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Face value and Place value(Local value) of a digit in a numeral: The Face value of a digit in a numeral is its own value, at whatever place it may be. Ex. In a numeral 6872,the face value of 2 is 2,the face value of 7 is 7,the face value of 8 is 8 and the face value of 6 is 6. In a given numeral: Place value of unit digit = (unit digit) * 1 Place value of tens digit = (tens digit) * 1 Place value of hundred’s digit = (hundred’s digit) * 1 and so on. Ex. In the numeral 70894, Place value of 4 = (4*1) = 4, Place value of 8 =(8*10)=80, Place value of 9 =(9*100)=900, and Place value of 7 = (7*10000)=70000.

**Various types of Numbers
**

• Natural Numbers: Counting numbers are called natural numbers. Thus 1, 2, 3, 4,5, 6….are all natural numbers. • Whole numbers: All counting numbers and 0 form the set of whole numbers. Thus 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6….etc. are whole numbers. • Integers: All counting numbers, zero and negative of counting numbers form the set of integers. Thus, ……-3, -2, -1, 0, 1, 2, 3,….are all integers. • Prime numbers: A counting number is called a prime number if it had exactly two factors, namely itself & 1.Ex. 2, 17, 29,137 etc… • Co Primes: Two natural numbers a & b are said to be co prime if their HCF is 1. Ex. (2,3), (4,5), (7,9), (8,11) etc…. • Composite numbers: The natural numbers which are not prime, are called composite numbers.

Tests of Divisibility

• Divisibility by 2: A number is divisible by 2 if its unit digit is any of 0, 2, 4,6,8. • Divisibility by 3: A number is divisible by 3 only when the sum of its digit is divisible by 3. Ex. In the number 695421, the sum of digits = 27, which is divisible by 3.So 695421 is divisible by 3. • Divisibility by 9: A number is divisible by 9 only when the sum of its digit is divisible by 9. Ex. In the number 246591, the sum of digits = 27, which is divisible by 9.So 246591 is divisible by 9. • Divisibility by 4: A number is divisible by 4 if the sum of its last two digits is divisible by 4. Ex. 6879376 is divisible by 4, since 76 is divisible by 4. • Divisibility by 8: A number is divisible by 8 if the number formed by hundred’s ten’s and unit’s digit of the given number is divisible by 8. Ex. In the number 16789352, the number formed by last 3 digits, namely 352 is divisible by 8. So 16789352 is divisible by 8.

Ex. • Ex. which is divisible by 11. Consider the number 29435417. since its unit digit is 0. • Divisibility by 5: A number is divisible by 5 only when its unit digit is 0 or 5. Each of the numbers 76895 and 68790 is divisible by 5.so 29435417 is divisible by 11. • Divisibility by 11: A number is divisible by 11 if the difference between the sum of its digits at odd places and the sum of its digits at even places is either 0 or a number divisible by 11.• Divisibility by 10: A number is divisible by 10 only when its unit digit is 0. ( Sum of its digits at odd places) – ( Sum of its digits at even places) = (7+4+3+9)-(1+5+4+2) = (23-12) = 11. 7849320 is divisible by 10. . Ex.

we get 76 as a quotient and 13 as a remainder What is the divisor? Divisor = = = 163 .Important formulas to solve examples • [(Divisor)*(Quotient)]+Remainder=Dividend Ex. On dividing 12401 by a certain number.

what will be the remainder? Sol: Suppose that on dividing the given number by 342. Then. we get quotient = K and remainder 47. Number = 342K+47 = (18+19K)+(18*2)+11 = 18+(19K+2)+11 So. If the same number is divided by 18. we get 47 as remainder. . the number when divided by 18 gives remainder = 11.• On dividing a certain number by 3425.

• Remember It: .

• Simplify: Hint: = (a2+2ab+b2) – (a2-2ab+b2) ab = 4ab ab = 4 .

….are said to be in A. Let the nth term be and let last term = = l.• Arithmetic progression(A.P. a+2d. in which first term = a and common difference = d. .P.) a. a+d. where l is the last term. Then (1) nth term = a + (n-1) d (2) Sum of n terms = (3) Sum of n terms = [2a + (n-1) d] (a + l). a+3d.

in which first term = a and common ratio = r.are said to be in G.. (1) Nth term = a (2) Sum of n terms = OR .) a. a .P.• Geometric Progression(G. ar.…. a . where r<1 .P. where r>1 .

+74 This is an A. Required sum = (a + l) = (2 + 74) = (76) =(37 * 38)= 1406. l = last term = 74 Clearly. • Find the sum Sol: This is a G. n = 37. d = (4 – 2) = 2. in which a = 2. Sol: Required sum = 2 + 4 + 6 + ….• Find the some of all even natural numbers less than 75. in which a = 2. So.P.. r=2 Required sum = = =(2 * 1023) = 2046 .P.

C.C.F.C.C.C.C.M.F. and L.C. is 1.F.C.F. and L.C. • Co-primes: Two numbers are said to be co-primes if their H. and L.M.M = .M. of Fractions: (1) H.F. • H. • Product of two numbers = product of their H.H. = (2) L.

9m. So. 900cm.F. is 13. So. • Simplify: Find the greatest possible length which can be used to measure exactly the lengths 4m 95cm. x = 13.C. and 1665cm.F. required length = 45cm. Sol: Required length = H. of 495cm.C. is x.e. Then their H. .C. = * 5. and 16m 65cm.F.C. Hence. Sol: Let the numbers be 15x and 11X. If their H.• Simplify: Two numbers are in the ratio of 15:11. find the numbers. the numbers are ( 15 * 13) and (11 * 13) i. 195 and 143. H. 495 = 900 = 1665 = So.F.

required number = (9999 – 279) = 9720. of 12. i.. 15.i.e. 18. On dividing 10000 by 432. 24. • Solve: Find the smallest number of five digits exactly divisible by 16. of 16. Sol: Smallest number of five digit 10000.C. 432. and 27. we get 279 as remainder. Required number must be divisible by L. Required number must be divisible by L.M. 24.e. and 27. we get 64 as remainder. 18. 36. and 54. 15. 36.• Solve: Find the largest number of four digits exactly divisible by 12. and 54. So. So. Sol: The largest number of four digit is 9999..M.C.required number = 10000 + (432 – 64) = 10368. . 540 On dividing 9999 by 540.

Here. and S stands for ‘ Subtraction’. Subtraction. Thus.SIMPLIFICATION • “BODMAS” Rule: This rule depicts the correct sequence in which the operations are to be executed. M stands for ‘Multiplication’. first all the brackets must be removed. • Virnculum ( or Bar): When an expression contains Virnculum. {}. O stands for ‘Of’. . Division. A stands for ‘Addition’. and []. strictly in the order (). before applying “BODMAS” Rule. we must use the following operations strictly in the order: Of. Addition. After removing brackets. in simplifying an expression. Multiplication. so as to find out the value of a given expression. D stands for ‘Division’. B stands for ‘Bracket’. we simplify the expression under the Virnculum.

