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5.

p-Block Elements

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The elements (except He) having outermost valence shell electronic configuration ns 2 np1 to ns 2 np6 are called p-Block Elements where n = 2 to 6. Since p-orbitals can accommodate maximum six electrons, there are six groups of p-block elements. In periodic table group 13 to 18 are called p-block elements.
The p-block elements are situated on the right side to the transitional elements in periodic table.

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5. p-Block Elements

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Due to difference in inner core electronic configuration, the elements show variation in physical and chemical properties. The first element of the group shows anomalous behavior in some properties from the other elements of that group.

In this unit, let us study the elements of group 13 (IIIA) and group 14 (IVA). The first element of group 13 and 14 are Boron and Carbon respectively, so these groups are also known as Boron group and Carbon group respectively.

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5. p-Block Elements

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Due to catenation properties of carbon, carbon forms number of organic compounds which are included in Organic Chemistry.

Now, we shall study the general introduction to pblock elements.

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. We Deliver. p-Block Elements Enjoy Chemistry With Yash G nra In d c ntop lo k e e l tro u tio -b c E m ts le e n You Dream...5. ..

. We Deliver. in group atomic radius. While in group it decreases as the atomic number increases.5. ionisation enthalpy and oxidizing power increases as the atomic number increases. electro negativity. You Dream. .. Generally in the period.. van der Waals radius and metallic character increases as the atomic number increases.. p-Block Elements Enjoy Chemistry With Yash Group 13 to 18 means p-block elements show variation in physical and chemical properties. Generally.

.. ..5. You Dream. nonmetal and metalloids are included in same period and these characteristics are decreasing in a group as the atomic number increases.. metal. p-Block Elements Enjoy Chemistry With Yash Due to these characteristics of the p-block elements. P-block elements have valence shell electronic configuration ns 2 np1-6 where n=2 to 6 and hence the value of maximum oxidation state of these elements is obtained by subtracting 10 from its group number. We Deliver.

. p-Block Elements Enjoy Chemistry With Yash On moving down the group from 13 to 16 the oxidation state which is two units less than the highest oxidation state becomes more stable. You Dream.5. This trend is called inert pair effect. We Deliver... .. We shall study in detail some properties of the elements of group 13 and 14 after the general introduction of p-block elements.

5. p-Block Elements Enjoy Chemistry With Yash G u 1 le e ts ro p 3e m n (B ro g u ) o n ro p You Dream.. We Deliver. ....

. We Deliver. Aluminium (Al). Hence.5. Indium (In) and Thallium (Tl).. in total three electrons are there.. The valence shell electronic configuration is ns 2.. np1 where n=2 to 6. therefore. Gallium (Ga).. p-Block Elements E c n c n u tio le tro ic o fig ra n Enjoy Chemistry With Yash The group 13 includes elements. there are two electrons in s orbital and one electron in p orbital. Boron (B). You Dream.

The main important ores of boron are Borax : (Na2 B4 O7. While in India it is found as borax in Puga valley of Ladakh region in Kashmir and also in Sambhar lake of Rajasthan.2H 2 O) Orthoboric Acid : (H 3 BO3 ) The boron is found in California (USA) and in Turkey state..0001% by weight. . You Dream. p-Block Elements O c rre c c u ne Enjoy Chemistry With Yash The abundance of boron in earth’s crust is less than 0.5. It occurs in ore form..4H 2 O) Colemanite : (Ca2 B6 O11 .. We Deliver..10H 2 O) Kernite : (Na2 B4 O7.

p-Block Elements O c rre c c u ne Aluminium is the third most abundant element found in earth’s crust.7% by weight) and the third is aluminium (8. while the first is oxygen (45.3% by weight).. We Deliver. Some important ores of aluminium are given below: Bauxite : Al2 O 3 . the second is silicon (27.5.. .XH 2 O Orthoclase : KAlSi3 O 8 Cryolite : Na3 AlF6 Corundum : Al2 O 3 Beryl : Be3 Al2 Si6 O 18 Mica : KAl2(Si3 AlO 10)(OH) 2 Enjoy Chemistry With Yash You Dream.5% by weight)...

India is the world’s largest supplier of mica.. Karnataka. You Dream.. .. Gallium. Ga and As. while the traces of Indium are found in sulphide ore of lead.. In India mica is found in Madhya Pradesh.1 – 1%) is found in the mineral Germanite which is a complex sulphide of Zn.5. p-Block Elements O c rre c c u ne Enjoy Chemistry With Yash The important ores of aluminium are bauxite and cryolite. (0. Cu. We Deliver. Orissa and Jammu.

You Dream.5. We Deliver. p-Block Elements V ria ninP p rtie a tio ro e s Enjoy Chemistry With Yash Variation in some properties are observed in elements of Boron group.... ..

Anyhow.5.. new electron shell gets added and so the distance between the nucleus and outermost orbital having electron increases.. We Deliver.. p-Block Elements A m ra ii a dio icra ii to ic d n n d Enjoy Chemistry With Yash In elements of boron group as the atomic number increases. Similar trends can be observed in ionic radius. You Dream. . hence the atomic radius increases.. there is exception in atomic radius of Al and Ga.

p-Block Elements A m ra ii a dio icra ii to ic d n n d Enjoy Chemistry With Yash The atomic radius of Al (143 pm) is more than atomic radius Ga (135 pm) because there is no dorbitals in electronic configuration of Al while there is d-orbital in electronic configuration of Ga.5. We Deliver. As the d-orbital are large in size... You Dream. . hence the magnitude of screening effect decreases with nucleus by electrons present in them...

5. p-Block Elements

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Now, the nuclear charge of Gallium is high; as a result the attraction towards the nucleus by outermost orbital electron increases.

Hence, atomic radius of Ga is less than that of Al. however a regular trend is observed in ionic radii.

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5. p-Block Elements

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The order of first ionisation enthalpy (Δ i H1) for boron group elements is B > Al < Ga > In < Tl.

The first ionisation enthalpy of Al is less than that of B because in Al the new valence shell is added and so the atomic size of Al increases which in turn increases the screening effect in Al that results in decreasing attractive forces towards the nucleus by the outermost orbital electrons.

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5. p-Block Elements

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So first ionisation enthalpy is less than that of B, but the first ionisation enthalpy of Ga is little more (1 kJ mole -1 ) compared to Al because in Ga the addition of new valence shell and also presence of 3d-orbital, which decreases the screening effect.

This means it does not remain more effective so in Ga the attractive forces of electron towards the nucleus increases and hence, the first ionisation enthalpy is little more.

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the first ionisation enthalpy of Indium is less compared to that of Ga.. p-Block Elements Io istio E th lp na n n a y Enjoy Chemistry With Yash In the same way Indium possesses 4d-orbital... which reduces the magnitude of screening effect and increase in nuclear charge (49 – 31 = 18 units) which is overweighing the screening effect towards nucleus by the electron arranged in outermost orbital is less compared to Ga. Hence.5.. . We Deliver. You Dream.

We Deliver... So..5. the first ionisation enthalpy of Tl is higher than that of Indium because in Tl as the nuclear charge increases (81 – 49 = 32 units) and also presence of 4f and 5d-orbitals still the decreases in reactivity of screening effect is over weighted by nuclear charge. p-Block Elements Io istio E th lp na n n a y Enjoy Chemistry With Yash Now. the first ionisation enthalpy increases. You Dream.. . As a result force of attraction towards nucleus by the outermost orbital electrons increases.

so more energy is required to remove electron from them. the value of second ionisation enthalpy (Δi H 2) and third ionisation enthalpy (Δ i H 3 ) are very high because when first electron is removed.. then the size of ion decreases and the effective nuclear charge increases and so the force of attraction towards the nucleus increases.. Hence the value of Δ i H 2 and Δi H 3 are very high. Moreover. .5. You Dream. the second and third electrons are removed from s-type orbital which has more attractive forces towards the nucleus. p-Block Elements Io istio E th lp na n n a y Enjoy Chemistry With Yash Moreover. We Deliver...

So Al is good conductor of heat and electricity.5. So Tl possesses nonmetallic character. The metallic character is higher in Al than that of B. You Dream.. Thus. The reduction potential values go on increasing from Al to Tl. B is non-metal. Ga and Tl the metallic character decreases successively. so the values of electro positivity decreases as a result.. We Deliver. p-Block Elements Mta c a c r e llic h ra te Enjoy Chemistry With Yash The elements of group 13 show variation in metallic character. while Al is metal and in Indium. metallic character decreases.. ..

the attractive force for electron towards nucleus decreases. As the atomic volume increases..5. p-Block Elements E c N g tiv le tro e a ity Enjoy Chemistry With Yash On moving down the elements of group 13. because the atomic volume increases as the atomic number increases. . We Deliver... electro negativity decreases suddenly from B to Al and after that it increases gradually as moving from Al to Tl. You Dream..

viz the melting point of B is the highest. We Deliver... .. p-Block Elements Mltin p in a dB ilin p in e g o ts n o g o ts Enjoy Chemistry With Yash The elements of group 13 show irregular trends in melting points..5. the melting point of In is more than that of Ga and Tl has little more. The order of melting points of group 13 elements are in order B > Al > Ga < In < Tl. You Dream. while melting point of Al is low and melting point of Ga is the lowest. The crystal structure of element is responsible for this.

