Royal Institute of Management with Gross National Happiness Commission Secretariat Based on GNHC slides


Why RBM?
• Pressure to be Efficient and Effective – People want better services – Politicians want to meet the needs of people (get elected again) – RAA and MoF want more effective use of resources – Market responds well to efficiency and effectiveness – Donors value both efficiency and effectiveness – Public wants to perform better

Public Sector Performance
• Efficiency and Effectiveness of Public Sector Organizations is seen to depict the development stage of a country • Public Sector Capacity and Performance is objective of development

Focus is on Performance/Results • • • • Why does this organization exist? What would be lost if it did not exist? Who does it serve? What is it supposed to deliver for them? .

Key: Measurement • Not easy to measure • Improvement is not possible without measurement • “If you can’t measure it you can’t manage it? .

What do you measure? • Inputs/activities – Measured by expenditure and/or extent of activity – How much did we spend on this training? • Outputs – By the extent of goods/services delivered and the inputs to output ratio – How many trainings organized? How many officials attended? • Effects/Impacts and sustainability – What difference does this make? – Is performance improved? .

So……what is RBM? •RBM is a management strategy focusing on performance and achievement of outcomes and impacts. .

3. Identify the expected results to be achieved based on a problem analysis & risk assessment.Defining Concepts . Report on the results achieved. Identify and analyze the problem/policy priority to be addressed. 2. .Results The RBM Results-Focus Process (UNFPA 2001): 1. 4. 5. Monitor progress and adjust activities as needed to ensure achievement of results. Design activities that will generate expected results within resource constraints.

So. what is RBM? • Focus on tangible results • Value for money concept • Performance rather than budget driven operations .

RBM Facilitates systematic thinking of three basic questions • What is our Goal: Are we doing the right thing? • How will we reach that Goal: Are we doing it right? and • How do we know whether we have achieved our goal or that we are doing it right: How do we know? .

Rules and Regulations) Budget (money) Time (Schedule. Timetable) .Project is asses on Quality (Standard.

adopted by UK and New Zealand 90s. became an aspect of New Public Management • Now. increasingly used to show good results . • • • • • Peter Drucker and MBO in the 60s 70s. evolved to Logical Framework 80s. adopted by USA and OECD countries 90s .The Origins….

Activities and Outputs “How many trees were planted and people trained?” What was the development result e. Improved ecosystem health/Change in management practice 13 .The Evolution of RBM Focus on Performance not Compliance “Did projects spend their budgets and comply with rules and procedures” “Did projects achieve their objectives and deliver results” Focus on Impacts and Outcomes not Inputs.g.

RBM – KEY CONCEPTS AND TOOLS CONSTRAINTS (Assumptions and Risks) Indicators Indicators Indicators Inputs Activity Output Outcome Impacts ENABLERS (Assumptions and Risk) 14 .

project). causal sequence of inputs. Situational Analysis Strategies / Issues I N P U T S 15 .KEY CONCEPTS Results Logic Model Logic Model is the structured. activities and outputs required to achieve desired outcomes and impacts of a development intervention (programme.

Understanding Results Logic 16 .

Defining Concepts – Results video .

described and measured in some way.Results Defining “result” in RBM: “a describable or measurable change in state that is derived from a cause and effect relationship. and for which the cause can be identified” (UNFPA 2001: 4).Defining Concepts . . This means that a result is a change that can be observed.

Defining Concepts .Results RBM’s Cause & Effect transformation process: Results Transformation Process Activities Transformation Process Inputs .

visible and tangible consequence of a completed activity or set of activities within a project or programme. Impacts are usually evident years after project or programme completion. it is important to note that other factors outside of the project or programme also contribute to achieving the impact. Impact: A long-term result that is the logical consequence of achieving project or programme outcomes.Defining Concepts . Outcome: A medium-term result that is the logical consequence of achieving a combination of outputs.Results Levels of RBM Results: The “Results Chain” Output: A short-term result that is the immediate. As a result. Outcomes usually manifest at the end of a project or programme. .

Exercise • Results??? .

Results Impact Outcomes Outputs Activities Transformation Process Inputs Transformation Process .Defining Concepts .

KEY CONCEPTS Inputs… • Are the financial. human and physical resources that make a program or project possible. • Links results logic to budgeting Examples of Inputs… Expertise. Equipment. Facilities. phone and accommodation 23 . Supplies and Services like travel.

Curriculum Design. Immunization 24 . Training and Coaching. Examples of Activities… Construction or Installation.KEY CONCEPTS Activities … • Describes the essential work of the program or project – what you DO • Should be summarized in short statements.