• Solve: 108 ÷ 36 of ÷ *3 * Sol: Given expression: 108 ÷ 9 + = = 12 + = + = 13 .

• Simplify: 99 * 245 ) * 245 * 245 Sol: Given expression: (100 = = 4899 * 5 = 24495 .

We denote the cube root of x by .SQUARE ROOTS AND CUBE ROOTS • Important Facts and Formulas: • Square Root: If = y. Thus. = x. NOTE: (1) (2) = = * = * = . = 3 and = 14. •Cube Root: The cube root of a given number x is the number whose cube is x. we say that square root of y is x and we write. Thus. = and = = 7. = 2.

3 that gives. = =3 • Solve: what comes in the place of (?).3 + = 12.• Solve: If a* b*c = Sol: 6*15*3 = = = . . then find the value of 6*15*3.. (?) = 2.3 so. = 9. + = 12. = 12.e.3 = 3.3 Let.so = 4. 9.i.we get 5 + X = 2.3 – 9. (1) + = 12.

4142 .4142 – 1 = 0. =2 = 2.4142. find the value of .find the value of Sol: = * = = = = 1. Then = 4. • Solve: If x = and y = . • Solve the expression: If = 1.so we get x = (?) = 801 .(2) Let.

Then the average speed during the whole journey is kmph. 37. • Solve the following examples: Ex. So. They are 31. and 47. Sol: There are five prime numbers between 30 and 50. required number = = 39.8 . 43. 41.1 Fund the average of all prime numbers between 30 and 50.AVERAGE (1) Average = (2) Suppose a man covers a certain distance at x kmph and an equal distance at y kmph.

sum of first 40 natural numbers = = 820 So. Sol: Sum of n natural numbers = So. x + 4.so = 27. required number = = 20.3 Find the average of first 20 multiples of 7.5 Ex. Sol: Let the numbers be x.Ex.5 Ex. It gives x = 24 . x + 2. Sol: Required average = = = = = 73. = 27 .4 The average of four consecutive even numbers is 27. and x + 6. Then. Find the largest of these numbers.2 Find the average of first 40 natural numbers.

consisting of 36 and 44 students respectively. Ex. Find the average weight of the whole class. . If the average weight of section A is 40kg and that of section B is 65kg.Ex. If the average of the first six results is 58 and that of the last six is 63.25kg.6 The average of 11 results is 60. 5 There are two sections A and B of a class. Find the sixth result. Sol: Sixth result = (58 * 6 + 63 * 6 – 60 * 11) = 66. So. Sol: Total weight of (36 + 44) students = (36 * 40) + (44 * 35) = 2980kg. average weight of the whole class = kg = 37.

Due to the admission of 7 new students. Find his average after 17th inning. average after 16th inning = (x – 3). 16 (x – 3) + 87 = 17x x = 87 – 48 = 39. So. the original expenditure = Rs. the expense of the mess were increased by Rs. . 420. 42 (x – 1) – 35x = 42 7x = 84 x = 12.Ex. 8 A batsman makes a score of 87 runs in the 17th inning and thus increases his average by 3. Sol: Let the average after 17th inning = x. Then. Then. 42 per day while the average expenditure per head diminished by Re 1. What was the original expenditure of the mess? Sol: Let the original expenditure be Rs. Ex. X.(35 * 12) = Rs. 7 There were 35 students in a hostel.

km/hr = 67. 9 Distance between two stations A and B is 778km.2km/hr. Sol: Required speed = = km/hr. . Find the average speed of the train during the whole journey. A train covers the journey from A to B at 84kmph and returns back to A with a uniform speed of 56kmph.Ex.

Ex. 10 Out of 9 persons, 8 persons spent Rs. 30 each for their meals. The ninth one spent Rs. 20 more than the average expenditure of all the nine. The total money spent by all of them was₋₋₋₋₋₋₋ Sol: Let the average expenditure be Rs. X. Then, 9x = 8 * 30 + (x + 20) 9x = 260 + x 8x = 260 x = 32.50

Problems On Numbers

Ex.1 A number is as much greater than 36 as is less than 86.Find the number. Sol: Let the number be x. Then, x – 36 = 86 – x, which gives x = 61. Ex.2 Find the number such that when 15 is subtracted from 7 times the number, the result is more than twice the number. Sol: Let the number be x. Then, 7x – 15 = 2x + 10, which gives x = 5. Ex.3 The sum of a rational number and its reciprocal is . Find the number. Sol: Let the number be x. Then, x + = , so = ,which gives 6 - 13X + 6 = 0. So, 6 - 9x – 4x + 6 = (3x - 2)(2x – 3), hence the required number is or .

Ex.4 The sum of two numbers is 184. If one-third of the one exceeds one seventh of the other by 8, find the smallest number. Sol: Let the number be x and 184 – x. Then, = 8, it will give x = 72. The numbers are 72 & 112. So, the smallest number = 72. Ex. 5 If the sum of two numbers is 42 and their product is 437, then find the absolute difference between the numbers. Sol: Let the numbers be x and y. Then, x + y = 42 and x * y = 437. x–y= = = = 4. So, the required difference is 4.

7 The ratio between a two digit number and the sum of the digits of that number is 4:1. If the digit in the unit’s place is 3 more than the digit in the ten’s place. we get x = 59 and y = 43. what is the number? Sol: Let the ten’s digit be x. Find the two numbers.Ex. Number = 10x + (x + 3) = 11x + 3. 4 times the smaller one is less than 3 times the larger one by 5. If the sum of the numbers is larger than 6 times their difference by 6. Ex. 3x – 4y = 5………………. 6 Of two numbers.. Then unit’s digit = x + 3.(II) Solving (I) and (II). Sol: Let the numbers be x and y.(I) (x + y) – 6(x – y) = 6 -5x + 7y = 6……………. Then. Sum of the digits = x + x + 3 = 2x + 3. such that x > y. .which are required numbers.

If the numbers be in the ratio of 3:4. the required number = 11x + 3 = 33 + 3 = 36. So. 9 Two numbers are such that the square of one is 224 less than 8 times the square of the other. Ex. which gives x = 2. Ex. 8 The product of two natural numbers is 17. What are the numbers? Sol: Let the numbers be 3x and 4x. which gives 3x = 9. so x = 3. = . the numbers are 6 and 8. . Then =8* . So.The sum of the reciprocal of their square is₋₋₋₋ Sol: Let the number be x and y. Hence. where x = 1 and y = 17. xy = 17. + = = = . Then.224.So.

Then. the quotient is 6 and the remainder is 15. we get x = =3 . Ex. 10 If 2 is added to a number and the sum multiplied by 4 and 3 is added to the product and then dividing the sum by 1 . x + 1365 = 6x + 15. which gives x = 270. Which is the smallest number? Sol: Let the number be x and x + 1365 Then. = 25.Ex. . When the larger number is divided by the smaller one. = 25 So. What is the number? Sol: Let the number be x. 11 The difference between two number is 1365. the quotient become 25.