As the atomic number goes on increasing the boiling point decreases regularly.. We Deliver..5. You Dream... p-Block Elements Mltin p in a dB ilin p in e g o ts n o g o ts Enjoy Chemistry With Yash The boiling points of the elements of group 13 on moving down the group show regular trend. .

. You Dream..5. We Deliver. density increases. . p-Block Elements D nity es Enjoy Chemistry With Yash The density goes on increasing as the atomic number increases for the elements of group 13 because as the atomic number increases the volume increases but the increase in atomic mass is more compared to volume and hence...

You Dream. p-Block Elements C a c ris a R d c ga e t h ra te tic s e u in g n Enjoy Chemistry With Yash The characteristic as reducing agent goes on decreasing on moving down the group..5... which means moving from Al to Tl. . because the values of reduction potential increase from Al to Tl and so the reduction power decreases and the characteristic as reducing agent also decreases. We Deliver..

Now. it forms covalent bond. so boron does not form B +3 ion easily and hence.. p-Block Elements N tu o C mo n s a re f o p u d Enjoy Chemistry With Yash The elements of group 13 have a decreasing tendency to form covalent bond compounds. We Deliver.5. . You Dream. The elements of group 13 have increasing tendency to form ionic compounds because the size of B is small and to form B +3 ion the sum of three ionisation enthalpy values (Δ i H 1 + Δi H 2 + Δi H 3 ) is high... as the atomic number goes on increasing the atomic size also increases and total ionis ation enthalpy value decreases..

. You Dream. while Al forms covalent bond and also to some extent has tendency to form ionic bond. We Deliver. the tendency to form compounds having ionic bond becomes prominent. Boron forms compounds having covalent bond. While in Ga. p-Block Elements N tu o C mo n s a re f o p u d Enjoy Chemistry With Yash So.. In and Tl as the atomic number increases.5.. the tendency to form covalent bond decreases and tendency to form ionic bond increases. ..

so the total three electrons in outermost orbital. You Dream.. . In and Tl have both +1 and +3 oxidation states.5.. We Deliver.. hence it possesses +3 oxidation state.. The oxidation state of boron and aluminium is +3 while Ga. p-Block Elements O id tio s te x a n ta Enjoy Chemistry With Yash In the electronic configurations of elements of group 13 they have two electrons in s-type orbital and one electron in p-type orbitals.

You Dream. p-Block Elements O id tio s te x a n ta Enjoy Chemistry With Yash As the atomic number is increasing the stability of +3 oxidation state decreases and stability of +1 oxidation state increases because on going down the group as the atomic number is increasing the tendency of s-electron to participate in bond formation decreases which means ns 2 electron of Ga..... We Deliver. . In and Tl remain paired because of intervening of d and f orbitals.5.

it is difficult to remove that electron. p-Block Elements O id tio s te x a n ta Enjoy Chemistry With Yash The screening effect of ns 2 orbitals becomes poor and inert pair effect becomes more predominant as atomic number increases and so the ns 2 orbital electrons are more strongly attracted towards the nucleus and therefore.. We Deliver..5.. so the stability of oxidation state +1 increases and that of +3 oxidation state decreases. You Dream. ..

5.... You Dream..25 V The reaction indicates that the +1 oxidation state is more stable than +3 because the reduction potential of this reaction has positive value. We Deliver. +3 + Tl(aq)  2e  Tl(aq) E0 = + 1. . p-Block Elements O id tio s te x a n ta Enjoy Chemistry With Yash The stability of oxidation state is supported by following reaction.

p-Block Elements T n sinC e ic l R a tiv re d h m a e c ity Enjoy Chemistry With Yash The variation is observed in chemical reactivity of group 13 elements. the intervening of d-orbital after the noble gas electronic configuration is followed by ns 2 np1 type electronic configuration.5. We Deliver. . You Dream. While electronic configuration of in Ga and In. because in the electronic configuration of B and Al they have ns 2 np 1 type electronic configuration after the noble gas electronic configuration.....

.. . We Deliver. p-Block Elements T n sinC e ic l R a tiv re d h m a e c ity Enjoy Chemistry With Yash Now in electronic configuration of Tl there is intervening of both d and f-type orbitals and after that ns 2 np1 type electronic configuration takes place so that chemical reactivity of group 13 elements is as given below: You Dream.5...

..g. You Dream.. p-Block Elements H d ec mo n s y rid o p u d Enjoy Chemistry With Yash Elements of group 13 do not combine directly with dihydrogen but they combine indirectly with dihydrogen to form hydride compounds e. . most of hydrides having molecular formula. We Deliver. Bn H n+4 and B n H n+6 which is known as Borane. 450 K 2BF3  6LiH  B2 H 6  6LiF  Boron forms number of hydrides.. Boron hydride is obtained by reaction of BF 3 with LiH.5.

. (AlH 3) n .M bridge (M = Al..H…. B:  MH3  [B  MH 3 ] (M = Al or Ga) You Dream. Ga.5.. p-Block Elements H d ec mo n s y rid o p u d Enjoy Chemistry With Yash Other hydride elements are polymeric e. . The stability of hydrides decreases with increasing atomic number and so thalium hydride is quite unstable. These hydrides are Lewis acids which readily combine with strong Lewis base (B:)..g. We Deliver. In). (GaH 3 ) n and (InH 3 ) n their structure contains M….

We Deliver. Al or Ga also form complex tetra hydrides e. p-Block Elements H d ec mo n s y rid o p u d Enjoy Chemistry With Yash In addition to these polymeric hydrides. This is known as lithium aluminium hydride. which can be obtained by the reaction of LiH and AlCl3 in presence of dry ether. You Dream.. tetra hydro aluminate (III)..5. Dry ether 4LiH + AlCl3  Li + [AlH 4 ] + 3LiCl  Particularly in organic reaction LiAlH 4 is used as a reducing agent..g.. .

. . p-Block Elements H lid C mo n s a e o p ud Enjoy Chemistry With Yash Elements of group 13 form MX 3 type trihalides where X = F.. TlI3 is unknown. The trihalides BX 3 act as Lewis acid and the order of its strength is BI 3 > BBr 3 > BCl3 > BF3 . Br and I. You Dream. We Deliver. Cl.5.. Due to small size and high ionisation enthalpy boron atom has tendency to form covalent bond by sp 2 hybridisation and form trihalide..

5. p-Block Elements

H lid C mo n s a e o p ud
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In vapour form AlCl3 exists in dimer form due to bridging of chlorine atoms.

AlCl3 is Lewis acid. BF 3 and AlCl3 are strong Lewis acids and therefore used as a catalyst in Friedel and Crafts alkylation reaction and electrophilic aromatic substitution reaction.
Ga and Tl also form MX type halides where M = Cl, Br, I
The stability of MX type halide increases as the atomic number increases, so that TlX is more stable than GaX.

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5. p-Block Elements

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The group 13 elements form oxides having formula M 2 O 3 and hydroxide having formula M(OH) 3 .

As the atomic number of element goes on increasing the acidic character of oxide and the hydroxide decreases, and at the same time the basic character goes on increasing e.g. oxide and hydroxide of boron are acidic, those of Al and Ga are amphoteric and In are basic while those of Tl are strong base.

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5. p-Block Elements

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In elements of group 13, in the electronic configuration of boron the d-orbital is absent, so it forms only tetrahedral complex like [BH 4 ]– , [BI4 ]–, etc.
The electronic configuration of Al ,Ga, In and Tl have d-orbital (in Al it is in form of 3d 0 ), so they form octahedral complexes like [AlF6 ]-3, [GaCl6 ] -3 , [InCl6 ]-3 and [TlCl6 ]-3 , with octahedral aqua ions can be described as [M(H 2 O)6] +3 , (where M = Al, Ga, In and Tl).

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5. p-Block Elements

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Aluminium sulphate reacts with sulphate of NH + 4 and alkali metal ions and form double salts known as alums with formula M 2 SO 4 Al2 (SO 4 )3 24H 2 O or MAl(SO 4 ) 2 12H 2 O (where M = Na+, K +, Rb+ and NH + ). 4
The uses of this double salts are to convert hard water to soft water and as a mordant in chemicals of colour dye.

