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Gasoline Direct Injection
SHIV RAJ KHOJA 8th SEM MECHANICAL
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Introduction Transition of fuel supply Major Objectives of the GDI engine The difference between new GDI and current MPI Basic technical features of GDI Engine Operation Major characteristics of the GDI engine Achievements in GDI Disadvantage Conclusion
The petrol/gasoline is highly pressurised. and injected via a common rail fuel line directly into the combustion chamber of each cylinder. gasoline direct injection is a variant of fuel injection employed in modern two. as opposed to conventional multi-point fuel injection that happens in the intake tract.INTRODUCTION In internal combustion engines. .and fourstroke petrol engines. or cylinder port.
Transition of fuel supply .
Major Objectives of the GDI engine Superior power to conventional MPI engines Ultra-low fuel consumption that betters that of even diesel engines WHY NOT CARBURETTOR? Carburetor has following disadvantages •Vapour lock •Perfect air/fuel mixture cannot be obtained •Lack of throttle response •Low volumetric efficiency •Mechanical device •Compromises on emission .
.Why The GDI ? Advantages of GDI Engines are: • Lower Fuel Consumption and More Output •Improved Volumetric Efficiency •Very efficient intake and relatively high compression ratio deliver both high performance and response •Lower octane requirement •More precise air-fuel ratio control •More rapid starting •Reduced CO2 emissions •Improved transient response.
through the exhaust port. at the bottom of the piston stroke. and fuel is not injected until the piston rises and all ports are closed . unburned. the exhaust and intake ports are both open at the same time. With direct injection.In two-stroke engines The benefits of direct injection are even more pronounced in two-stroke engines. A large portion of the fuel/air mixture entering the cylinder from the crankcase through the intake ports goes directly out. In conventional two-strokes. because it eliminates much of the pollution they cause. only air comes from the crankcase.
•In GDI. . the fuel is injected to each intake port •In MPI engines there are limits to fuel supply response and the combustion control because the fuel mixes with air before entering the cylinder. gasoline is directly injected into the cylinder as in a diesel engine •The injection timings are precisely controlled to match load conditions.The difference between new GDI and current MPI •In MPI or Multi-Point Injection.
The High Pressure Swirl Injector. The Curved-top Piston. The High Pressure Fuel Pump.Basic technical features of GDI Engine The Upright Straight Intake Port. .
• The Electronic control unit coordinates the different torque parameters according to the position of the accelerator pedal and undertakes the necessary control actions in the engine. .Operation • Fuel is delivered to the fuel rail by the high-pressure pump • A closed control loop comprising the fuel pressure sensor. pressure control valve and electronic control unit controls the pressure of the hydraulic system individually for all operating points.
Engine Diagram .
fuel injection occurs at the latter stage of the compression stroke and ignition occurs at an ultra-lean air-fuel ratio of 30 to 40 .Major characteristics of the GDI engine 1. In this mode. Ultra-lean Combustion Mode Under most normal driving conditions. the GDI engine operates in ultra-lean combustion mode for less fuel consumption. up to speeds of 120km/h.
This optimizes combustion by ensuring a homogeneous. cooler air-fuel mixture that minimized the possibility of engine knocking. Superior Output Mode When the GDI engine is operating with higher loads or at higher speeds. .2. fuel injection takes place during the intake stroke.
In-cylinder Airflow The GDI engine has upright straight intake ports rather than horizontal intake ports used in conventional engines. which redirects the airflow into a strong reverse tumble for optimal fuel injection .3. The upright straight intake ports efficiently direct the airflow down at the curved-top piston.
Fuel Spray Newly developed high-pressure swirl injectors provide the ideal spray pattern to match each engine operational modes. they enable sufficient fuel atomization that is mandatory for the GDI even with a relatively low fuel pressure of 50kg/cm2 .4. And at the same time by applying highly swirling motion to the entire fuel spray.
and has an important role in maintaining a compact air fuel mixture. which is injected late in the compression stroke. Optimized Configuration of the Combustion Chamber The curved-top piston controls the shape of the air-fuel mixture as well as the airflow inside the combustion chamber.5. is carried toward the spark plug before it can disperse. . The mixture.
Compared to conventional engines. . Moreover.Realization of lower fuel consumption •Fuel Consumption during Idling The GDI engine maintains stable combustion even at low idle speeds. it offers greater flexibility in setting the idle speed. its fuel consumption during idling is 40% less.
•Fuel Consumption during Cruising Drive At 40km/h. for example. the GDI engine uses 35% less fuel than a comparably sized conventional engine .
which occurs in the cylinder at a late stage of the compression stroke. And the vaporization of fuel.Realization of Superior Output •Improved Volumetric Efficiency Compared to conventional engines. cools the air for better volumetric efficiency. The upright straight intake ports enable smoother air intake. . the GDI engine provides better volumetric efficiency.
•Increased Compression Ratio The cooling of air inside the cylinder by the vaporization of fuel minimizes engine knocking. and thus improve combustion efficiency. . This allows a high compression ratio of 12.
Achievements . the GDI engine provides approximately 10% greater output and torque at all speeds.• Engine performance Compared to conventional MPI engines of a comparable size.
•Vehicle Acceleration In high-output mode. The following chart compares the performance of the GDI engine with a conventional MPI engine . the GDI engine provides outstanding acceleration.
Disadvantage Complexity and Cost : Direct injection systems are more expensive to build because their components must be more rugged -.they handle fuel at significantly higher pressures than indirect injection systems and the injectors themselves must be able to withstand the heat and pressure of combustion inside the cylinder. .
In many respects. .Conclusion Gasoline direct injection (GDI) engine technology has received considerable attention over the last few years as a way to significantly improve fuel efficiency without making a major shift away from conventional internal combustion technology. GDI technology represents a further step in the natural evolution of gasoline engine fueling systems.
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