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Concept took credence in the 1980s
No consensus on the concept till today Effect of marketing inputs to a ‘Brand’ that are uniquely attributable to it and distinguishes it from product or service not branded

Marketers know strong brands are important but aren’t always sure how to build one CBBE model was designed to be:
o Comprehensive o Cohesive o Well-grounded o Up-to-date o Actionable
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Basic premise: Power of a brand resides in the minds of customers Challenge: Ensure customers have right set of experiences with products & services and their marketing programs to create the right brand knowledge structures:
1 2 3 4 5
• Thoughts • Feelings • Images • Perceptions • Attitudes
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 Building strong brand involves a series of steps as part of a “branding ladder” Strong brand is also characterized by a logically constructed set of brand “building blocks” o Identifies areas of strength and weakness o Provides guidance to marketing activities 5  .

RELATIONSHIPS = RESONANCE What about you & me? 3. RESPONSE = JUDGMENTS FEELINGS What about you? PERFORMANCE IMAGERY 2. IDENTITY = Who are you? 6 .4. MEANING = What are you? SALIENCE 1.

 Depth of brand awareness o Ease of recognition & recall o Strength & clarity of category membership  Breadth of brand awareness o Purchase consideration o Consumption consideration 7 .

Style and Design Price Service Effectiveness. Durability and Serviceability Primary Characteristics & Supplementar y Features 8 . Efficiency and Empathy Product Reliability.

etc. User profiles o Demographic & psychographic  Personality & values o Sincerity o Excitement o Competence o Sophistication o Ruggedness characteristics o Group perceptions – popularity  Purchase & usage situations o Type of channel. heritage. ease of purchase o Time (day. year. specific  History. week. month. and context of usage 9 .). location. & experiences o Nostalgia o Memories stores.

Quality • • Value Satisfaction Credibility • • Expertise Trustworthiness • Likeability Consideration • Relevance Superiority • Differentiation 10 .

      Warmth Fun Excitement Security Social approval Self-respect       Calm/peace Upbeat/amused/joyous Cheerful/elation Safe/self assured Belonging Sense of pride/accomplishment 11 .

o Seek information “a little pleasure”) o Proud of brand o Join club o Visit web site. Behavioral loyalty o Frequency & amount of repeat  Sense of community o Kinship o Affiliation purchases  Attitudinal attachment  Active engagement o Love brand (favorite possessions. chat rooms 12 .

ConsumerBrand Resonance Consumer Judgments Consumer Feelings INTENSE. BROAD BRAND AWARENESS 13 . ACTIVE LOYALTY RATIONAL & EMOTIONAL REACTIONS Brand Performance Brand Imagery POINTS-OFPARITY & POINTSOF-DIFFERENCE Brand Salience DEEP.

LOYALTY ATTACHMENT COMMUNITY ENGAGEMENT QUALITY CREDIBILITY CONSIDERATION SUPERIORITY WARMTH FUN EXCITEMENT SECURITY SOCIAL APPROVAL SELF-RESPECT PRIMARY CHARACTERISTICS & SECONDARY FEATURES PRODUCT RELIABILITY. DURABILITY & SERVICEABILITY SERVICE EFFECTIVENESS. HERITAGE & EXPERIENCES CATEGORY IDENTIFICATION NEEDS SATISFIED 14 . EFFICIENCY & EMPATHY STYLE AND DESIGN PRICE USER PROFILES PURCHASE & USAGE SITUATIONS PERSONALITY & VALUES HISTORY.

  Key to creating brand equity Consists of a brand node in memory with variety of associations linked to it Includes two components: o Brand awareness and o Brand image  .

and unique brand associations . favorable. Brand awareness o Brand recognition o Brand recall  Brand image o Strong.

 Learning advantages o Register the brand in the minds of consumers Consideration advantages o Likelihood that the brand will be a member of the consideration set Choice advantages o Affect choices among brands in the consideration set   .

 Increase familiarity through repeated exposure (for brand recognition)  Forging strong associations with appropriate product category or other relevant purchase or consumption cues (for brand recall) .

 Customer-brand relationships are the foundation of brand resonance and building a strong brand  Customer-based brand equity model certainly puts that notion front and center .

 Is the company looking for ways to take care of you?  Does the company know its customers well enough to differentiate between them?  Is someone accountable for customers?  Is the company managed for shareholder value?  Is the company testing new customer offers and learning from the results? .

 Customers drive the success of brands but brands are the necessary touch point that firms have to connect with their customers Customer-based brand equity maintains that brands create value by eliciting differential customer response to marketing activities The higher price premiums and increased levels of loyalty engendered by brands generate incremental cash flows   .

  Identification of the brand Establish the totality of brand meaning in the minds of consumers Elicit the proper customer responses Convert brand response to create loyalty   .

  Devices that help differentiate and identify brand Examples include – o Urls o logos o slogans o jingles o packages o signage o Characters o spokespeople  Used to build strong associations and differentiations for your Brand .

Memorability  Building stronger brand equity is correlated to stronger levels of brand awareness Brand elements facilitating this help aid recall and recognition when the brand is under consideration or is in the purchase stage  .

and nature of the product that builds Brand awareness and salience o Specific nature of the product attributes and benefits which build Brand image and positioning  .Meaningfulness  Two types of meanings: o Descriptive or o Persuasive content Important areas to consider: o General information about the category.

Likeability  Do consumers find the brand Aesthetically appealing?  Descriptive and Persuasive elements must form a part of the Marketing package .

 How robust are the Brand elements for Line or category extension?  Can it be transferred across segments and geographies? .

 How adaptable are the Brand elements in keeping up with the consumer and changing values and times? Can logos and properties be made more contemporary without changing the Brand value?  .

 Take care to protect brand elements legally across International boundaries Register important brand elements with legal bodies Defend all trademarks from infringement   .

 To enhance strong brand building one can choose elements to build unique associations with brand: o Brand names o Slogans o URL’s o Logos and symbols o Brand Characters o Jingles .

likeable. meaningful. transferable Protection proof Adaptable . Must be like brand elements    Memorable.

pronounce and should be unique and distinctive Better if can be reinforced a benefit or an attribute Shortlisted. Name easy to understand. studied and perhaps researched with target consumers before used   .

 URL’s also called Domain names specify the location of pages on the web Company can buy the name from a current owner or can register all possible variants and can sue in case of infringements  .

lines . Company logos . slogans.symbols.abstracts and words are all critical in Brand building and create that all important Brand world leading up to its equity  . corporate names and activities can be registered and trademarked Designs.

 Brand Characters are properties unique to the brand. and make the consumer easily identify the brand If the character is infused with the attributes and benefits the marketer wants to portray it’s in the best interest of equity creation e.g. which distinguish it. o Ronald McDonald o MRF muscleman o Pillsbury doughboy   .

They are short phrases or words put together to efficiently convey information about the brand If a slogan catches on with the consumer base it’s very beneficial to the Brand E. Slogans can be descriptive or persuasive.g: o Incredible India o Just 2 minutes o The tyres with muscle o Taste the thunder o Youngistan   .

which are intended as catchy tunes or short closure lines which create reminder value in the consumers mind Popular jingles quickly build Equity   E. o Britannia sign off tune o Airtel tune . Jingles are words set to music.g.

and plays the role of a reminder  . Packaging is very important to convey descriptive and persuasive material about the brand  Attractive packaging often makes consumers impulse purchase or change their mind about their planned choice at the point of purchase Packaging sometimes stays on in the home after the product is consumed.

Brand Identity .

If it manages to do that it created Stronger Brand Equity .