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5. p-Block Elements

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T ea o a u b h v r o th h n m s e a io f e lo firs e m t (b ro ) o g u t le e n o n f ro p 13

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5. p-Block Elements

The first element of group 13, boron shows anomalous behaviour. For example.

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Boron is non-metal while other elements except boron show metallic characters. Boron trihalide is monomeric while in other elements trihalides exist as a dimer or polymer. Boron hydride is monomeric while in other elements hydrides exist as a dimer or polymer. Boron does not react with water while other elements react with water and form oxides.

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5.. p-Block Elements Enjoy Chemistry With Yash Oxides and hydroxides of boron are acidic while the oxides and hydroxides of other elements are amphoteric or basic. Except boron.... You Dream. We Deliver. trihalides of other elements on hydrolysis result in complex ions. .

. ..5. We Deliver.. p-Block Elements Enjoy Chemistry With Yash P y ic l a dC e ic l hs a n hma P p rtie o B ro ro e s f o n (C e ic l R a tio s h m a e c n) You Dream..

You Dream.. Boron has two allotropes. it comes next to diamond. Boron has two isotopes 10 B and 11 B and its relative abundances is 20% and 80% respectively. The colour of amorphous form is dark brown whereas the crystalline form is found in black metallic luster..5. p-Block Elements P yic l p p rtie o b ro h s a ro e s f o n Enjoy Chemistry With Yash Boron is extremely hard substance. The melting point and boiling point of boron are very high.. . In order of hardness.. Boron is poor conductor of heat and electricity. We Deliver.

....5. You Dream. but however. it reacts with strong oxidising agent and with some typical reagents. It is almost inert towards normal chemical reagents at normal temperature. We Deliver. p-Block Elements Enjoy Chemistry With Yash C e ic l p p rtie h m a ro e s (C e ic l R a tio s h m a e c n) Boron is chemically less reactive..

. We Deliver. I)  You Dream. Br ...  4B + 3O 2  2B2 O3   2B + N 2  2BN   2B + 3X 2  2BX 3 (Where X = Cl . p-Block Elements R a tio w n n e l e c n ith o -m ta Enjoy Chemistry With Yash Non.5.metal dinitrogen.. . dioxygen and dihalogen react with boron at high temperature.

5.... . p-Block Elements R a tio w a id e c n ith c Enjoy Chemistry With Yash Boron reacts with fused alkalis like NaOH and KOH and coverts into corresponding borates and liberates dihydrogen.. We Deliver. Δ 2B+6NaOH(l)  2Na3BO3  3H 2  Sodium Borate Δ 2B+6KOH(l)  2K 3BO3  3H 2  Potassium Borate You Dream.

.5.g. Δ B+ Cr  CrB (Chromium boride)  You Dream. We Deliver.. E. .. p-Block Elements R a tio w m l e c n ith e ta Enjoy Chemistry With Yash Boron reacts with some metals on heating and converts in to borides which are very hard and solid substance having high melting point..

.5. We Deliver.. p-Block Elements Enjoy Chemistry With Yash S m Imo n C mo n so o e p rta t o p u d f B ro o n You Dream.. ..

5. Sri Lanka and California.. The impure form of borax is Tincal which contains 55% borax.... We Deliver. p-Block Elements B ra P w e (N 2BO ) o x o dr a 4 7 Enjoy Chemistry With Yash The important compound of boron is borax or sodium tetraborate (Na2 B4 O 7 ). It is found in certain dried up lakes of India. Tibet. . You Dream.

p-Block Elements B ra P w e (N 2BO ) o x o dr a 4 7 Enjoy Chemistry With Yash P p ra n re a tio B ra fro T c l o x m in a Tincal is dissolved in water and boiled. are removed. the solution is concentrated. While borax remains soluble in solution.. . You Dream.. On filteration insoluble impurities like sand. and on cooling crystals of borax separates out... We Deliver. clay etc.5.

. The CaCO 3 which is obtained as insoluble so it is in form of precipitates and removed by filteration and solution is obtained. p-Block Elements Enjoy Chemistry With Yash B ra P w e (N 2BO ) o x o dr a 4 7 P p ra n re a tio B ra fro c le a ite o x mo m n On boiling mineral colemanite with sodium carbonate.5. Concentrate the solution and on cooling crystals of borax are obtained.. the borax... We Deliver. . CaCO 3 and sodium metaborate are formed. You Dream.

... Δ Ca2 B5O11  2Na2 CO3  3CaCO3  Na2 B4O 7  2NaBO 2  Colemannite Borax Sodium Metaborate Borax 4NaBO2  CO2  Na2 B4 O7  Na2 CO 3 Sodium Metaborate You Dream.5. We Deliver. p-Block Elements Enjoy Chemistry With Yash B ra P w e (N 2BO ) o x o dr a 4 7 P p ra n re a tio B ra fro c le a ite o x mo m n Mother liquor still having sodium metaborate is converted to borax by passing CO 2 in the solution.. .

p-Block Elements Enjoy Chemistry With Yash B ra P w e (N 2BO ) o x o dr a 4 7 P p ra n re a tio B ra fro b rica id o x mo c On neutralization of boric acid by Na2 CO 3 borax is obtained. Δ 4H 3BO3  Na 2CO3  Na 2B4O 7  6H 2O + CO 2  Boric acid Borax The mixture is heated and on cooling borax separates as crystals... You Dream. We Deliver.. .5..

p-Block Elements B ra P w e (N 2BO ) o x o dr a 4 7 P p rtie o B ra ro e s f o x Enjoy Chemistry With Yash Borax is found in three forms. Na 2 B4O7 + 2H 2O  H 2 B4O7  2NaOH You Dream. Borax is white.10H 2 O (b) Octahedral Na2 B4 O 7 .. . Aqueous solution of borax is basic due to its hydrolysis.5. crystalline solid substance sparingly soluble in cold water and highly soluble in hot water... (a) Prismatic Na2 B4 O 7 ..5H 2 O (c) Borax glass Na2 B4 O 7 . We Deliver.

Δ Na2 B4O7 10H 2O  Na2 B4O7  10H 2O  Δ Na2 B4O7  2NaBO2  B2O3  Sodium Boron oxide Metaborate You Dream. ... transparent bead known as borax bead.5.. We Deliver.. p-Block Elements B ra P w e (N 2BO ) o x o dr a 4 7 P p rtie o B ra ro e s f o x Enjoy Chemistry With Yash On heating borax. due to its decomposition swells and loses water of crystalization and becomes anhydrous. on further heating it melts and forms glassy.

. We Deliver.. Cr +3 . Δ NiO + B2O3  Ni (BO 2 ) 2  Nickel Metaborate (Brown colour) You Dream.. Co+2 .5.g.. green and pink respectively e. transparent bead is dipped in coloured ions like Ni+2. . Cu+2 . they are converted into their metaborates respectively and they are coloured and their colours are brown. p-Block Elements B ra P w e (N 2BO ) o x o dr a 4 7 Properties of Borax Enjoy Chemistry With Yash When the glassy. Mn+2 and heated. blue.

p-Block Elements B ra P w e (N 2BO ) o x o dr a 4 7 Ue ss Enjoy Chemistry With Yash It is used in laboratory to perform borax bead test in qualitative analysis. It is used in making optical glass. ... You Dream.. We Deliver. Used in preparation of candles. It is used in manufacturing of enamels and glazing of earthen pots..5. Due to its antiseptic properties it is used in preparation of medicinal soap. Used in softening of hard water.

Enjoy Chemistry With Yash You Dream.5. p-Block Elements B rica id(H B 3) o c 3 O Its trivial name is orthoboric acid.... We Deliver.. .

.. p-Block Elements Enjoy Chemistry With Yash B rica id(H B 3) o c 3 O P p ra n re a tio B rica idfro b ra o c mo x Acidifying the aqueous solution of borax by adding HCl or H 2 SO 4 .. Δ Na2 B4O7 + 2HCl + 5H 2O  4H 3BO3 + 2NaCl  Δ Na2 B4O7 + H 2SO 4 + 5H 2O  4H 3BO3 + Na2SO 4  You Dream.5. Boric acid is obtained which on concentration and cooling gives crystals of boric acid. We Deliver...

add water and boil it. p-Block Elements Enjoy Chemistry With Yash B rica id(H B 3) o c 3 O P p ra n re a tio B rica idfro m e l c le a ite o c m inra o m s n Powder the mineral colemanite. Calcium bisulphite is highly soluble in water while boric acid is sparingly soluble.5. On passing SO 2 gas boric acid and calcium bisulphite are obtained. so on cooling boric acid gets separated. You Dream. We Deliver.... ..