What is the sum of numbers? Sol: Let the number be x and y. Then. so x = 15y………because x = (15 * 25) = 375. when the larger one is divided by the smaller. Hence. is 15. xy = 9375 and = 15. 12 The product of two number is 9375 and the quotient . . = 15. = .Ex. we get = 625 y = 25. so. sum of the numbers = 375 + 25 = 400.

What was the original fraction? Sol: Let the number be x. and 3x + 6. If the numerator as well as the denominator is increased by 4. the fraction is .Ex. = . Now. 3x + (3x + 3) + (3x + 6) = 72. .13 The sum of three consecutive multiples of 3 is 72. Then. Ex. denominator = x + 3. What is the largest number? Sol: Let the numbers be 3x.14 The denominator of a fraction is 3 more than the numerator. Then. So. the largest number = 3x + 6 = 27. the fraction becomes . which gives x = 8. we get x = 7 So. 3x + 3.

So. . the fraction is 2 . Then.Ex. Now. If 5 is added to its denominator. = So. numerator = x + 5. Find the value of a fraction. 15 The difference between the numerator and denominator of a fraction is 5. Sol: Let the denominator be x. = +1= =2 . the fraction is decreased by 1 .

Find the second number. 16 54 is divided into two parts such that the sum of 10 times the first and 22 times the second is 780. So. Find the largest part. 17 243 has been divided into three parts such that half of the first part. solving this we get x = 20. bigger part = 54 – x = 34. one-third of the second part and one-fourth of the third part are equal. 18 The sum of three number is 138. Ex. Then 10(54 – x) + 22x = 780. Ex. . Which is the bigger part? Sol: Let the two parts be (54 – x) and x.Ex. If the ratio between first and second be 2:3 and that between second and third is 5:3.

Then. their present ages are 14 years and 30 years. So. Rajeev’s age 5 years back = (x – 5) years. we get x = 14. the elder one be 3 times as old as the younger one. Hence. So. we get x = 10 years. x + 15 = 5(x – 5). find their present ages. What is the present age of Rajeev? Sol: Let Rajeev’s resent age be x years. age of the elder person = (x + 16) years.2 The age of two persons differ by 16 years. Rajeev’s age after 15 years = (x + 15) years. 1 Rajeev’s age after 15 years will be 5 times his age 5 years back. Ex.Problems On Age Ex. 3(x – 6) = (x + 16 – 6). . Sol: Let the age of younger one be x years. If 6 years ago. Then.

If twice the age of Nikita is more than Ankit’s age by 4 years.Ex. what is Nikita’s age? Sol: Let Ankit’s age be x years. 3 Rohit was 4 times as old as his son 8 years ago. 4 The product of the ages of Ankit and Nikita is 240. son’s present age = x + 8 = 16 years. we get x = 8 Hence. So. So. and Rohit’s present age = 4x + 16 = 40 years. Son’s age after 8 years = (x + 8) + 8 = (x + 16) years. What are their present ages? Sol: Let son’s age 8 years ago be x years. Rohit will be twice as old as his son.x = 4. After 8 years. solving we get x = 20. Then Nikita’s age = years. Then. 2 * . Ex. Nikita’s age= 12 yrs. 2(x + 16) = 4x + 16. . Rohit’s age after 8 years = (4x + 8) + 8 = (4x + 16) years. So. Rohit’s age 8 years ago = 4x years.

So. 5 One year ago. Sachin’s present age = (7x + 1) = 36 years. = . If their ages are in the respective ratio of 7:9.5 years. Sachin’s age 4 years hence = (7x + 1) + 4 = (7x + 5) years.Ex. this ratio would be 7:8. how old is Sachin? Sol: Let Rahul’s age be x years. we get x = 31. Then. Gaurav’s age 4 years hence = (6x + 1) + 4 = (6x + 5) years. Sachin’s age = (x – 7) = 24. . How old is Sachin? Sol: Let Gaurav’s and Sachin’s ages one year ago be 6x and 7x years respectively. Ex. So. Four year hence. 6 Sachin is younger than Rahul by 4 years. Sachin’s age = (x – 7) years. it gives x = 5. = . Hence. Then.5 Hence. the ratio of Gaurav’s and Sachin’s age was 6:7 respectively.

Abhay’s age after 6 years = (x + 10) + 6 = (x + 16) years.8 The ratio between the present ages of P and Q is 5:7. So.Ex. 7x – 6x = 4. simplifying it we get x = 8. Then. the ratio of their ages was 1:5. what will be the ratio of the ages of P and Q after 4 years? Sol: Let P’s age and Q’s age be 6x and 7x respectively. Required ratio = (6x + 4):(7x + 4) = 28:32 = 7:8. Then. Father’s age after 6 years = (5x + 10) + 6 = (5x + 16) years. . Abhay’s father’s present age = (5x + 10) = 50 years. Ten years ago. 7 Abhay’s age after six years will be three-seventh of his father’s age. What is Abhay’s father’s age at present? Sol: Let the ages of Ajay and his father 10 years ago be x and 5x years respectively. If Q is 4 years old than P.solving it x = 4. Hence. Ex. x + 16 = (5x + 16).

then how many years ago they married? Sol: Let the present ages of man and his wife be 4x and 3x respectively. If at the time of marriage. 9 The ratio of the ages of man and his wife is 4:3. he will be one-half of the age of his mother.After 4 years this ratio will be 9:7. Then. So. = .Ex. . So. Then the person’s present age = x years. Their present ages are 32 years and 24 years respectively. How old is the mother at present? Sol: Let the mother’s age be x years. After 8 years. Then. 10 A person’s present age is two-fifth of his mother’s age. the ratio was 5:3. Ex. suppose they were married z years ago. = . x = 8. We get z = 12.

Ex.So. C is how many years younger than A? Sol: (A + B) – (B + c) = A – c = 12 years. If the father’s age is 38 years now. ( x + 8) = (x + 8). 12 A father said to his son. x = 19.”I was as old as you are at present at the time of your birth”. simplifying this we get x = 40 years. then what is the son’s age 5 years back? Sol: Let the son’s present age be x years. 11 The total age of A and B is 12 years more than the total age of B and C. Ex. Then. So. (38 – x) = x. . Son’s age 5 years back = (19 – 5) = 14 years.

4. Law Of Indices: 1. Then. 2.SURDES AND INDICES A. 5. = is irrational. * = = = = = B. 3. is called a surd of order . Surds: Let a be a rational number and n be a positive integer such that n.

C. = * 3. (a/b)n = an/bn . Law Of Surds: 1. 4. 6. 5. = 2. = = = = 7.

So. Sol: + = 1280 We can reduce it as (1 + ) = 1280. then Sol: From the given expression. ac = We can write given expression as =? .• Solve: If + = 1280. so = a and = a . = Here. x – 1 = 8 Hence. x = 9 • Solve : If abc = 1. abc = 1. = We get. then find the value of x.

