Networking (CCNA


What is network ?
• Networking is a practice of linking of two or more computing devices such as PCs, printers, faxes etc., with each other .
• Network is divided into two parts into two parts network and networking .

Cable/medi a

Categories of Networking

Networking Media

Network Commands
Windows provide several command line tools that can be used for troubleshooting any TCP/IP related issues. Some of them include :Ipconfig Ipconfig/all Ping Arp

• • • •

Connecting Devices
Hub • Multiple ports • Used to connect all device on a network . Switch • filters and forwards packets between LAN segments.


• Inspects each message that comes from one side and broadcast it to the other side of the bridge.

Gateway • Used to connect networks using different protocols so that information can be passed from one system to the other.
• A device that connects two LANs • It decides the best path between different networks.

IP address
• • • • Through Ip we can connect to another computer. IPv4 addresses consist of four sections . Each section is 8 bits long . It is divided into various classes namely Class A, Class B, Class C, Class D and Class E

MAC Addressing
It is a hardware address that is embedded in the NIC card. Every NIC card has a unique MAC address assigned by IEEE. The MAC address operates at the data link layer of the OSI model. MAC address is a 12 digit hexadecimal number (48 bit address). It is made up of numbers from 0-9 or letter from A-F MAC address can be written in any one of the formats: ► MM:MM:MM:SS:SS:SS The 12 digit MAC address will be shown as say 00:11:11:EA:8D:F6

We can Provide the IP Address By two Methods

Dynamic IP address (DHCP) • They are assigned to the devices that require temporary connectivity to the network . • An ip address that change each time you connect to the internet
Static IP address • They are semi permanent. • A static ip address is where a computer uses the same address every time a user logs on to a network

OSI reference model
•It is layered architecture of 7 layers
•Each layer defines a set of functions which takes part in data communication

• It is a process or a technique to divide large and complex networks into smaller networks. • Done to reduce the wastage of IP addresses . • The format of subnetted IP address would be <network number , subnet number , host number> • Two types of Subnetting Fixed Length Subnet Mask (FLSM) Variable Length Subnet Mask (VLSM)

Transfer of info from one network to another.

To route a router need to know
- Remote Networks - Neighbor Routers - All Possible routes to remote network - The absolute best route to all remote networks - Maintain and verify the routing information





Types of Routing
1.Static Routing Syntax Router(config)#ip route remote_network mask next_hop

Stub Network

ip route

2.Dynamic Routing •Used when protocols are used to find networks and update routing table on routers. •will enable a routing protocol on router

•Some examples of dynamic protocol are: RIP, IGRP, EIGRP, and OSPF
EIGRP configuration mode

Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol
Router(config)#router <protocol> [<option>] ex. Router(config)#router eigrp 10

RIP Routing Configuration
Router(config)#router rip Router(config-router)#network network-number*

router RIP

router RIP

network network

network network

• Why we need Security – To prevent the network from different kinds of attacks. • Attacks - APPLICATION-LAYER ATTACKS

To prevent from these attacks we can use different kind of ACCESS LISTS

•Standard Access List
Filter by source IP addresses only

•Extended Access List
Filter by Source IP, Destination IP, Protocol Field, Port Number

•Named Access List
Functionally the same as standard and extended access lists.

Project : Site to Site Routing with implementation of Security
• Done on a network simulator i.e Cisco Packet Tracer. • It includes configuration of cisco routers and switches of a organization . • There are 6 switches , 11 routers and many end devices like servers , ip-phones , wireless routers , computers and labtops • Firstly routers were configured • IP address were assigned to port on routers • DHCP configured on switches . • Subnetting done on whole network • NAT (network address translation) and Access Control List are used to provide security

Over here we have shown a network which is connected to each other and data can travel from any end device to another end device

Router>en Router#conf t Router(config)#hostname r3 r3(config)#int s0/0/0 r3(config-if)#ip address r3(config-if)#clock rate 64000 r3(config-if)#no shut r3(config-if)#exit r3(config)#int s0/0/1 r3(config-if)#ip add r3(config-if)#ip address r3(config-if)#clock rate 64000 r3(config-if)#no shut r3(config-if)#exit r3(config-if)#ip dhcp pool 22 r3(dhcp-config)#default-router r3(dhcp-config)#network r3(dhcp-config)#exit r3(config)#router eigrp 22 r3(config-router)#net r3(config-router)#network r3(config-router)#network r3(config-router)#network r3(config-router)#exit

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