.. p-Block Elements Enjoy Chemistry With Yash B rica id(H B 3) o c 3 O Preparation P p ra n re a tio B rica idfro m e l c le a ite o c m inra o m s n Δ Ca 2 B6O11 + 11H 2O  2Ca(OH) 2 + 6H 3BO3  Δ 2Ca (OH) 2 + 4SO 2  2Ca(HSO3 ) 2  Net reaction: Δ Ca 2 B6O11 + 11H 2O + 4SO 2  6H 3BO3  2Ca(HSO3 ) 2  You Dream.. We Deliver...5.

We Deliver.. p-Block Elements Enjoy Chemistry With Yash B rica id(H B 3) o c 3 O Preparation P p ra n re a tio B rica idfro h d ly iso o c m y ro s f b ro c mo n s o n o p ud On hydrolysis of BCl 3 and BN. .5.. BCl3 + 3H 2O  H 3BO3 + 3HCl  BN + 3H 2O  H 3BO3 + NH 3  You Dream. they give boric acid...

p-Block Elements Enjoy Chemistry With Yash B rica id(H B 3) o c 3 O P p rtie ro e s Boric acid is a white crystalline solid substance with a soft soapy touch. It is sparingly soluble in cold water but fairly soluble in hot water. .5..H2O . At different temperatures the effect of heat on it are given as 373 K 433 K red hot H 3 BO3  HBO 2  H 2 B4O 7  B2O3    . We Deliver.H 2O orthoboric acid metaboric acid tetraboric acid boron oxide You Dream..H2O ...

.. We Deliver. In presence of H 2 SO 4 it reacts with ethanol and form ethyl borate. H3BO3 + 3C2 H 2OH  B(OC2 H5 )3 + 3H2O  [H + ] Ethyl Borate You Dream.5... p-Block Elements Enjoy Chemistry With Yash B rica id(H B 3) o c 3 O P p rtie ro e s It is a weak monobasic acid and acts as a Lewis acid..

Used in the manufacturing of enamels and pottery glazes..... You Dream. It is used (in medicine) as an eye wash. We Deliver. p-Block Elements Enjoy Chemistry With Yash B rica id(H B 3) o c 3 O Ue ss In food industry it is used as a preservative for the preservation of food. Used in the preparation of pigments and borax.5. .

. p-Block Elements Boron hydrides Enjoy Chemistry With Yash Boron forms a number of hydride compounds having general formula Bn H n+4 and Bn Hn+6 . B2 H6 (diborane) is a boron hydride. You Dream. We Deliver.5. Boron hydrides are also called Boranes.....

. 450 K 2BF3 + 6LiH  B2H 6 + 6LiF  450 K 2BCl3 + 6LiH  B2H 6 + 6LiCl  You Dream. diborane is prepared by the reaction of iodine with sodium-borohydride in the presence of polyether as a solvent.. polyether 2NaBH 4 + I 2  B2H 6 + 2NaI + H 2  On an industrial scale. diborane is obtained by the reaction of boron trifluoride or born trichloride with lithium iodide at 450 K temperature. We Deliver.5. .. p-Block Elements P p ra no D o n (BH ) re a tio f ib ra e 2 6 Enjoy Chemistry With Yash In the laboratory..

B2 H 6 + 3O 2  B2O3 + 3H 2O  ΔH=-2008 kJmol1 At 450 K temperature. p-Block Elements P p rtie ro e s Enjoy Chemistry With Yash Diborane is colourless and highly toxic gas. We Deliver... . The heat of combustion is very high. if diborane is heated with NH 3 ..5.. forms Borazine (B3 N 3 H6 ) having structure like benzene and hence it is also called inorganic benzene. You Dream. Diborane has strong affinity for O 2 and therefore it catches fire spontaneously on exposure to air and releases energy.

B2 H 6 + 6H 2O  2H 3BO3 + 6H 2  You Dream. p-Block Elements P p rtie ro e s Enjoy Chemistry With Yash 450 K 3B2 H 6 + 6NH 3  2B3 N 3H 6 + 12H 2  Diborane on hydrolysis gives boric acid and liberates H 2 gas.5. We Deliver.. ....

.5. Boron fibres are used in making light composite materials for air craft industries. You Dream. in nuclear reactor as a protective shield and the controlling rods and also used in chemotherapy to cure cancer.. They are also used in metallurgy as a flux for soldering metals. Boron and boric acid are used in manufacturing of heat resritant borosilicate pyrex glass. . We Deliver... p-Block Elements Enjoy Chemistry With Yash Ue o B ro a dits ss f o n n c mo n s o p ud Isotope of boron 10 B has ability to absorb neutrons and therefore used as metal borides.

You Dream. borax powder is used in borax bead test for detection of coloured metallic ions.. The heat of combustion for diborane is very high.... In leather industry borax is used for cleaning skirl (leather) while in food industry it is used as a preservative. p-Block Elements Enjoy Chemistry With Yash Ue o B ro a dits ss f o n n c mo n s o p ud Borax is used for making porcelain enamels. In laboratory. so it is used as a high energy fuel. .5. We Deliver. Aqueous solution of boric acid is used as a mild antiseptic.

p-Block Elements P p rtie o A m iu ro e s f lu in m Enjoy Chemistry With Yash Aluminium is a soft. silvery white metal. It readily reacts with O 2 and forms a protective layer of Al2 O3 on its surface.. .. You Dream. We Deliver. (twice than that of Cu). It is highly electropositive.. which make it passtive. high electrical and thermal conductivity.. It has high tensile strength.5.

. Si and Zn... Mg. . You Dream. p-Block Elements Ue ss Enjoy Chemistry With Yash Aluminium is used extensively in industries and in daily life. We Deliver. Mn. It forms useful alloys with Cu. Aluminium is used as a strong reducing agent. It is used in Aluminothermite process for obtaining the chromium and manganese metals from their oxides..5.

5. .... p-Block Elements Enjoy Chemistry With Yash R a tio o A m iu w e c n f lu in m ith a id a db ss c s n ae Aluminium reacts both with acid and base. We Deliver. You Dream.. it is amphoteric. Thus.

.5. p-Block Elements R a tio w A id e c n ith c Enjoy Chemistry With Yash Aluminium dissolves in dil HCl.. We Deliver. 2Al + 6HCl + 12H 2O  2[Al (H 2O)6 ]Cl3 + 3H 2  On heating with concentrated H 2 SO 4 aluminium produces SO 2 gas. . You Dream.  2Al + 6H 2SO 4  Al2 (SO 4 )3 + 3SO 2 + 6H 2O  Aluminium reacts with concentrated HNO 3 and forms inactive. dil H 2 SO 4 and liberates H 2 gas slowly... passive protective layer of Al2 O3 on surface which stops the further reaction on its surface.

2Al + 2NaOH + 6H 2O  2Na[Al (OH) 4 ] + 3H 2  You Dream.. p-Block Elements R a tio w b s e c n ith ae Enjoy Chemistry With Yash Aluminium dissolves in strong alkali (NaOH or KOH) to form sodium aluminate or potassium aluminate and H 2 gas is evolved.. We Deliver...5. .

5.... . We Deliver. p-Block Elements Enjoy Chemistry With Yash G nra In d c no G u e e l tro u tio f ro p 1 E m ts 4 le e n You Dream..

Carbon shows catenation characteristic due to its small size. Due to typical character of catenation. so they are also called carbon group elements. . The first element of this group is carbon. Carbon (C). Germanium (Ge). it forms chain and cyclic compounds having carboncarbon σ-bond as well as π-bond. We Deliver. high electronegativity and very high carbon-carbon bond enthalpy.. You Dream. Tin (Sn) and Lead (Pb). Silicon(Si)..5... p-Block Elements Enjoy Chemistry With Yash Group 14 includes the elements.

silicon carbide.. We Deliver.. C  N.. metalloids and with non-metals are called binary inorganic compounds. C=O. Compounds of carbon with metals. C  N and compounds having such type of bonding are studied in Organic Chemistry. p-Block Elements Enjoy Chemistry With Yash Moreover. carbon dioxide. . hydrogen cyanide are inorganic compounds.5. The compounds like calcium carbide.. one carbon can form one or more than one bond with another Carbon or with other atoms. You Dream. C=C. C  O. Also e. carbon monoxide. C=N. C  C.g.

. You Dream.5. . We Deliver.. p-Block Elements Enjoy Chemistry With Yash Organic compounds have their contribution in the fields like living organism. non-living organisum.. plastic etc.. medicine.

5. We Deliver. p-Block Elements E c n C n u tio le tro ic o fig ra n Enjoy Chemistry With Yash Carbon group elements have electronic configuration ns 2 np2 in outermost valence orbital where n=2 to 6. ... You Dream...

petroleum and metal carbonate of electropositive metals.5... p-Block Elements O c rre c c u ne Enjoy Chemistry With Yash Carbon is the seventeenth most abundant element by weight out of elements obtained from the earth’s crust. .. We Deliver. You Dream.. In atmosphere it is in the form of CO 2 . All living organisms contain carbon in form of organic compounds. In earth’s crust it occurs in form of coal.