= = = .

PERCENTAGE A. . x percent means x hundredths. B. and If the price of a commodity decreases by R%. If the price of a commodity increases by R%. written as x%. then the increase in consumption so as not to decrease the expenditure is given by this formula. Concept of Percentage: By a certain Percent. we mean that many hundredths. . then the increase in consumption so as not to increase the expenditure is given by this formula . x% = To express as a percent: We have = ( * 100 ) %. Thus..

. .C. Results on Population: Let the population of a town be P now and suppose it increases at the rate of R% per annum. Results on Depreciation: Let the present value of a machine be P. then: (1) Population after n years = (2) Population n years ago = D. Suppose it depreciates at the rate of R% per annum. Then: (1) value of the machine after n years = (2) Value of the machine n years ago = .

If A is R% less than B.D. then B is less than A by and. then B is more than A by . If A is R% more than B.

which gives x = 500. let y% of 175 = 500. Then * 175 = 500. Solve: If 35% of a number is 175. then * 50 = 2 It gives x = 4. then what percent of 175 is that number? Sol: Let the number be x.• Evaluate: 28% of 450 + 45% of 280 = * 450 + * 280 = 126 + 126 = 152 Solve: 2 is what percentage of 50? Sol: Suppose x% of 50 = 2. Then 35% of x = 175. Hence. 4% of 50 is 2. Now. so y = = .

Selling price: The price at which an article is sold.P..) – (S.P. the seller is said to have incurred a loss.P. abbreviated as C.) 2.P.P.) – (G.P. Formulas: 1. Gain = (S. is less than C.P.P. the seller is said to have a profit or gain. Loss or gain is always reckoned on C. is greater than C.P.) 3..PROFIT AND LOSS Important Facts: Cost Price: The price at which an article is purchased. .P. Profit or Gain: If S. is called its cost price.P. Loss: If S. abbreviated as S. is called its selling price. Loss = (C.

S.4. = 10. Loss% = 6.P. = 65% of C.P. C. then S. = 8.P. 35%.P. 11. = 9.P. . Gain% = 5. = 7. S. C. If an article is sold at a loss of say.P. 35%.P. then S. = 135% of C. If an article is sold at a gain of say.P.

then the seller always incur a loss given by: Loss% = = 13. When a person sells two similar items. If a trader professes to sell his goods at cost price.12. one at a gain of say. then Gain% = % . and the other at a loss of x%. x%. but uses false weights.

P. X. be Rs.1260 .60 So.60. Then.P. x = = 1260. (100 – Loss%):(1st S. 2 A person incurs 55 loss by selling a watch for Rs. = Rs.Ex.) = (100 + Gain%):(2nd S.P.P. 28.60 – 27.27.50) = Rs. Find his gain percent.50 and sells it for Rs. = Rs.so New S.50 S.) So. 27.10 Gain% = = 4% Ex. = Rs.P. = We get.(28.1140. Gain = Rs. 1 A man buys an article for Rs.1. Sol: C. 28.P. At what price should the watch be sold to earn 5% profit? Sol: Let the new S.

33 So . of 33 m. one gains the selling price of 11 meters.Ex.P.P. Find his gain percentage. of 22 m = Rs. 3 A dishonest dealer professes to sell his goods at cost price but uses a weight of 960gm for a kg. Find the gain percent.P. 1. S.P. Then. So. of 22 m = Rs. Sol: Gain = (S. Let.P. C. of each meter be Re. 4 By selling 33 meters of cloth.P.Gain% = % = 50% . of 22 m = C. C.P. of 33 m) = S.P. of 33 m) – (C. Sol: Gain% = % = = % Ex.22 S. of 11 m.

13. .P. Per kg = Rs. 1. What rate should he sell the mixture to gain 16%? Sol: C. 5 A man bought toffees at 3 for a rupee. of 3 toffees = 150% of Re.P. 3000.P. = Rs. of 200 kg of mixture = Rs.40 per kg. So.50 per kg and mixed it with 120 kg sugar at Rs. How many for a rupee must he sell to gain 50%? Sol: C. the mixture = Rs. 17. toffees sol = 3.P. Ex. rate of S.P. 16 per kg. 6 A grocer purchased 80 kg of sugar at Rs. for Re. . 1 = For Rs. So. (80 * 13.1 S. 3480. S. = 116% of Rs.Ex.50 + 120 * 16) = Rs. of 3 toffees = Re. toffees sold = = 2. 3000 = Rs.

100 per kg. 80 per kg.P. = Rs. required ratio = 30:20 = 3:2. of 1 kg ghee = 100 C. .Ex. In what ratio does he mix the two? Sol: Mean cost price = Rs. After adulterating it with vegetable oil costing Rs. C. 96 per kg. of 1 kg oil = 50 30 20 So. By the rule of alligation. thereby making a profit of 20%. a shopkeeper sells the mixture at the rate of Rs. 50 per kg. 7 Pure ghee costs Rs.P.

P. X.P. S.Ex. = Rs. 95% of x = 133 So.P. . Then. 100. Then. Let marked price be Rs. must an article be marked so as to gain 33% after allowing a customer a discount of 5%? Sol: Let C.P. 8 At what percentage above the C. So. x = 133. 133. marked price = 40% above C. = Rs. that gives x = 140.

we write. c. Thus. PROPORTION: The equality of two ratios is called the proportion. Also 4:6 = 2:3. If a:b = c:d. is the fraction and we write it as a:b. we call a as the first term or antecedent and b. • Rule: The multiplication or division of each term of a ratio by the same non-zero numbers does not affect the ratio. In the ratio a:b. here a and b are called extremes. a:b :: c:d and we say that a. the second term or consequent.RATIO AND PROPORTION 1. Ex. 4:5 = 8:10 = 12:15 etc. b. . • Product of means = product of extremes. RATIO: The ratio of two quantities a and b in the same units. 2. d are in proportion. a:b :: c:d gives (b * c) = (a * d). while b and c are called mean terms.

(ii) Third proportional: If a:b = b:c. (ii) Compounded Ratios: The compounded ratio of the ratios (a:b). (iii) Mean proportional: Mean proportional between and b is 4. (e:f) is (ace:bdf). c. (i) Comparison Of Ratios: We say that (a:b) > (c:d) = > . .3. then c is called the fourth proportional to a and b. (i) Fourth proportional: If a:b = c:d. . b. (c:d). then d is called the fourth proportional to a.

if xy = k for some constant k and we write. ( componendo and dividendo) 6. (iv) Sub-triplicate ratio of (a:b) is( ). if x = ky for some constant k and we write. (i) Duplicate ratio of (a:b) is ( ). (iii) Triplicate ratio of (a:b) is ( ).5. x proportional to y. x proportional to . (ii) Sub. Variation: (i) We say that x is directly proportional to y. . (v) If = . (ii) We say that x is inversely proportional to y. then = .duplicate ratio of (a:b) is ( ).