KEY CONCEPTS Outputs… • Short term …a change that is observable as you complete the activity. Examples of Outputs … • Service centre with facilities constructed • Managers trained in change management • Gomphu-Panbang Highway constructed 25 . • Contributes to the realization of outcomes. • Involves very specific groups of people. • You can assign resources. • You have substantial control and influence.

• You have influence. but not control. • Cannot assign resources directly. each likely result from several Outputs.KEY CONCEPTS Outcomes… SKRAs • Medium term … change observable at or shortly after the completion of the program or project. • Usually involves larger group of people • Are fewer in number -usually 2 to 3. Examples of Outcomes … • Service centres fully occupied with employment generating businesses • Improved performance of x institution • Increased mobility of the nearby communities 26 .

KEY CONCEPTS Impact… NKRAs • Long term …a picture of a preferred future. • You can only make a contribution and have an indirect influence. 27 . • The change usually involves an even wider group of people Examples of Impacts … • Household incomes increase within areas served by service centres. Is observable well after the program or project is complete. • Reduced incidence of rural poverty. • Improved Governance.

people directly involved in an activity Indirect control and Diminishing influence Extends to those not directly involved in an activity Minimum control and Indirect influence Wider –extends to a Dzo.DIFFERENCE BETWEEN OUTPUT. upon completion of an activity Outcome Upon completion of a project or program Impact Beyond project/program cycle Time Control/ Influence Sphere of Influence Direct and substantial Specific . or country wide Resource Direct Control Allocation Indirect control No control . OUTCOME AND IMPACT Parameters Output Immediate.

direct dial telephone service within the region and with the rest of the nation OUTCOME: Improved telecommunication infrastructure system in various localities in the target Region. OUTPUT: Telephone exchange systems in target Region OUTPUT: Increased capacity of staff in operations & maintenance of telecom equipment OUTPUT: Efficient telephone service revenue recovery system .Results Chain Example IMPACT: Efficient.

Results Chain Example IMPACT: Effective and transparent public sector that responds to citizens’ needs OUTCOME: Increased management skills among trained public sector professionals OUTCOME: Training institution has capacity to provide on-going training in the long term OUTPUT: Curriculum and training materials developed OUTPUT: Increased capacity of trainers to deliver public sector training OUTPUT: Completed construction of training centre .

what exactly will you measure? • Activities/Strategies/Interventions .• Results – what huge difference do we want to make? • Impact – what differences can we make that will contribute to the huge one? • Outcome – what needs to happen to achieve the impact? (Will be more than one…) The Questions … • Output – what little steps will contribute to each outcome? (Will be more than one…) • Indicators – how will we measure success at each level? (Different indicators for each level) • Measurement .what are we going to do? .

Quiz 1 • Group work .

Development Planning and Implementation Government Issues Planning Guidelines Five Year planning NKRA’s SKRA’s KPIs Key Interventions Ministries/Auto-Agencies/LGs prepare FYPs Alignment to national priorities Alignment of AWPs and Budgets to FYP program outcomes Annual Work Planning & Budgeting Preparation/Implementation of Annual Work Plans based on the Approved FYP Plan Monitoring & progress Reporting Weekly/Quarterly/Bi-Annual/Annual Monitoring Physical and Financial Progress Reporting .



Food Shortages Production on Hills decreasing Rice production decreasing Erosion of Hills Slopes Destruction of harvest Irrigation network Irregular supply not functioning of inputs .

” .Defining Concepts . management practices are driven by budgets. not on future expected results…” “At our organization.Results Criticisms of RBM’s results focus: “RBM is just another fad…” “I’ll just wait until the next project management paradigm comes along…” “Our culture focuses on today. It’s too difficult to re-orient our entire organization to focus on results as that would appear as a threat to senior managers.

Results 1.Defining Concepts . How might a results-based approach enhance the management practices within the Bhutanese public sector? (maximum 3) . What are the challenges or constraints to using a results-based approach within the context of the Bhutanese public sector? (maximum 3) 2.

OUTPUT vs OUTCOME vs IMPACT (Splash and Ripple Example) Inputs Activities Outputs Outcome 39 .

What do you see? .

―Indicators represent what is measured to determine whether or not, and to what extent, results are being achieved.‖ (AUCC 2006).

Microfinance institutions (MFIs) have expanded lending capacity

Indicator: Percentage increase in number of loans provided by MFIs

A functional immunization program contributes to reduced mortality from immunizable diseases.
Indicator: Percentage decrease in mortality rates from immunizable diseases.

