# BY PRESENTATION Deeksha Porwal on (M.TECH.

) (MANUFACTURING SCIENCE Physical Modelling &

TECHNOLOGY)

. Objective is the desired state or outcome which the system is attempting to achieve.THE CONCEPT OF A SYSTEM  A system is:- A set of components which are related by some form of interaction and which act together to achieve some objective or purpose. Components are the individual parts or elements that collectively make up the system.

people Attribute :   Entities : Attributes: Elevators – capacity.ENTITIES ATTRIBUTES AND ACTIVITIES    Entity Activity system Example : : : object of interest in the system property of an entity process that causes change in An Elevator System Elevators. current location of each elevator . speed. destination.

destination of each people....Entities Attributes Continue. Activities  Load/Unloading  Travel passenger to next floor (speed and distance)  Persons travel to elevator .   People – inter-arrival time at each floor...

 Endogenous : activities occurring within the system.SYSTEM ENVIRONMENT It can be defined as:A system is often affected by changes occurring outside the system.  Closed system :for which there is no exogenous activity. Such changes occurring outside the system are said to occur in system environment.  Exogenous : activities in the environment that affect the system. Some system activities may also produce changes that do not react on the system.  Open system : which does have exogenous activity. .

Example: Environment of a business system .

and not abruptly from one state to another (infinite number of states). These points in time are the ones at which the event occurs/change in state.CONTINUOUS AND DISCRETE SYSTEMS  Continuous System: The state variables change in a continuous way.  Discrete System: The state variables change only at a countable number of points in time.  .

SALES OF A CERTAIN PRODUCT OVER TIME .

Nonlinear systems may have many equilibrium points . Any system that does not satisfy these properties is nonlinear.LINEAR AND NON LINEAR SYSTEMS Linear systems satisfy the properties of superposition and homogeneity. Linear systems have one equilibrium point at the origin.

in that a system's subsequent state is determined both by the process's predictable actions and by a random element. •Stochastic activity is one whose behavior cannot be entirely predicted i.. non-deterministic. the activity is said to be stochastic.e. .STOCHASTIC ACTIVITY •When the effects of activity vary randomly over various possible outcomes.

TYPES OF MODELS MODELS PHYSICAL MATHEMATICAL STATIC DYNAMIC STATIC DYNAMIC NUMERICAL ANALYTICAL NUMERICAL SYSTEM SIMULATION .

• everything occurs in a single interval.STATIC AND DYNAMIC MODELS A static model:• takes a single snapshot of a situation. . • state variable change over time. Dynamic models are:• time dependent.

.  Block represents a part of a system that depends upon few input variables and results in output variables.PRINCIPLES OF MODELLING Block Building-: the description of the system should be organised in a series of blocks. Relevance-: Only those aspects of the system that are relevant to objectives of studies should be included in the model.  The system may be described as the interconnection between the blocks.

. Aggregation-: A further factor to be considered to which the number of individual entities can be group together into lager entity.... Accuracy-: The accuracy of the information gathered for the model should be considered..Principles of Modelling Continue. .

 Construct theory or hypothesis that account for the observed behaviour.BASIC SIMULATION MODELLING Simulation Modelling is therefore an experimental and applied methodology which seeks to-:  Describe the behaviour of the system.  Use these theories to predict future behaviour i.e. the effects that will be produced changes in the system or in its method of operation. .

 Step 11.  Step 5.  Step 8. Interpret and present results.  Step 7. Document model for future use.  Step 3. Establish experimental conditions for runs. . Formulate the problem.  Step 10. Select appropriate experimental design. Recommend further course of action. Validate the model.  Step 9. Collect and process real system data. Identify the problem.  Step 6.  Step 2. Formulate and develop a model.The steps involved in simulation analysis are-:  Step 1.  Step 4. Perform simulation runs.

Alternative proposed system designs can be compared via simulation to see which best meets a specified requirement. Relatively straight forward and flexible. Simulation allows one to estimate the performance of an existing system under some projected set of operating conditions. We can maintain much better control over experimental conditions than would generally be possible when experimenting with the system itself. .ADVANTAGES OF SIMULATION      Most complex. real-world systems with stochastic elements can be investigated.