7 %) by weight in the earth’s crust.5. .. Germanium occurs as a trace element and is mainly recovered from the flue dust arising from roasting of zinc ores.. p-Block Elements O c rre c c u ne Enjoy Chemistry With Yash Silicon is present in nature in the form of silica (SiO2 ) and silicates. You Dream. glass and cement. Moreover it is an important component used in ceramics.. We Deliver. Silicon is the second most abundant (27..

5. Other ores of lead are anglesite (PbSO 4 ) and cerussite (PbCO3 )... You Dream. Galena (PbS) is the principle ore of lead. Found along with zinc blende (ZnS).. p-Block Elements O c rre c c u ne Enjoy Chemistry With Yash Tin and Lead are found in nature in the amount of 2 ppm and 13 ppm respectively. . We Deliver..

5... ... We Deliver. p-Block Elements Enjoy Chemistry With Yash V ria ninp p rtie a tio ro e s You Dream.

. Ge. .5.. but from silicon and onwards. You Dream... Sn and Pb due to intervening of d and f – orbitals in electronic configuration and because of the ineffective shielding effect the atomic radii increases gradually. We Deliver. p-Block Elements A m ra ii to ic d Enjoy Chemistry With Yash On moving down the group the atomic radii of group 14 elements go on increasing as the atomic number increases.

. ionisation enthalpy decreases.5. We Deliver. the order of change one notices in ionisation enthalpy is C >Si >Ge>Sn<Pb.. From C to Sn as the atomic number increases the atomic size also increases and hence the ionisation enthalpy decreases but instead of decreasing the ionisation enthalpy of Pb slightly increases because of the intervening of d and f – both types of orbitals in electronic configuration of Pb. p-Block Elements Io istio e th lp na nn a y Enjoy Chemistry With Yash On moving down in the group 14 as the atomic number increases. So the force of attraction towards the nucleus increases due to poor shielding effect of that orbital and hence. . You Dream...

. so the carbon behaves totally as non-metal. p-Block Elements Enjoy Chemistry With Yash E c p s ity le tro oitiv (Mta c a c r) e llic h ra te On moving down the group 14 the electropositivity increases. the metallic character observed is less. Silicon is essentially a non-metal and Germanium is metalloid (having pronounced metallic character) while tin and lead are typical metals. Elements of group 14 are less electropositive. hence.. We Deliver. You Dream.. ..5.

.. p-Block Elements E c ng tiv le tro e a ity Enjoy Chemistry With Yash The elements of group 14 are electronegative than elements of group 13. But it remains almost same from Si to Pb...5. We Deliver.. more The electronegativity decreases as the atomic number increases due to increase in the atomic size. You Dream.

.. hence there exists a strong binding between the atoms.5. Therefore the melting points and boiling points are higher. because elements of group 14 form four covalent bonds. p-Block Elements Mltin p in a dB ilin p in e g o ts n o g o ts Enjoy Chemistry With Yash The melting points and boiling points of group 14 elements are much higher than those of group 13 elements. You Dream.. The intermolecular forces decrease as the atomic number increases in group 14 and therefore. melting point and boiling point also decrease... We Deliver.

.. You Dream.. regular increase in density is seen because there is a greater increase in atomic mass than increase in atomic size.5. We Deliver. that means from carbon to lead.. p-Block Elements D nity es Enjoy Chemistry With Yash On moving down in the elements of group 14. . so the density increases.

further the C – C bond enthalpy is also very high..5. p-Block Elements C te a n a ntio Enjoy Chemistry With Yash Group 14 elements show catenation property in the order C  Si>Ge  Sn>>Pb .. We Deliver. so it indicates maximum catenation properties at the same time remarkable decrease in silicon.. . Because the atomic size of carbon is less and electronegativity is higher.. You Dream.

graphite and fullerene are the crystalline forms of carbon..tin) 286 K white tin(α . We Deliver. Carbon has number of allotropic forms out of which diamond.5.tin) You Dream.. graphite and fullerene are the crystalline forms of carbon. Carbon has number of allotropic forms out of which diamond. white tin (β .. Elements of group 14 show allotropy. .. p-Block Elements A tro y llo p Enjoy Chemistry With Yash Elements of group 14 show allotropy.

. . p-Block Elements Enjoy Chemistry With Yash O id tio s te a dtre d in x a n ta s n ns c e ic l re c ity h m a a tiv You Dream..5.. We Deliver..

The trends in chemical reactivity are given below: Simple M +4 ions in this group are not known. these elements have common oxidation state +4. You Dream. Sn and Pb the inert pair effect becomes more and more prominent so they all show oxidation state +2 with +4 and the stability of +2 oxidation state increases in order. Now due to intervening of d and f-orbitals in Ge. the divalent state of lead is more prominent. p-Block Elements Enjoy Chemistry With Yash Group 14 elements have outermost valence shell electronic configuration ns 2 np2 and hence. .. which can be given as Ge < Sn < Pb. Thus. We Deliver.5....

We Deliver.5. [PbCl6 ] –2 .. Ability to form pπ – pπ bonds with element itself and ability to form such bond with other elements like dinitrogen and dioxygen decreases from carbon to lead.. [SiF6 ]–2 . The stability of divalent state increases in the order Ge < Sn < Pb. [SiF5 ]– . Tendency of catenation decreases in the order as C  Si>Ge  Sn>>Pb .g. .. like e. p-Block Elements Enjoy Chemistry With Yash Except carbon the other elements of the group form compounds with co-ordination number higher than 4. You Dream. stable compounds of MX 2 type for carbon and silicon are rare.. In divalent state.

. We Deliver. Sn and Pb also form MX 2 type halides. SiCl4 + 4H 2O  Si(OH) 4 + 4HCl  SnCl4 + 2H 2O  SnO 2 + 4HCl  Ge... e.5. You Dream. The stability of dihalides increases in order CX 2 < < SiX 2 < < GeX 2 < < SnX 2 < PbX 2 . Enjoy Chemistry With Yash Si. p-Block Elements So.. Ge. The ionic character and thermal stability of halides decreases with increasing atomic number of halogen and they are hydrolysed by water. Sn and Pb form MX 4 type tetrahedral and covalently bonded compounds.g. CO 2 is a gas but silica is a solid. .

. .2H 2 O. HCl. Sn(II)Cl2 crystallises in form of SnCl2 . p-Block Elements The divalent state becomes more stable on moving down the group.5. Br .. I) You Dream. Cl .. 2Fe +3 + Sn +2  Sn +4 + 2Fe +2  Pb(II) halides are obtained by adding halide ions into a soluble lead salts. Enjoy Chemistry With Yash Sn(II)Cl2 is obtained by dissolving Sn in con. On cooling this solution. Pb +2 + 2X   PbX 2  (Where X=F.. We Deliver. Anhydrous SnCl2 acts as a reducing agent in acidic solution.

. Ge. cristobalite and tridymite minerals. In SiO 2 each Si atom is covalently bonded to four oxygen atoms... Enjoy Chemistry With Yash Si. p-Block Elements PbI2 is yellow. You Dream. In silica. In SiO 2 is Si atom combines with oxygen atoms tetrahedrally. .. We Deliver. Sn and Pb form MO 2 type oxides. silicon and oxygen atoms combine by covalent bond and form infinite three dimensional network of four oxygen atoms. Crystalline silicon dioxide occurs in quartz. other halides are colourless and sparingly soluble in water.5.

When this gel is dehydrated. the obtained silica gel is extensively used in chromatography and for the drying of other substances. SnO 2 and PbO2 are solid and exist in several modifications.. crystal oscillator and in transducers.. We Deliver. and therefore.5. Silica gel is obtained by acidification of sodium silicate. You Dream.. . GeO2 .. it acts as a drying agent. SiO2 is acidic but GeO 2 and SnO 2 are amphoteric while PbO2 is basic. p-Block Elements Enjoy Chemistry With Yash Quartz is used as a piezoelectric crystal.

5.. Enjoy Chemistry With Yash SnO2 is used in polishing powder and in manufacturing of glass and pottery.. We Deliver. . You Dream. p-Block Elements Sn(IV) oxide is prepared by heating Sn and O 2 or reaction or Sn with con HNO 3 ... PbO2 is prepared by reaction of Pb3 O4 with dil HNO 3 . Pb3O 4 + 4HNO3  2Pb(NO3 ) 2 + PbO 2 + 2H 2O  PbO2 is a strong oxidizing agent and liberates O 2 when treated with acids.

