-12 classrooms.
61 45 Summarizing and note taking Reinforcing effort & providing recognition Homework and Practice Nonlinguistic representations Cooperative learning Setting objectives and providing feedback Generating & testing hypothesis 1.00 .61 .77 .75 . Effect size Percentile gain Identifying similarities & differences 1.59 22 .61 34 29 28 27 27 23 23 Questions.73 . cues.80 . and advance organizers .Categories of Instructional Strategies that Affect Student Achievement Category Avg.
or concepts are similar and different: Comparing Classifying Creating Metaphors Creating Analogies .Four Effective Forms of Using Similarities and Differences • Marzano's research indicates there are four processes that identify how items. processes. events.
with the same general pattern • Creating analogies.process of identifying a general pattern in a specific topic and then finding another.Identifying Similarities and Differences • Comparing.process of grouping based on characteristics • Creating metaphors. seemingly different topic.identifying similarities and differences between or among things • Classifying.identifying relationships between relationships .
which have you experienced most effectively as either a teacher or a student? • What made it so effective for you? .Round Robin • Of the four forms of identifying similarities and differences.
Marzano’s Recommendations for Classroom Practice How do you get it done? • Give students a model for the process • Give students graphic organizers • Guide students as needed .
How To…Compare • The Venn Diagram-A fantastic tool for comparing using similarities and differences… • Learning Experience: Citrus .
va.us/VSTE/2008/1simdiff.k12.A Great Web Site http://gets.gc. . • It shows how graphic organizers look in different programs and how to download options for classroom use. htm • This site gives examples of different programs and websites that provides samples of graphic organizers for identifying similarities and differences.
• The first sample is from Kidspiration (software program) • Second and third samples are from http://www.or g/materials/venn/ this site allows you to put in the topics and print the diagram .readwritethink.
org /materials/compcontrast/map / .Comparing with Comparison Matrix • The first sample is from EXCEL but could also be created in WORD • The second sample is from Inspiration (software program) • The third sample is from: http://www.readwritethink.
tantasqua.justreadnow.htm http://www.htm http://www.edu/staff/jonescd/projects/educ5 30/aboxley/graphicorg/fraym.html .com/strategies/frayer.The websites listed below all give examples of using the Frayer Model for comparing http://www.longwood.org/superintendent/Profdevelop ment/etfrayermodel.
Treasury Local Taxing Authority More likely to default Equal to a number of shares of stock X X X X X X X X X Junk Bond Zero Coupon Bond X X X X X X X .Classifying: Semantic Feature Analysis Sample: Bonds Bonds Bearer Bond Convertible Bond Corporate Bond Government Bond Issued by corporations Fixed Interest Rate U.S.
Classifying • A column format can be created in Word and EXCEL .
Samples of Classifying using Technology • Classifying with word or picture sorting can be done with Kidspiration software .
• Classifying with a Webbing format can be done in Kidspiration or Insipiration software .
sort into general categories Name each category Write a topic sentence for each category which generalizes the similarity ___________________________________ • Select five pieces of factual information which best support the topic • Evaluate them by rank ordering them in descending order of importance in supporting the topic sentence .Classifying: Concept Attainment • • • • Examine the factual information Identify similarities.
Creating Metaphors and Analogies • Metaphors and Analogies are complicated due to the “relationships between relationships. identifying relationships between relationships.in other words.” having students identify these relationships is the focus of instruction • Creating metaphors is the process of identifying a general or basic pattern in a specific topic and then finding another topic that appears to be quite different but that has the same general pattern • Creating analogies is the process of identifying relationships between pairs of concepts . .
Analogy Graphic Organizer is to Relationship: is to as .
funtrivia.html .cf m?qid=159519 • This website has a free 30 day trial: http://www.com/phonics/analogies/analogiesx.com/cb/7146.quia.sadlieroxford. htm • http://www.com/flashquiz/index.Interactive Web Sites for Analogies • These are interactive sites for analogies that are free: • http://www.
Remember this… • If the purpose is to master facts: – Format follows teacher directed activity • If the purpose is to develop divergent thinking – Format follows student directed activity • Identifying similarities and differences should promote ACTIVE thinking by the students .
ALT Work Session .
Campus Goal: Improve student achievement through implementation of effective instructional strategies. What ALT goal will you develop to support the campus goal? .
ALT Work Session • Develop your ALT goals • Once you have created your ALT goals. email them to your campus principal and to Margaret Miller under the subject heading: Marzano ALT Goal • Design a collaborative lesson/series of lessons in which you will use one or more strategies presented today • Prepare a tool to measure the effectiveness of the strategy over time .
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