INDICATOR EXAMPLES Result: Health centres provide appropriate reproductive health services to members of the community. Indicator: User satisfaction with reproductive health services provide by centre. .

Indicators: . .Level of satisfaction of users of telecom service.% increase in rural people in target region with telephones .INDICATOR EXAMPLES Result: Improved telecommunications system in target rural region.

Enhanced accountability and transparency in the use of public resources 46 .

# of Qualitative indicators: Measure people’s attitudes. opinions or judgements It is good to use a combination of qualitative and quantitative indicators where possible.g % of. .Two Types Quantitative indicators: Measure quantity with a numeric value e.

INDICATOR • Indicators:.g. opinion and levels of satisfaction.. Three numbers of service centers constructed/ 50% of the EX level officials trained in change management Qualitative Indicator – seeks to measure quality. percentages or ratio of: E. Citizens perception of service delivery/ Public perception of air pollution in Thimphu 48 . quantitative or qualitative variable that allows the verification of changes produced by a development intervention relative to what was planned Types of Indicator: Quantitative Indicator – expressed in numbers. E.g.. based on perception.

INDICATOR Types of Indicator: Proxy Indicator – Used when results cannot be measured directly – either because the data for direct indicator is not available or not feasible to collect at regular intervals. 49 . E. Review of related act completed by May 2012.g. First stakeholder meeting completed by June 2012. Enactment of an Act. Used for process oriented results. Example – type roofing materials or televisions as a proxy measure of increased household income Process Indicator – measures the performance of key processes.

For each result. baseline data must be collected. Develop a list of both qualitative and quantitative indicators for each result. Select indicator(s) for each result that best fulfill the following criteria: Specific – is the indicator clear on what is being measured? Measurable – is it objectively verifiable? Attainable – is it realistic and cost effective? Relevant – does it capture the essence of the result? Timely – can it be measured in a timely manner? 4. . Once indicators have been selected. 3. ask: ―What will be observed if this result is achieved?‖ 2.Identifying Indicators 1.

CHARACTERISTICS OF A GOOD INDICATOR The “CREAM” of Good Performance A good performance indicator must be: Clear Relevant Economic Adequate (Precise and unambiguous) (Appropriate to subject at hand) (Available at reasonable cost) (Must provide a sufficient basis to assess performance) Monitorable (Must be amenable to independent validation) 51 .

RBM – KEY CONCEPTS AND TOOLS CONSTRAINTS (Assumptions and Risks) Indicators Indicators Indicators Inputs Activity Output Outcome Impacts ENABLERS (Assumptions and Risk) 52 .

of farmers trained on production management.What Distinguishes Results from its Indicator Indicators not same as the results – -Farmers trained on new production technology. Outcome indicator and Impact Indicator Good Indicator should always have a credible Baseline. Nos. realistic Target and reliable Data sources 53 . Each result should have atleast one indicator Indicators assigned only to the results – Output indicator.

interviews.Means of Verification (MOV) The MOV is made up of two components: 1. report monitoring. The source of indicator information e. field visits.g. people. The method for collecting information from the source.g. reports. maps 2. focus groups . E.

Examples Result: Microfinance institutions (MFIs) have expanded lending capacity Indicator: Percentage increase in number of loans provided by MFIs MOV: Interviews with MFI managers .

Examples Result: A functional immunization program contributes to reduced mortality from immunizable diseases. MOV: Ministry of Health yearly statistical report . Indicator: Percentage decrease in mortality rates from immunizable diseases.

“Assumptions describe the necessary conditions that must exist if the cause-effect relationships between levels of results are to behave as expected.” (CIDA 2000) IMPACT ASSUMPTIONS OUTCOMES ASSUMPTIONS OUTPUTS ASSUMPTIONS .

Risk Assessment Strategy Step 1: Identify assumptions at each results level (output. impact). high) Step 3: Identify risk management strategies that will lessen the likelihood that assumptions will not hold. . Step 2: For each assumption. rate the level of risk that the assumption will not hold true (low. outcome. medium. Start with risks ranked as high.

Results-Based Planning Activities/Interventions/Strategies Results Impacts Outcomes Measurement Outputs Indicators .

....Outputs...Outputs.....Outputs...Outputs .Outputs....Outputs..Outputs Activities/Interventions/Strategies Outputs.Outputs.Outputs Outputs..Another View … Results Pyramid Vision Impact) Impact(s) Impact(s) Outcomes Outcomes Impact(s) Outputs..

