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Capsule camera

By R.V.V GEETA PRIYANKA 09MD1A0449


DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION

Rajamahendri Institute of Engineering & Technology Rajahmundry

INTRODUCTION:

capsule camera is also known as pill cam An embedded system is some combination of computer hardware and software, either fixed in capability or programmable, which is specifically designed for a particular kind of application device. Capsule camera is one of those. Here a technique called capsule endoscopy is used which allows us to see places inside the small bowel where other methods cannot reach. Capsule camera is a camera with the size and shape of a pill. It contains a miniature camera, battery, light, computer chip and wireless transmitter.

EARLIER METHOD:

Earlier method used a fiber which is inserted into the digestive track. It consists of three tubes.

A light emitting fiber Tube: A fiber that carries out images to physician. A Fiber Tube:Used for administration of drugs and holding the brush or
incisor.

Instrumentation Tube: For removing damaged body tissues.

DISADVANTAGES OF EARLIER METHODS:


PHYSICAL:
Inexperienced handling of endoscope can lead to punctured organs with variable effects.

SEDATION:
Over sedation results in low blood pressure and vomiting.

DYES:
Contrast agents used for imaging can cause allergic reaction. Harmful to kidneys and renal infections etc.

REVOLUTION IN ENDOSCOPY:

In 1981, an Israeli physician, Dr. Gavriel Iddan, began development of a video camera that would fit inside a pill. Technology was not ready and the idea was put on hold. It took 20 years for technology to catch up with Dr. Iddan. In 2001, the FDA approved the given Diagnostic Imaging System. This may sound like science fiction, but this 11 x 26 mm capsule weighs only 4gms (about 1/7th of an ounce) and contains a colour video camera and wireless radiofrequency transmitter, LED lights, and enough battery power to take 50,000 color images during an 8-hour journey through the digestive tract.

DESCRIPTION OF CAPSULE CAMERA:


Optical dome -It helps to increase the viewable
surface area of the camera.

Lens holder- It is placed in between the dome and the


lens, which helps to keep the lens in its proper position.

Lens- The most vital component of the camera which is


responsible for the picture capturing.

CMOS-This is the component that helps in the storage


of the pictures taken by the Pill Cam. inside the body.

BATTERY-The key for the working of the Pill Cam

Procedure for capsule endoscopy:

A person must fast for 10 hours prior to undergoing capsule endoscopy for the small intestine, but can eat four hours after swallowing the capsule. Wire leads with sensors on the end are affixed to the patient's abdomen and connected to a data-recording device worn on a belt around the waist. The Pill Cam takes about eight hours to move through the small intestine, taking two pictures per second with its single camera. During this time, the person can leave the doctor's office and go about a regular routine while wearing the sensors and recorder. Later, the person returns to hand over the sensors and data recorder. The physician downloads about 50,000 color images into a computer, which compresses them to form a video.

CHALLENGE TO USING CAPSULE ENDOSCOPY FOR COLONOSCOPY:


There are many challenges but most of them are solved. Currently the capsule acquires the images for 8 hrs and expires. It should move about 24 to 48 hrs for complete examination. So a very effective timed colon is required to speed up.

BENEFITS OVER TRADITIONAL ENDOSCOPY:


1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

Little discomfort Does not require sedation Eliminates potential sedation related cardiopulmonary complications Offers a simple, safe and less invasive alternative Patient satisfaction Ease of ingestion Comfort during procedure Convenience Immediate recovery Preferred by patient over traditional endoscopy

CAPSULE ENDOSCOPE TECHNOLOGY:


(1) Technology of capsule endoscope: Compact, low power-consumption imaging technology, wireless Transmission technology. (2) Wireless power supply system: Eliminates constraints on operating time and energy levels.

LIMITATIONS OF CAPSULE CAMERA:


(1) A physician cannot stop the cameras progress to change the angle or take a prolonged look when it nears suspicious areas. (2) There is no air insufflation pumping in air to open up intestinal folds for examination.

Conclusion:
The development of wireless capsule endoscopy has changed video endoscopy of the small intestine into a much less invasive and more complete examination. The increasing use of these resources and the comfort and ease with which some of these examinations can be performed makes it likely that wireless capsule video imaging will have a substantial impact on the management of small intestinal disease as well as other parts of the body.

QUERIES