9.2 Find the third proportional to 16 and 36. Sol: Mean proportional between 0. 16 * X = 36 * 36. 4 : 9 :: 12 : X. and 12 is 27. X = 27.08 and 0. third proportional to 16 and 36 is 81. Sol: Let the fourth proportional to 4. So.3 Find the mean proportional between 0. 16 : 36 :: 36 : X So. 9. 1 Find the fourth proportional to 4.18 is. MP = = = 0.12 . Hence. Ex. Then.08 and 0.Ex. and 12 be X. so 4X = 9 * 12. that gives X = 81. Then. and 12. Sol: Let the third proportional to 16 and 36 be X. Ex.hence fourth proportional to 4. 9.18.

= Rs. so So.280.Ex. . Sol: Sum of ratio terms = (35 + 28 + 20) = 83. = Rs. 4 If x : y = 3 : 4. B. and C in the ratio of 35 : 28 : 20. B’s share = Rs. 392. 1162 among A. A’s share = Rs. = = Ex. 5 Divide Rs. 490. find (4x + 5y) : (5x – 2y) Sol: = . C’s share = Rs. = Rs.

quantity of alcohol = (4 * 2. So. Number of 50p. Then. Find the number of coins of each type. and 10p coins be 5x. 360.and 10p coins are 200. = 206. Then. = . amounting to Rs. 25p.206. Sol: Let the number of 50p. If 5 liters of water is added to the mixture.5. 50x + 45x + 8x = 4120. 9x. and 160 respectively.7 A bag contains 50p. Sol: Let the quantity of alcohol and water be 4x and 3x liters respectively. 6 A mixture contains alcohol and water in the ratio of 4 : 3. So. it gives x = 40. . 25p.5)liters = 10 liters. so we get x = 2. the ratio becomes 4 : 5. Find the quantity of alcohol in the given mixture. Ex.Ex. and 4x respectively. and 10p coins in the ratio of 5 : 9 : 4. 25p.

Then. is * )= . then A : B : C : D is____ Sol: A : B = 2 : 3. B : C = 4 : 5 and C : d =6 : 7. and C : D = 6 : 7 = (6 * ) : (7 * ) = : So. Ex. so x = ( * that does to . . A : B : C : D = 2 : 3 : : = 16 : 24 : 30 : 35. 8 If A : B = 2 : 3. 9 A fraction which bears the same ratio to equal to____ Sol: Let x : :: : . x * = * .Ex. B : C = 4 : 5 = (4 * ) : (5 * ) = 3 : .

So the ratio of time taken = : : = 12 : 15 : 10. 10 The speed of three cars are in the ratio 5 : 4 : 6.Ex. . The ratio between time taken by them to travel the same distance is____ Sol: Speed = .

y respectively for a year in a business. then equivalent capitals are calculated for a unit of time by taking (capital * number of units of time). Suppose A and B invests Rs. then ((A’s share of profit) : (B’s share of profit) = xp : yq.x for p months and B invests Rs.x and Rs. the gain or loss is distributed among the partners in he ratio of their investments. Now. (ii) When investments are for different time periods. 2. then at the end of the year: (A’s share of profit) : (B’s share of profit) = x : y.PARTERNERSHIP 1. Ratio of Division and Gains: (i) When investment of all the partners are for the same time. . gain and loss is divided in the ratio of these capitals. Partnership: When two or more than two persons run a business jointly. they are called partners and the deal is known as partnership. Suppose A invests Rs.y for q months.

20.56. and C started a business by investing Rs.1.000 and Rs. 16.800 B’s share = Rs.000 respectively. So. 16.700. 1 A. Find the share of each. (56700 * ) = Rs. Working and Sleeping Partners: A partner who manages the business is known as a working partner and the one who simply invests the money is a sleeping partner Ex. out of an annual profit of Rs. Rs. A’s share = Rs.1.35.000.800 C’s share = Rs. B.50.3. (56700 * ) = Rs. (56700 * ) = Rs.1. Sol: Ratio of shares of A. B and C = Ratio of their investments = 120000 : 135000 : 150000 = 8 : 9 : 10.800 . 16.

Ex. 2 Alfred started a business investing Rs. 45,000, After three months peter joined him with a capital of Rs.60,000. After 6 months, Ronald joined them with a capital of Rs.90,000. At the end of the year, they made a profit of Rs. 16,5000. Find the share of each. Sol: Clearly, Alfred invested his capital for 12 months, Peter for 9 months and Ronald for 3 months. So, ratio of their capitals = (45000*12) : (60000*9) : (90000*3) = 540000 : 540000 : 270000 = 2 : 2 : 1. Alfred’s share = RS. (165000 * ) = Rs.6600 Peter’s share = Rs. ( 165000 * ) = Rs.6600 and, Ronald’s share = Rs. ( 165000 * ) = Rs.6600

Ex. 3 A, B and C start a business each investing Rs.20,000. After 5 months A withdrew Rs.5000, B withdrew Rs.4000 and C invests RS.6000 more. At the end of the year, a total profit of Rs.69,900 was recorded. Find the share of each. Sol: Ratio of capitals of A, B and C = (20000*5+15000*7) : (20000*5+16000*7) : (20000*5+26000*7) = 205000 : 212000 : 282000 = 202 : 212 : 282 A’s share = Rs. ( 69900 * ) = RS.20,500; B’s share = Rs. ( 69900 * C’s share = Rs. ( 69900 * ) = RS.21,200; ) = RS.28,200.

Ex. 4 A, B and C entered into a partnership. A invests 3 times as much as B invests and B invests two-third of what C invests. At the end of the year, the profit earned is Rs.6600. What is the share of B? Sol: Let C’s capital = Rs.x. Then, B’s capital = Rs. x. So, A’s capital = Rs. 3 * x. = RS. 2x. Ratio of their capitals = 2x : x : x =6:2:3 Hence, B’s share = Rs. (6600 * ) = Rs.1200 Ex. 5 Four milkmen rented a pasture. A grazed 24 cows for 3 months, B 10 cows for 5 months, C 35 cows for 4 months and D 21 cows for 3 months. If A’s share of rent is Rs.720, find the total rent of the field. Sol: Ratio of shares of A, B, C and D = (24*3):(10*5):(35*4):(21*3)

simplifying it we will have x = 4. B.x. the total profit was divided between them in the ratio of 2 : 1. Hence.000. B joined him with Rs. Then. Hence. After few months . total rent of the field is Rs. . At the end of the year. Ex.000 in a business. 6 A invested Rs. After how many months did B join? Sol: Suppose B joined after x months. We have = 720 x = 3250. Then B’s money was invested for (12 – x) months.So.57.76. C.3250. = we get 912000 = 114000 (12 – x) . ratio of shares of A. So. A’s share = Rs. B joined after 4 months. D = 72 : 50 : 140 : 63 Let total rent be Rs.