.Outputs Activities/Interventions/Strategies ..Outputs..Outputs....Measurement Vision Indicators Impact(s) Indicators Outcomes Outcomes Activities/Interventions/Strategies Indicators Outputs.

Outputs.Plan Down Vision Bigtime Result Impact(s) Implement Up Outcomes Outcomes Outcomes Outputs.Outputs..Outputs Activities/Interventions/Strategies ......

Bigtime Results Impact(s) Move from bigger to smaller chunks Outcomes Outputs Activities Move from smaller (more) to bigger (fewer) chunks Plan down Implement Up .

or project performance 64 . the planning period. The baseline is used to: . and to .Gauge subsequent policy.Learn about recent levels and patterns of performance on the indicator.BASELINE A Baseline is… Information (quantitative or qualitative) that provides data at the beginning of. or just prior to. program.

Building Baseline Information Who will Data collect Frequency Data Collection data of Cost of Indicator Source Method Collection collection Difficulty to collect Who will analyze & report data 1 2 3 65 .

Data Collection Methods Key informant interviews Conversation with concerned individuals Participant Observation Focus Group Interviews Panel Surveys One-Time Survey Community Interviews Direct observation Census Reviews of official records (MIS and admin data) Field visits Field experiments Questionnaires Informal/Less Structured Methods More Structured/Formal Methods 66 .

TARGETS Targets …… are the quantifiable levels of the indicators that a country or organization wants to achieve at a given point in time— - For Example … Increase Agricultural exports by 20% in the next three years over the baseline 67 .

activities. and outputs = Target Performance Desired level of performance to be reached within a specific time For Example: Increase Rice production (MT) by 20% in the 10th FYP Baseline (85000) + 20% of 85000 (17000) = 102000 (85000+17000) 68 .SETTING PERFORMANCE TARGETS Baseline Indicator Level + Desired Level of Improvement Assumes a finite and expected level of inputs.

last year.Factors to Consider When Selecting Targets  Clear understanding of baseline starting point (e.  Institutional capacity  Political concerns 69 .g. average of last 3 years. average trend. etc.)  Funding and level of personnel resources expected  Amount of outside resources expected to supplement the program’s resources.

Additional Considerations  Only one target is desirable for each indicator  A target does not have to be one single numerical value. be realistic when setting targets 70 . it can be a range  Take your baseline seriously.  Consider previous performance It takes time to observe the effects of improvements. therefore.

becomes your results framework! Define results and provides a plan to track and measure progress and achievement of these stated results 71 .RESULTS FRAMEWORK RESULTS INDICATOR Percentage of malnourished children under 5 yrs BASELINE TARGET 35 20 Enhanced Food and Nutrition Security Percentage of children under 5 yrs stunted 33 20 Helps us to complete matrix .

Monitoring System Each Result should be backed by the strong monitoring system Indicator Baseline Target Data Collection Strategy Data Analysis Reporting Plan 72 .

IN ESSENCE Conducting a Readiness Assessment Selecting Key Indicators to Monitor Results Planning for Improvement — Selecting Results Targets Evaluations Using Your Findings 1 2 3 4 Baseline Data on Indicators— Where Are We Today? 5 6 Monitoring for Results 7 8 Reporting Your Findings 9 10 Agreeing on Results to Monitor and Evaluate Sustaining the M&E System Within Your Organization .

74 .  Operationalized through the Planning Monitoring and System (PlaMS) – web based system.  Take forward the lessons and experiences gained to the 11th FYP.RELEVANCE TO THE 11TH FYP  RBM Introduced in the 10th FYP (2008 – 2013.  Important input towards implementing the Government Performance Management System (GPMS).

FACILITATE THE PREPARATION OF THE 11TH FYP PROGRAMME PROFILE Administrative Unit: Programme: Contribution to National & International Goals & Targets Classification Categories Goals Targets/Indicators Sector: Plan Phase: Table 1: Programme Results Matrix Results Levels Indicators Baselines Plan Targets Table 2: Programme Activities Programme Outputs Programme Activities Start Month/Year Finish Month/Year Lead Implementing Agency Collaborating Agencies Page 1 of 4 Printed on 22/7/2008 75 .

Monitoring & Evaluation Plan Reporting Frequencies & Responsibilities Results Levels Indicators Baselines Targets Data Sources Frequency Reporting Responsibility Report to Page 2 of 4 76 . in Million) Programme Activities Recurrent Capital Total Funding Types Funding Agencies Remarks Total Table 4.FACILITATE THE PREPARATION OF THE 11TH FYP Table 3: Programme Budget Summary Estimated Budget (Nu.

Now lets get going and develop this place of ours! .

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