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# Chapter 4 Work and Heat

4.1 WORK

From a macroscopic point of view, Work is done by a system if the sole effect on the surroundings (everything external to the system) could be the raising of a weight.

Work is a form of energy in transit.

Work Crossing Boundary of a System

•Work done by a system is considered positive • Work done on a system is considered negative.

3 WORK DONE AT THE MOVING BOUNDARY of a SIMPLE COMPRESSIBLE SYSTEM .4.

Pressure versus Volume .

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.Work Is a Path Function.

4.5) or surface (such as Fig.12). the state is fixed.Point Functions   Thermodynamic properties are point functions that for a given point on a diagram (such as Fig. 3. and thus there is a definite value of each property corresponding to this point. .

. Point functions are exact differentials.

never write W2 -W1 . . Path functions are inexact differentials.

PV n = constant .Polytropic Process   Path-functional relationship is a process called a polytropic process.

Work done in polytropic process .

1 .Example 4.

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Work Done in Various Processes .

Example 4.2 = .

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Example 4.3 .

Solution damping .

. a stretched wire.4. a surface film. In this section we briefly consider three such systems.4 OTHER SYSTEMS THAT INVOLVE WORK   Other types of systems in which work is done at a moving boundary. and electrical work.

A Stretched Wire .

Example 4.4 .

Work Done on a Liquid Film System dA .

Work .

5 CONCLUDING REMARKS REGARDING WORK .4.

13 ) . 4.Example of process involving a change of volume for which the work is zero ( Fig.

Because there is no resistance at the system boundary as the volume increases.  However. we conclude that for this system no work is done in this process of filling the vacuum. and therefore the work cannot be calculated from this relation. . this is not a quasi-equilibrium process.

4.  Heat can be identified only as it crosses the boundary.6 DEFINITION OF HEAT   Definition of heat is out of a transfer of energy . Thus. heat is a transient phenomenon. Heat is defined as the form of energy  that is transferred across the boundary of a system at a given temperature to another system (or the surroundings) at a lower temperature by virtue of the temperature difference between the two systems. .

If we consider the hot block of copper as one system and the cold water in the beaker as another system. of course). we recognize that originally neither system contains any heat (they do contain energy.  A body never contains heat. .

In the International System the unit for heat (energy) is the joule. A process in which there is no heat transfer (Q =0) is called an adiabatic process. Heat transferred to a system is considered positive. .    The units for heat are the same as the units for work. and heat transferred from a system is negative.

 From a mathematical perspective. heat. like work. is a path function and is recognized as an inexact differential. .

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4.The energy exchange between molecules is heat transfer by conduction.7 HEAT TRANSFER MODES   Conduction . and it increases with the temperature difference and the ability of the substance to make the transfer. .

. In this mode. the bulk motion of a substance moves matter with a certain temperature over or near a surface with a different temperature.Convection   Convection takes place when a media is flowing.

The transfer can happen in empty space and does not require any matter. .Radiation   Radiation -The final mode of heat transfer transmits energy as electromagnetic waves in space. but the emission (generation) of the radiation and the absorption does require a substance to be present.

2. Both are boundary phenomena. Similarities between heat and work Both are transient phenomena. 3. Both are path functions and inexact differentials.4.8 COMPARISON OF HEAT AND WORK  1. .

 Difference between heat and work Which crosses the boundary of the system. heat or work? .

Which crosses the boundary of the system.16 . 4. heat or work? Fig.