It can be prepared by heating lead carbonate. On heating PbO with air in a reverbatory furnace at 773 K temperature gives red Pb3 O 4 . Enjoy Chemistry With Yash  SnC2O4  SnO + CO + CO2  PbO exists in red. . SnO is obtained by heating tin oxalate.5... You Dream.. It is a combination mixture of 2(PbO)(PbO 2 ). orange and yellow colour depending upon the method of preparation.. We Deliver. p-Block Elements Sn and Pb both form MO type stable oxides.

. it differs from the other members of its group. (5 or 6) You Dream. Due to following characteristics. The ionisation enthalpy of carbon is high and also lacks d-orbital in its electronic configuration.5. p-Block Elements A o a u b h v r o c rb n n m s e a io f a o lo Enjoy Chemistry With Yash Carbon differs from the other members of its group. Carbon forms only four covalent bonds while other elements have d or d and f – orbitals. So they can form more covalent bonds... . because the atomic size of carbon is small and has higher electronegativity. We Deliver..

C  N with pπ – pπ bonding.5. N and S which are small in size and high electronegativity forms C = O. The trend of catenation in carbon is maximum due to its high value of carbon-carbon single bond enthalpy (348 kJ mol -1 ). If the atomic size of some other atoms are very big then overlapping of pπ – pπ orbital does not remain effective. C = N. p-Block Elements A o a u b h v r o c rb n n m s e a io f a o lo Enjoy Chemistry With Yash Carbon atom forms single bond.. We Deliver. double or triple bond with the other carbon atoms and some other atoms like O. Moreover.. C = S. You Dream... .

We Deliver. You Dream...5. .. this trend goes on decreasing. Carbon forms only pπ – pπ type bonding while other elements form pπ – pπ and also dπ – pπ type of bonding.. p-Block Elements A o a u b h v r o c rb n n m s e a io f a o lo Enjoy Chemistry With Yash So it forms number of organic compounds having chain and cyclic structure while in other elements.

5.. Tendency of catenation depends upon the bond enethalpy of covalent bond between two carbon atoms. You Dream. We Deliver. This trend is observed due to small size and high electronegativity of carbon atom. p-Block Elements C rb nC te a n a o a ntio Enjoy Chemistry With Yash The carbon atom has tendency to link with another carbon atom by covalent bond and forms chain or cyclic structure of carbon which is called catenation. higher the bond enthalpy more is the tendency of catenation... ..

5. .... p-Block Elements C rb nC te a n a o a ntio Enjoy Chemistry With Yash The bond enthalpy of C – C is 348 kJ mol -1 which is the highest than the other elements in its group so it forms a number of chain and cyclic structure compounds due to catenation and pπ – pπ bond formation the carbon exhibits different allotropes. We Deliver.. You Dream.

H.5.. it exhibits many allotropes.. In 1985. coke. The diamond and graphite are the crystalline allotropes.Kroto. Curi discovered the third crystalline allotrope fullerene.W. gas carbon etc are amorphous allotropes of carbon. R. animal charcoal lamp black. .E... Coal wood charcoal. We Deliver. You Dream.Smalley and R. p-Block Elements A tro e llo p s Enjoy Chemistry With Yash Due to catenation in carbon pπ – pπ bond formation.I.

You Dream. The distance between two carbon atoms is 154 pm.. p-Block Elements D mn ia o d Enjoy Chemistry With Yash Due to sp3 hybridisation in carbon. . Each carbon atom. due to sp 3 hybridisation joins with other four carbon atoms by single covalent bond and forms three dimensional network structure. The bonded four carbons are arranged towards the corner of the tetrahedron as shown in fig... it combines with other four carbon atoms by single covalent bond.5. We Deliver..

.. We Deliver. You Dream.. So diamond is extremely hard solid substance.5.. . p-Block Elements D mn ia o d Enjoy Chemistry With Yash All the carbon atoms are bound to each other by covalent bonding and these bonds are very strong.

it combines with other three carbon atoms and as a result hexagonal layer structure is formed as shown in fig.5. p-Block Elements G p ite ra h Enjoy Chemistry With Yash As the result of sp 2 hybridisation in carbon atom. . You Dream. We Deliver.....

Due to weak van der Waals forces the graphite is soft.5.5 pm and distance between two layers is 340 pm and have weak van der Waals attractive forces between the two layers. p-Block Elements G p ite ra h Enjoy Chemistry With Yash The distance between two carbon atoms is 141.. According to the circumstances. We Deliver.. You Dream. .. there might be a little change possible between the two layers..

You Dream. The two important members are having number of carbon atoms C 60 and C 70 . It possesses C 2n structure. .. We Deliver. Crystalline fullerene was first prepared by evaporation of graphite using lasers but presently preparation involves the heating of graphite in an electric arc in the presence of an inert gas such as He or Ne.. p-Block Elements F lle n u re e Enjoy Chemistry With Yash The crystalline form of carbon is made up of porous cage like molecules...5.

. The special shape of fullerene is also called bucky ball. the C 60 molecule has shape like soccer ball and also called Buckminister Fullerene as given in fig. p-Block Elements F lle n u re e Enjoy Chemistry With Yash That gives sooty material on condensation. As shown in fig. consisting of even number of carbon atom up to 350 or above. mainly C 60 with small quantity of C 70 and traces of other fullerene.. We Deliver. You Dream.. The shape of fullerene resembles to shape of football..5. .

. We Deliver.. p-Block Elements F lle n u re e Enjoy Chemistry With Yash It contains twelve rings having five carbon atoms and twenty rings having six carbon atoms. All the carbon atoms in Fullerene are equivalent and they undergo sp 2 hybridisation.. . while the ring structure having five carbon atoms is fused only to six membered ring. You Dream..5. So each carbon atom combines with other three carbon atoms with σ-bond. The ring structure having six carbon atoms is fused to both types of ring.

p-Block Elements F lle n u re e Enjoy Chemistry With Yash The remaining electron forms π-bond and hence.... the π-bond electron gets delocalised in molecular orbital which gives aromatic character in fullerene.5 pm and 138.. . C 60 and C 70 fullerene are soluble in toluene solvent and give purple and orange-red coloured solution.5. You Dream. We Deliver. In fullerene the carbon-carbon single and double bonds with distance 143.3 pm are there respectively.

.. p-Block Elements F lle n u re e Enjoy Chemistry With Yash Fullerenes are the only pure forms of carbon because they have no dangling bond so possess smooth structure. .5.. You Dream. We Deliver..

.5. Diamond and graphite have network structure while fullerene has molecular structure. Diamond is insulator while graphite is good conductor of electricity. Diamond is hard whereas graphite is soft. graphite and fullerene are crystalline and different types of coal. It has cage like structure. Fullerene is the crystalline synthesized form of carbon.. p-Block Elements P yic l P p rtie o C rb n h s a ro e s f a o Enjoy Chemistry With Yash Carbon has a number of allotropes from which diamond.. gas carbon are the amorphous allotropes. We Deliver. You Dream.. coke. .

.. We Deliver. You Dream. ..5. while fullerene is soluble in suitable solvent (benzene).. p-Block Elements P yic l P p rtie o C rb n h s a ro e s f a o Enjoy Chemistry With Yash Diamond and graphite are insoluble in liquid solvent. it possesses the adsorption property. Charcoal is porous. hence.

then CO 2 is formed.... We Deliver.5. then CO is formed and if the proportion of O 2 is more. 2C + O 2  2CO + Energy  C + O2  CO 2 + Energy  You Dream. This combustion reaction is exothermic reaction. If the proportion of O 2 is limited.. . p-Block Elements Enjoy Chemistry With Yash C e ic l P p rtie h m a ro e s (C e ic l re c n) h m a a tio s All the allotropic forms of carbon burn in air and form CO or CO 2 .

.. During reduction.5. p-Block Elements R d c nP p rtie e u tio ro e s Enjoy Chemistry With Yash Carbon is a strong reducing agent. sulphide is obtained from metal sulphate. ZnO + C  Zn + CO  PbO + C  Pb + CO  Fe2 O3 + 3C  2Fe + 3CO  BaSO4 + 4C  BaS + 4CO  PbSO4 + 4C  PbS + 4CO  You Dream. We Deliver.. It reduces many metallic oxides and form corresponding metals.. .

5... C + H 2O  CO + H 2  You Dream.. We Deliver. p-Block Elements R d c nP p rtie e u tio ro e s Enjoy Chemistry With Yash On passing water vapour over red hot coke H 2 gas can be evolved.. .

. Electric spark 2C + H 2  C2 H 2 (Acetylene)  When carbon is heated with beryllium. p-Block Elements R a tio w o e e m ts e c n ith th r le e n Enjoy Chemistry With Yash Passing vapour of sulphur over the red hot carbon gives CS 2 . C + 2S  CS2 (Carbon Disulphide)  When an electric spark is struck between carbon electrodes in the presence of H 2 .5. We Deliver. acetylene is formed..  2Be + C  Be2C (Beryllium carbide)  You Dream.. .. it forms beryllium carbide .