000 B’s initial investment = 2x = Rs. (3x*36) : [(2x*12) + (2x+270000)*24] : [(4*24) + (4x+ 270000)*12] = 3 : 4 : 5 (given) So.2. B and C be Rs. Rs. After one year. also invests Rs.000 . Then.000.000 and C. 3x. 108x : (72x + 648000) : (144x + 324000) = 3 : 4 : 5 it gives.60. Find the initial investment of each. 2x and Rs. At the end of three years. Sol: Let the initial investments of A. 3.80.Ex. = . profits are shared in the ratio of 3 : 4 : 5.70. at the end of 2 years. simplifying it we will have x = 90000 Hence. B and C entered into a partnership by investing in the ratio of 3 : 2 : 4. 7 A. 4x respectively. A’s initial investment = 3x = Rs. B invests another Rs.2. 1.70.70.000 C’s initial investment = 4x = Rs. 2.

Indirect Proportion: Two quantities are said to be indirectly proportional. 2. Ex. Less is the time taken to finish a job) . Direct Proportion: Two quantities are said to be directly proportional. More Cost) Ex. 2. 1. if on the increase of the one. Time taken to finish a work is inversely proportional to the number of persons working at it. Cost is directly proportional to the number of articles.CHAIN RULE 1. (More speed. Work done is directly proportional to the number of men working on it. the other decreases to the same extent and vice-versa. Less is the time taken to cover a distance) Ex. (More persons. if on the increase ( or decrease) of the one. the other increases ( or decrease) to the same extent. The time taken by a car in covering a certain distance is inversely proportional to the speed of the car. Ex. 1. More Work) 2. (More Men. (More Articles.

15 * x = ( 36 * 25). what do 35 toys cost? Sol: Let the required cost be Rs. that gives x = 546. X. Ex. Then More toys. Ex. Then.546. More hours ( Indirect Proportion) So. 15 : 36 :: 25 : x. More Cost ( Direct proportion) So. Less men. Hence.Remark: In solving questions by chain rule. . Hence. 1 If 15 toys cost Rs. we compare every item with term to be found out. that gives x = 60. the cost of 35 toys is Rs. 2 If 36 men can do a piece of work in 25 hours. 15 men can do it in 60 hours. 15 : 35 :: 234 : x. 15 * x = ( 35 * 234). 234. in how many hours will 15 men do it? Sol: Let the required number of hours be x.

More wages (Direct Proportion) Less days. More men. then find the wages f 9 men for 12 days. Hence. Less wages (Direct Proportion) Men 6 : 9 Days 15 : 12 So. Sol: Let the required wages be Rs. . 2100. x = 2520. x. 3 If the wages of 6 men for 15 days be Rs. the required wages are Rs. (6 * 15 * x) = (9 * 12 * 2100) Simplifying it. x = . 2520.Ex.

Ex. Less length built (Direct Proportion) Men 20 : 35 Days 6 : 3 So. Less days ( Indirect Proportion) Less hours a day. the required length is 49m.Ex. More men. More length built (Direct Proportion) Less days. we get x = 49. More days ( Indirect Proportion) Men 18 : 15 Hours per day 8 : 9 . can reap a field in 16 days. More men. in how many days will 18 men reap the field. 4 If 20 men can build a wall be 56 meters long in 6 days. working 8 hours a day? Sol: Let the required number of days be x. what length of a similar wall can be built by 35 men in 3 days? Sol: Let the required length be x meters. working 9 hours a day. Hence. 5 If 15 men. (20 * 6 * x) = (35 * 3 *56).

Less men Less days. each working 8 hours a day. After 33 days. 6 A contract is to be completed in 46 days and 117 men were set to work. of the work is completed. Ex. Less work. we get x = 15. Let the total men working at it be x. Less men (Direct Proportion) (Indirect Proportion) (Indirect Proportion) . Remaining period = (46 – 33)days = 13 days. Hence. More men More Hrs/Day. the required number of days = 15. each men now working 9 hours a day? Sol: Remaining work = ( )= . How many additional men may be employed so that the work may be completed in time. (18 * 8 *x) = (15 * 9 * 16).So.

a reinforcement arrives and it was found that provisions will last 17 days more. when given at the rate of 825 gms head. ( * 13 * 9 * x) = * 33 * 8 * 117 . At the end of 7 days. What is the strength of the reinforcement? Sol: The Problem becomes: 3300 men taking 850 gms per head have provision for (32 – 7) or 25 days.Work Days Hrs/Day : 13 : 33 9: 8 So. How many men taking 825 gms each have provision for 17 days? . gives x = 198. when given at the rate of 850 gms per head. Hence. Ex. 7 A garrison of 3300 men had provision for 32 days. additional men to be required = (198 – 117) = 81.

825 * 17 * x = 850 * 25 * 3300 So. each running 13 hours a day. the strength of reinforcement = (5500 – 3300) = 1700. when each is working 8 hours a day . x = 5000. Hence. . Ex. four engines of latter type consume 1 unit in 1 hour. it being given that three engines of former type consume as much as 4 engines of latter type? Sol: Let three of former type consume 1 unit in 1 hour. More men (Indirect Proportion) Ration 825 : 850 Days 17 : 25 From this. 8 If 9 engines consume 24 metric tonnes of coal. More men (Indirect Proportion) Less days.Less ration per head. how much coal will be required for 8 engines. Then.

1 engine of former type consumes unit in 1 hour. More coal consumed (Direct Proportional) Less rate of consumption. Less coal consumed (Direct Proportional) More working hours. Less engines. . and 1 engine of latter type consumes unit in 1 hour. Less coal consumed (Direct Proportional) Number of engines 9:8 Working hours 8 : 13 :: 24 : x Rate of consumption : So. the required consumption of coal = 26 metric tonnes. (9 * 8 * * x) = (8 * 13 * * 24) Simplifying it.So. 24x = 624. and x = 26 Hence. Let the required consumption of coal be x units.

then A’s 1 day work = . Ratio of times taken by A and B to finish a work = 1 : 3. So.TIME AND WORK 1. If A’s 1 day’s work = . both A and B will finish the work in = 4 days. Ex. If A is thrice as good a workman as B. 3. B’s 1 hour’s work = . (A + B)’s 1 hour’s work = ( + ) = . then Ratio of work done by A and B = 3 : 1. working together but independently. How long it take both A and B. then A can finish the work in n days. 1 Worker A takes 8 hours to do a job. Worker B takes 10 hours to do the same job.If a can do a piece of work in n days. . to do the same job? Sol: A’s 1 hour’s work = . 2.

) = . A’s hour’s work = and B’s hour’s work = . in how many days can B alone complete that work? Sol: (A + B)’s 1 day’s work = and A’s 1 day’s work = . Hence. Ex. So. How long will they take to do it. working together 8 hours a day? Sol: A can complete the work in(7 * 9) = 63 hours. B alone can complete the work in days. B’s 1 day’s work = ( .Ex. B can complete the work in (6 * 7) = 42 hours. If A alone can complete the same work in 12 days. . So. 3 A can do a piece of work in 7 days of 9 hours each and B can do it in 6 days of 7 hours each. 2 A and B together can complete a piece of work in 4 days.