. it slowly dissolves and gives brown substance which is known as artificial tannin. H 2 SO 4 ... C + con. 4HNO3  CO 2 + 4NO 2 + 2H 2O  Carbon reacts with hot con. it gets oxidized to CO 2 and H 2 SO 4 is reduced to SO 2 and a small quantity of mellitic acid (Benzene hexacarboxylic acid) is also formed.5. We Deliver. HNO 3 it gets oxidized and forms CO 2 .. When carbon reacts with con. You Dream.. p-Block Elements R a tio w a id e c n ith c Enjoy Chemistry With Yash When charcoal is heated with hot and dil HNO 3 .

...5. .. We Deliver. p-Block Elements R a tio w a id e c n ith c Enjoy Chemistry With Yash C + 2H2SO4  CO2 + 2SO2 + 2H2 O 12C + 9H 2SO 4  C6 (COOH)6 + 6H 2O + 9SO 2  Mellitic Acid You Dream.

.. p-Block Elements Enjoy Chemistry With Yash Ue o s m imo n ss f o e p rta t c mo n so c rb n o p ud f a o You Dream. .5.. We Deliver..

We Deliver. p-Block Elements H lid so c rb n a e f a o Enjoy Chemistry With Yash The reaction of carbon with halogen forms carbon tetrahalides..5.. CF 4 is a gaseous. You Dream... Its order of stability is CF 4 > CCl4 > CBr 4 > CI 4 . . CCl4 is liquid while CBr 4 and CI4 are solids.

was earlier used in refrigerator as a coolant.. . We Deliver.5. Enjoy Chemistry With Yash CF2 Cl2 ... p-Block Elements Ue ss CCl4 is used as a solvent and fire extinguisher. You Dream.. CCl4 is used as medicine for antihookworm in intestine. which is known as Freon.

We Deliver..5. p-Block Elements Enjoy Chemistry With Yash C rb nd u h e (C 2) a o is lp id : S Ue ss It is used in the manufacture of Viscose Yarn. . It is used as an insecticide for curing infected seeds. the manufacture of carbon You Dream. It is used in vulcanisation of rubber. It is used as solvent in the manufacture of varnishes and boxes... It is used in tetrachloride..

.5. You Dream... SiC.. Fe3 C. Be4 C.g. CaC2 . . WC. We Deliver. E. Al4 C3 . p-Block Elements C rb eC mo n s a id o p u d Enjoy Chemistry With Yash The compounds of carbon with high electropositive elements are known as carbide compounds.

You Dream.. acetic acid etc. so used as refractory and abrasive for sharpening and grinding metals and other substances. Be4 C is very hard and is used as a shield against radioactive radiation.5. which is known as carborandum. WC is used for making tools and dyes.. p-Block Elements Ue ss Enjoy Chemistry With Yash SiC.. CaC2 is used for preparing acetylene and it is used for welding and in manufacturing of number of organic compounds such as ethyl alcohol. is very hard. . for making cans etc. We Deliver..

. You Dream. p-Block Elements O id so c rb n x e f a o Enjoy Chemistry With Yash Carbon can burn in air or O 2 and gives carbon monoxide (CO) and carbon dioxide (CO 2 )..5... We Deliver..

... p-Block Elements Enjoy Chemistry With Yash C rb nM n x e(C ) a o o o id O You Dream.5. We Deliver. ..

. .5. You Dream. 1  C + O2  CO  2 Incomplete combustion of petrol and diesel produces CO.... We Deliver. p-Block Elements P p ra n re a tio Enjoy Chemistry With Yash Carbon monoxide is prepared by incomplete combustion of carbon or carbon containing compounds in a limited supply of O 2 . CO is prepared by the reduction of oxides of heavy metals with carbon.

5. .. We Deliver. Here.. H 2 SO 4 acts as a dehydrating agent.H2SO4 You Dream... p-Block Elements P p ra n re a tio Enjoy Chemistry With Yash ZnO + C  Zn + CO  Fe2 O3 + 3C  2Fe + 3CO  Pure CO can be prepared in a laboratory on small scale by heating formic acid (HCOOH) with con. 373K-413K HCOOH  CO + H2O  Con. H 2 SO4 at about 373 K to 413 K temperature.

. p-Block Elements P p ra n re a tio Enjoy Chemistry With Yash On commercial scale CO is prepared by passing water vapour at 473 K to 1273 K temperature over hot coke and produce mixture of CO and H 2 which is known as watergas or synthesis gas. We Deliver. 473K-1273K C(s) + H2O(g)  CO(g) + H2(g)  Water gas Instead of water vapour if air is used then it produces mixture of CO and N 2 which is known as producer gas. 1273K 2C(s) + O2(g) + 4N2(g)  2CO(g) + 4N2(g)  Producer gas You Dream...5...

CO on combustion gives pale blue flame.. and it is sparingly soluble in water.... 1  CO + O2  CO2 + Heat  2 You Dream. . p-Block Elements P p rtie ro e s Enjoy Chemistry With Yash Carbon monoxide is colourless and odourless gas. hence it causes death. We Deliver.5. It is highly toxic in nature because it forms stable (nearly 300 times) complex with haemoglobin present in blood and stops the oxygen carrying capacity of the blood.

ZnO + CO  Zn + CO2  CuO + CO  Cu + CO 2  Fe2 O3 + 3CO  2Fe + 3CO 2  You Dream. ..5... p-Block Elements R d c gc a c r e u in h ra te Enjoy Chemistry With Yash It reacts with many metal oxides and reduces to corresponding metals e.. We Deliver.g.

such as Ni.343 K Ni + 4CO  [Ni(CO) 4 ]  Nickel tetracarbonyl Fe + 5CO  [Fe(CO)5 ]  Iron pentacarbonyl You Dream. .g. We Deliver. 333 K .5. E.. p-Block Elements Enjoy Chemistry With Yash F rm no m l c rb nl o a tio f e ta a o y ca c r h ra te CO combines as ligand with many transitional metals... Fe. Co etc and form metal carbonyl complex compounds..

5. p-Block Elements Ue ss Enjoy Chemistry With Yash CO is useful for extraction of some metals from their oxide... used in blast furnace. . For example.. You Dream. Fe2 O3 + 3CO  2Fe + 3CO 2  CO is used to prepare tetracarbonyl nickel in Mond’s carbonyl process to obtain pure nickel metal from impure nickel metal. We Deliver.  Ni(s) + 4CO(g)  Ni(CO)4(g)  In industrial field CO is used as a fuel in the form of water gas and producer gas..

We Deliver.. You Dream. . It is used in manufacturing of magnetic tapes (Iron carbonyl) for tape recorder.5. p-Block Elements Ue ss Enjoy Chemistry With Yash It is used in manufacturing of methyl alcohol and formic acid....

.5. .. p-Block Elements Enjoy Chemistry With Yash C rb nD x e(C 2) a o io id O You Dream.. We Deliver..

hydrocarbon like CH 4 or carbon monoxide in excess of air . p-Block Elements P p ra n re a tio Enjoy Chemistry With Yash Carbon dioxide is prepared by burning carbon. . C + O 2  CO 2  CH 4 + 2O2  CO2 + 2H 2O  2CO + O2  2CO2  In laboratory..5. 2CaCO3 + 2HCl  CaCl2 + CO 2 + H 2 O  You Dream.... We Deliver. CO 2 is obtained by reaction of CaCO 3 with dil HCl .

5.. We Deliver...  CaCO3  CaO + CO2  1600 K Lime Zymase C6H12O6  2C2H5OH + 2CO2  enzyme Ethyl Alcohol You Dream. CO 2 is obtained as a byproduct during manufacturing of lime and manufacturing of ethyl alcohol .. p-Block Elements P p ra n re a tio Enjoy Chemistry With Yash On industrial scale. .

when liquid CO 2 is allowed to evaporate rapidly i.... pressure CO 2 gas can be liquefied. At room temperature and 50 to 60 atm.. You Dream.e. it is converted into solid which is known as dry ice. .5 times heavier than air. p-Block Elements P p rtie ro e s Enjoy Chemistry With Yash It is colourless. It is not poisonous but it does not support life of animal and human being but they die in its presence due to lack of O 2 gas. We Deliver.5. expands rapidly. odourless gas and about 1.

K.... We Deliver.. It is sparingly soluble in water but when dissolved in water. However. continue to burn. Mg etc. .5. p-Block Elements P p rtie ro e s Enjoy Chemistry With Yash CO 2 gas is neither combustible nor supporter of combustion. carbonic acid (soda water H 2 CO3 ) can be obtained which is dibasic acid and it dissociates in two stages. You Dream. in its presence certain active metals such as Na. 2Mg + CO 2  2MgO + C  CO 2 turns blue litmus paper red so it is acidic in nature.