Number of days of 8 hrs each = * = 3 days. Adding. both will finish the work in hrs. A’s 1 day’s work = *(A + B + C)’s 1 day’s work+ – *(B + C)’s 1 day’s work+ = . So. Ex.(A + B)’s 1 hour’s work = ( + )= . (B + C)’s 1 day’s work = .= . (A + B + C)’s 1 day’s work = . A and C can do it in 36 days. and C finish it. B and C can do it in 24 days. Thus. B. working together and separately? Sol: (A + B)’s 1 day’s work = . B and C together can finish the work in 16 days. we get :2(A + B +c)’s 1 day’s work = ( + + ) = So. Now. 4 A and B can do a piece of work in 18 days. . and (A + C)’s 1 day’s work = . A. In how many will A.

So. And. Divide in the ratio 2 : 1. 5 A is twice as good a workman as B and together they finish a piece of work in 18 days. B’s 1 day’s work = = . B alone can finish the work in = days.= . (A + B)’s 1 day’s work = . C alone can finish the work in 144 days. In how many days will A alone finish the work? Sol: (A’s 1 day’s work) : (B’s 1 day’s work) = 2 : 1. C’s 1 day’s work = . Ex. . A alone can finish the work in 48 days. So. Similarly.So.

Remaining work = (1 . that gives 8x = 5 * 12 S.) = . A alone can finish the work in 27 days. 6 A can do a certain job in 12 days. Ex. 8 : 5 :: 12 : x.So. x = days. He works at it for 10 days and then B alone finishes the remaining work in 42 days. finish the work? Sol: Work done by A in 10 days = ( *10) = . . A’s 1 day’s work = * = . 7 A can do a piece of work in 80 days. In how much time will A and B. Hence. working together. Then. Ex. B is 60% more efficient than A. How many days does B alone take to do the same job? Sol: Ratio of times taken by A and B = 160 : 100 = 8 : 5 Suppose B alone takes x days to do the job.

A alone can do it in 6 days while B alone can do it in 8 days. So. 600.75. 300. Find the share of each. With the help of C.*600 – (300 + 225)] = Rs. A’s share = Rs. (600 * ) = Rs.Now. Hence. Ex. 8 A and B undertake to do a piece of work Rs. (600 * ) = Rs. A : B : C = Ratio of their 1 day’s work = : : A’s share = Rs. Whole work will be done by B in ( 42 * ) = 48 days. Sol: C’s 1 day’s work = = . A’s 1 day’s work = and B’s 1 day’s work = . 225. So. (A + B)’s 1 day’s work = ( + )= = . works is done by B in 42 days. . they finish it in 3 days. B’s share = Rs. both will finish the work in 30 days.

a beginning. 1 man’s 1 day’s work = . If they work for a day alternatively. Six days after they started working. Work is done by him in 1 day. 30 more men joined them.) = On 11th day. Ex. 10 45 men can complete a work in 16 days. . work is done by him in (9 * ) = day. So. total time taken = ( 10 + )days = 10 days.Ex. So. 9 A and B working separately can do a piece of work in 9 and 12 days respectively. in how many days. the work will be completed? Sol: (A + B)’s 2 day’s work = + = Work done in 5 pairs of days = (5 * ) = Remaining work = (1 . it is A’s turn. How many days will they now take to complete the remaining work? Sol: (45 * 16) men can complete the work in 1 day.

work is done by them in 1 day. = . work is done by them in ( * ) = 6 days. So. 75 men’s 1 day’s work = Now. .45 men’s 6 day’s work = Remaining work = ( 1 - *6= )= So.

emptying it. (iii) If a pipe can fill a tank in x hours and another pipe can empty the full tank in y hours (where y > x). then on opening both the pipes. .PIPES AND CISTERNS 1. Inlet : A pipe connected with a tank or a cistern or a reservoir. then : part emptied in 1 hour = . is known as an outlet. is known as an inlet. Outlet: A pipe connected with a tank or a cistern or a reservoir. that fills it. (ii) If a pipe can empty a full tank in y hours. 2. the net part filled in 1 hour = . then : part filled in 1 hour = . (i) If a pipe can fill a tank in x hours.

= . how much time will be taken to fill the tank? Sol: Part filled by A in 1 hour = . Part filled by (A + B) in 1 hour = Hence. 1 Two pipes A and B can fill a tank in 36 hours and 45 hours respectively. If both the pipes are opened simultaneously. Ex. Part filled by B in 1 hour = . the net part emptied in 1 hour = . . then on opening both the pipes.(iv) If a pipe can fill a tank in x hours and another pipe can empty the full tank in y hours (where x > y). both the pipes together will fill the tank in 20 hours.

3 If two pipes function simultaneously. Ex. in how much time will the tank be filled? Sol: Net part filled in 1 hour = = = So. One pipe fills the reservoir 10 hours faster than the other. If all the three pipes operate simultaneously. the reservoir will be filled in 12 hours. So. How many hours does it take the second pipe to fill the reservoir? Sol: Let the reservoir be filled by first pipe in x hours. = we will have = .Ex. the tank will be full in hours = 7 hrs 30 min. Then. second pipe will fill it in (x + 10) hours. 2 Two pipes can fill a tank in 10 hours and 12 hours respectively while a third pipe empties the full tank in 20 hours.

If the tank is full. simplifying it (x – 20) (x + 6) =0. . Ex. i. waste pipe will empty the full cistern in 10 minutes. how much time will the leak take to empty it? .14x – 120 = 0 .. How long will the waste pipe take to empty the full cistern? Sol: Work done by the waste pipe in 1 minute: = = [. 30 hrs to fill the reservoir.ve sign means emptying] So. 4 A cistern has two taps which fill it in 12 minutes and 15 minutes respectively. the empty cistern is full in 20 minutes. When all the three are opened. it took 3 hours to fill the tank.So. x = 20. Ex. Because of leak in the tank. so the second pipe will take (20 + 10) hrs.e. There is also a waste pipe in the cistern. 5 An electric pump can fill a tank in 3 hours.

6 Two pipes can fill a cistern in 14 hours and 16 hours respectively. the leak will empty the tank in 21 hours Ex.Sol: Work done by the leak in 1 hour = = = So. Work done by the leak in 1 hour = ( . work done by ( two pipes + leak ) in 1 hour = . So. time taken = 7 hrs 28 min + 32 min = 8 hrs So. in what time the leak empty it? Sol: Work done by the two pipes in 1 hour = = . the time taken by these pipes to fill the tank = = 7 hrs 28 min Due to leakage.)= . . The pipes are opened simultaneously and it is found that due to leakage in the bottom it took 32 minutes more to fill the cistern. When the cistern is full.

Ex. Net part filled in 1 min. leak will empty the full cistern in 112 hours. hence.So.) = . C is also opened. part is filled in 1 minute. A water pipe C can empty the tank in 30 minutes. remaining part = (1 . part is filled in (60 * ) = 39 min. the tank is full? Sol: Part filled in 7 minutes = = So. Now. . when A. B and C are opened = = . total time taken to fill the tank = (39 + 7)min = 46 min. First A and B are opened. After 7 minutes. In how much time. So. 7 Two pipes A and B can fill a tank in 36 minutes and 45 minutes respectively.

Simplifying it. Then. 8 Two pipes A and B can fill a tank in 24 min. after how much time B should be closed so that the tank is full in 18 minutes? Sol: Let B be closed after x minutes. 7x + 4 (18 – x) = 96 So. part filled by (A + B) in x min + part filled by A in (18 – x) min = 1. we have = 1. B must be closed after 8 minutes. If both the pipes are opened simultaneously.Ex . So. and 32 min. x = 8 Hence. respectively. . x ( ) + (18 – x) * = 1.

x m/sec = (x * . Time = ) m/sec ) km/hr . If the ratio of the speeds of A and B is a : b. the average speed during the whole journey is km/hr. . then the ratio of the times taken by them to cover the same distance is or b : a. 5. Then. X km/hr =(x * 3.Suppose a man covers a certain distance at x km/hr and an equal distance at y km/hr. Distance = 4.TIME AND DISTANCE 1. Speed = 2.

2 A cyclist covers a distance of 750 m in 2 min 30 sec. time taken to cover 400 m = ( 400 * =1 . 1 How many minutes does Aditya takes to cover a distance of 400 m. .Ex. What is the speed in km/hr of the cyclist? Sol: Speed = m/sec = 5 m/sec = 5* km/hr = 18 km/hr. if he runs at a speed of 20 km/hr? Sol: Aditya’s speed = 20 km/hr = ( 20 * ) m/sec = m/sec So. ) sec = 72 sec = 1 min Ex.

So. a man noticed that after walking for 1 hour and 40 minutes. . 16 : 15. What was his speed in meters per second? Sol: Let the speed be x km/hr. distance covered in 1 hr.Ex. Compare their distance. Then. 4x = y. 3x = 4y. ratio of speed of dogs and hare = ratio of distance covered by them in the same time = 4x : 5y = y : 5y . 45 min. 1 hrs = km. 3 A dog takes 4 leaps for every 5 leaps of a hare but 3 leaps of a dog are equal to 4 leaps of the hare. 4 While covering a distance of 24 km. i.. so x = y so.e. Then. the distance covered by him was of the remaining distance. it gives. Ex. Sol: Let the distance covered in 1 leap of the dog be x and that covered in 1 leap of the hare be y.

So. we have x = 6. Ex. Find the total distance. Hence. Simplifying it. 24 min.Remaining distance = ( ) km. . speed = 6 km/hr = ( 6 * ) m/sec = 1 m/sec. 5 Peter can cover a certain distance in 1 hr. Then. = . simplifying it. Sol: Let the total distance be x km. = . x = 6. by covering two-third of the distance at a 4 kmph and the rest at 5 kmph. we have 7x = 42 So. Hence. the total distance = 6 km.

distance of the post-office from the village = = 20km.e. If the whole journey took 5 hours 48 minutes. Sol: Let each side of the square be x km and let the average speed of the plane around the field be y kmph. So. 400. 6 A man traveled from the village to post office at the rate of 25 kmph and walked back at the rate of 4 kmph. Sol: Average speed = ( ) km/hr = = km/hr Distance travelled in 5 hours and 48 minutes i. .Ex. Ex.7 An aeroplane flies along the fur sides of a square at the speed of 200.5 hrs =( * ) km = 40 km. find the distance of the post office from the village. Then. Find the average speed of the plane around the field. 600 and 800 kmph..

9 If a man walks at the rate of 5 kmph. a train is 10 minutes too late. Ex. if he walks at the rate of 6 kmph. = . he reaches 5 minutes before the arrival of train. Find the distance covered by him to reach the station. Hence. average speed = 384 km/hr. he misses a train by 7 minutes.So. new time taken = of the usual time So. ( of the usual time) – (usual time) = 10 min. of the usual time = 10 min Hence. 8 Walking at of its usual speed. However. Sol: New speed = of the usual speed So. y=( ) = 384. usual time = 50 min. . Ex. Find its usual time to cover the journey.

Hence. A train starts from A at 10 a.m. and travel towards B at 65 kmph.. So.m. At what time do they meet? Sol: Suppose they meet x hours after 10 a. . they meet 4 hrs. Then.e.m.ti gives x = 4 . Another train starts from B at 11 a. we have x = 6.m.Sol: Let the required distance be x km. i. the required distance is 6 km. 65x + 35 (x – 1) = 390. 10 A and B are two stations 390 km apart. (Distance moved by first in x hours) + [Distance moved by second in (x . hr. Ex. Simplifying. Hence. Difference in the times taken at two speeds = 12 min = So.1) hrs] = 390. and travels towards A at 35 kmph. at 2:15 p. 15 min after 10 a.m.

an express train leaves the same station and moves in the same direction at a uniform speed of 90 kmph. Find the speed of the goods train. Distance covered by goods train in 10 hours = Distance covered by express train in 4 hours. Sol: Let the speed of the goods train be x kmph. After 6 hours. So. 10x = 4 * 90 or x = 36. speed of goods train = 36 kmph. 11 A goods train leaves a station at a certain time and at a fixed speed.Ex. So. . This train catches up the goods train in 4 hours.

the thief covers a distance of ( )km = 400m. Hence. When the policeman starts the chase. but time taken to walk 2x km = 55 min. How long would it take me to ride both ways Sol: Let the distance be x km. (Time taken to walk 2x km) + (Time taken to ride 2x km) =74min. Time taken by policeman to cover 100 m = In hrs. 12 A thief is spotted by a policeman from a distance of 100 meters. how far the thief will have run before he is overtaken? Sol: Relative speed of the policeman = (10 – 8) km/hr = 2 km/hr. If the speed of the be 8 km/hr and that of the policeman 10 km/hr. 13 I walk a certain distance and ride back talking a total time of 37 minutes. Ex.Ex. So. . I could walk both ways in 55 minutes. the thief also starts running. time taken to ride 2x km = (74 – 55) min = 19 min. (Time taken to walk x km) + (Time taken to ride x km) = 37 min.

To be 47. they take ( ) hrs = hrs. they take 1 hour. we get x = 400. Ex. simplifying it. 15 Two train start from P and Q respectively and travel towards each other at a speed of 50 km/hr and 40 km/hr respectively. 14 Two cyclists start from the same place in opposite direction. What time will they take to be 47. So. By the time they meet. distance covered by the first train is (x + 100) km. So. Then. The distance between P and Q is____ Sol: At the time of meeting. One goes towards north at 18 kmph and the other goes towards south at 20 kmph.5 km apart. let the distance travelled by the second train be x km. . distance between P and Q = (x + x + 100) km = 900km.Ex. .5 km apart? Sol: To be (18 + 20) km apart. the first train has travelled 100 km and more than the second.

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