.5.. p-Block Elements P p rtie ro e s Enjoy Chemistry With Yash H2CO3 + H2O  + HCO3 + H3 O   + HCO3 + H2O CO32 + H3 O On passing CO 2 through lime water it turns milky due to formation of insoluble CaCO 3 and on passing it in excess milkiness disappears due to formation of soluble calcium hydrogencarbonate (calcium bicarbonate). We Deliver.. Ca (OH) + CO 2  CaCO3 + H 2O  Lime water Calcium carbonate You Dream. ..

. This reaction is called photosynthesis.. . hv 6CO2 + 6H2O  C6H12O6 + 6O2  In presence of chlorophyl You Dream. We Deliver.5. CO 2 reacts with water to form glucose... p-Block Elements P p rtie ro e s Enjoy Chemistry With Yash CaCO3 + CO 2 + H 2O  Ca(HCO 3 ) 2  Calcium hydrogen carbonate In the presence of sunlight and chlorophyll of green plants.

. CO 2 used in manufacturing of washing soda (Solvay’s Process).5. CO 2 is neither combustible nor supporter of combustion. CO 2 is used in preparation of soft drinks and soda water. Therefore it is used as a fire extinguisher. We Deliver.. You Dream... hence it is used in liquefying other gases and act as a coolant in cold storage. . p-Block Elements Ue ss Enjoy Chemistry With Yash Mixture of ether and solid CO 2 creates low temperature upto 165 K.

During artificial respiration for the victims of CO poisoning it is used in form of carbogen (85% O 2 + 5% CO 2 mixture known as carbogen). CO 2 is used for the purification of cane sugar juice in manufacturing of sugar... . We Deliver... You Dream.5. p-Block Elements Ue ss Enjoy Chemistry With Yash Dry ice is used in curing of local burns and in hospital for surgical operation of sores. CO2 is used in photosynthesis by green plants.

.5.. .26 to 7. We Deliver.42) of blood CO 2 gas is used in carbonic acid buffer system  H 2 CO3 +HCO 3 .. Large amount of CO 2 is used in production of fertiliser like urea. . p-Block Elements Ue ss Enjoy Chemistry With Yash To control the pH (7.. You Dream.

We Deliver. p-Block Elements Enjoy Chemistry With Yash Imo n C mo n so S o p rta t o p u d f ilic n You Dream..5.. ...

5. p-Block Elements

S o hd e ilic n y rid s
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Hydride compounds of silicon have general formula Sin H2n+2 .

The value of bond enthalpy for silicon-silicon is 297 kJmol -1 hence, catenation character is observed in it so it forms limited hydride compounds Sin H 2n+2 where n = 1 to 8.
This compound is also known as silane.

The stability of silanes are less compared to hydrides of carbon, hence they have more reduction power.

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5. p-Block Elements

S o d x e (S a S 2 ilic n io id : ilic ) iO
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It is a solid substance having three dimensional structure. A silicon atom combines with four oxygen atoms by covalent bonding. Thus, SiO 2 does not exist as a single molecule but the arrangement of number of atoms form a giant crystal. More than 22 allotropic structures are known in which some are crystalline like quartz, tridimite, crystobelite etc., while amorphous like silica gel and kieselgur.

SiO2 are acidic, hence, it dissolves in liquid alkali or alkali carbonate to form silicate compounds.

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5. p-Block Elements

S o d x e (S a S 2 ilic n io id : ilic ) iO
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At high temperature SiO2 reacts with NaOH to form Na2 SiO3 .
SiO 2 + 2NaOH  Na2SiO3 + H 2O 

SiO2 react with HF and gives SiF4 .
SiO2 + 4HF  SiF4 + 2H 2 O 

SiO2 reacts with halogen (only F 2 ) and SiF4 is obtained and O 2 is liberated.
SiO2 + 2F2  SiF4 + O 2 

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spectrophotometers. p-Block Elements Ue o S a ss f ilic Enjoy Chemistry With Yash It is used as a Piezoelectrical crystal.... It is used in laboratory glassware and preparation of optical components such as lens and prisms. crystal oscillators and as transducer.. Used in sample cell for U. Used as a drying agent in form of silica gel and also in material for adsorption in chromatography. We Deliver. Used as catalyst.5. You Dream. Used in water filteration plants in form of Kieselghur. .V.

...  Si + 2Cl2  SiCl4  In silicon tetrachloride silicon has sp3 hybridisation and so it is tetrahedral in shape and forms covalent bond with chlorine atom. Hydrolysis of SiCl4 give silicic acid (H 4 SiO4 ).5.. p-Block Elements S o te c lo e ilic n tra h rid Enjoy Chemistry With Yash Reaction of silicon with chlorine on heating gives SiCl4 . . SiCl4 + 4H 2O  Si(OH) 4 + 4HCl  Silicic acid You Dream. We Deliver.

. You Dream... We Deliver. the chlorine atom of SiCl4 is substituted and finally silicic acid is obtained.. p-Block Elements S o te c lo e ilic n tra h rid Enjoy Chemistry With Yash The mechanism for hydrolysis of SiCl 4 are in two steps as given below: In the first step the oxygen atom of H 2 O molecules donates pair of electron to empty dorbital of silicon in SiCl4 and forms co-ordination covalent bond. In second step as the HCl molecule is removed..5.

They have general formula (R 2 SiO)n where R is methyl or phenyl group... Its empirical formula R 2 SiO is similar to that of ketone of organic compound. Hydrolysis 2CH 3Cl + Si  (CH 3 ) 2SiCl2  (CH 3 ) 2Si(OH) 2   2H 2 O -2HCl Powder of Cu 570 K Dimethyl Chloro silane You Dream. p-Block Elements S oe ilic ns Enjoy Chemistry With Yash Silicones are synthetic materials containing Si  O  Si bond linkage. Dimethyl Silanol . so they are called silicones.. These compounds are polymeric substances containing R 2 SiO repeating unit..5. We Deliver.

p-Block Elements P p ra n re a tio Enjoy Chemistry With Yash Methyl chloride reacts with silicone in the presence of copper powder as a catalyst at 570 K temperature... . dimethyl chlorosilane is obtained and its hydrolysis is followed by condensation polymerization that gives silicones.5. You Dream. We Deliver... The length of this polymer chain can be controlled by (CH 3 )3 SiCl.

medium chain behave as viscous oil jellies and greases and those with very long chain behave as rubbery elastomers and resins. We Deliver. oxidation and thermal decomposition. Silicones are heat resistant and electric insulator substances. You Dream. Silicones resist the organic reagent.. possess the character of water repellent... more over.5. p-Block Elements P p rtie ro e s Enjoy Chemistry With Yash Short chain silicones are oily liquid. they are chemically inert. Hence. ..

Used as antifoaming agents in cosmetics. Silicones are used as sealants and electrical insulators. We Deliver.. Used as lubricant at high and low temperatures. etc they are coated with a thin film of silicones. wood. p-Block Elements Ue ss Enjoy Chemistry With Yash For making water-proof paper. You Dream. textiles.5.. wool.. Used as surgical implants. ..

. We Deliver. p-Block Elements Enjoy Chemistry With Yash G nra In rm na d e e l fo a tio n S c reo S a s tru tu f ilic te Approximately 95% of the earth crust consists of silicates and silics. The basic structural building block in silicates is the SiO 4 having tetrahedral structure.. Ca+2 . Silicate compounds contain independent SiO 4 or 4 such type of ions joined to form combined silicate ions and their charges are being balanced by cations such as Na+..5.. Mg+2 . K +. . 4 You Dream. .

2...5.. Si+4 is partially substituted by Al+3 which gives aluminosilicate called feldspar. 1. 5 4 You Dream. p-Block Elements T p so s a s y e f ilic te Enjoy Chemistry With Yash In the structure of silicates depending upon the number of corner (0. We Deliver. . 3. In a three dimensional structure of SiO 2 . 4) of the SiO 4 4 tetrahedron shared with other tetrahedrons and based on that they are classified which are indicated in table. SiO 4 and AlO In aluminosilicate the 4 tetrahedrons join with each other in a simple way to form three dimensional networks known as zeolites..

hence.. zeolite is used as a molecular sieve for separating small molecules form big molecules. . One important catalyst of zeolite is ZSM-5. p-Block Elements Ue o z o ss f e lite Enjoy Chemistry With Yash Zeolite has a network of cavities linked by channels. zeolite is used as a catalyst (shape-selective catalyst). We Deliver. It is used in petrochemicals....5. In these channels only small molecules can enter. It converts alcohol directly into gasoline (petrol) by dehydration and the mixture of hydrocarbons is formed. You Dream.