energy conversion and rural electrification

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energy conversion and rural electrification

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Introduction to Hydropower Definition of Hydropower History of Hydropower World Hydropower Resources Hydropower Potential in Ethiopia Hydropower basics Factors Determining Potential of Hydropower Concept of Plant factor Classification of Hydroelectric Power Plants Advantages/Disadvantages of Hydropower

Introduction to Hydropower

Like most other renewable energies, water power is indirect forms of solar energy Hydropower is already one of the major contributors to worlds power supply from renewable energy This chapter explains the main principle of electricity generation from hydropower The general overview of large-scale and small-scale hydropower is given in this chapter.

Definition of Hydropower

energy of moving or stored water, that can be harnessed for useful purposes Hydropower plants convert the kinetic energy contained in falling water or the potential energy contained in stored water into electricity Water is going through a turbine which converts the water's energy into mechanical power. The rotation of the water turbines is transferred to a generator which produces electricity

Mechanical Turbine energy Torque & Speed Coupling Electrical EE Generator V,I

3

History of Hydropower

It has been thousands years that human harnessing

water to perform work For many centuries, hydropower had been used to produced mechanical power to perform a range of activities, including grain milling, textile processing and other light industrial operations. A great part of the industrial revolution in the 18th century was fueled by access to hydropower

The leading countries in the hydroelectric power generation are Canada, Brazil and the United States

Contd

The largest hydroelectric complex on the world is three gorges dam in china with installed capacity of 22000 MW Some examples of worlds largest Hydroelectric plants which are over 4000 MW capacity are given on the table The largest hydropower plant in Ethiopia is renaisance dam with generation capacity of 5200 MW

Contd

Regional distribution of hydropower potential (light green areas with a water surplus of >300mm/year) Hydroelectric power is very important for national development, energy security, food production, and reducing deforestation The demand is growing day by day, large industries are being built all over the country For instance there are at least 4 or 5 cement factories being built and many more are on the pipe line. There is also significant expansion of mining, metal, sugar and other industries that need big power supply. Urbanization and small industries are also growing fast. All these will increase the demand and the gap between the demand and supply cannot be easily bridged

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Contd

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Hydropower basics

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Contd

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The amount of energy available in a stored water is the product of the weight times the height that the water falls E = W = mgh, m = v E = vgh [Joules] Where: m = mass of water = density of water = 1000 kg/m3 v = volume of water m3 h = height of water fall (m) g = acceleration due to gravity = 9.806 m/s2

= gh(dv)/dt

Where: Q = dv/dt water flow rate m3/s

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Contd

The power at the out put of the turbine is

P = g H Q t Watts = water density = 1000 kg/m3 g = gravitational const. = 9.81 m/s2 H = head (m) Q = water flow (m3/s) t = turbine efficiency There fore The power at the out put of the generator is Pactual = g H Q t g Watts Where: g = generator efficiency

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Contd

As a rough guide for hydroelectric installations (i.e. with t = 0.85, and g = 0.96), the following relationship can be used: PGen = 8Qh kw With different values for turbine and generator efficiencies the following approximations can also be used PGen = 8.2Qh PGen = 8.5Qh kw or kw

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Converted Energy

We know the available stored energy in the water is E = mgh = vgh = Kgh (Joule) If the useful volume of water K m3 is known (e.g. the capacity of a reservoir, annual discharge, etc.) is known, the converted energy is E = 1000 K H tg * 1000 Ws 102 E = 1000 K H tg * 1000 Wh 102*3600 E = 1000 K H tg KWh 102*3600 E = Using the approximation 1000tg/102 8, then E 0.0022KH KWh Hence electrical energy generated for every m3 of water used is 16 E / K 0 . 0022H KWh/m3

Example 1

a. The net useful power in a hydroelectric power plant (HEPP) can be computed by setting

P (kW) = 9.81QHd

if the approximate power calculations are to be set as P(kW) = 8.5 QH P(kW) = 8.2 QH and P(kW) = 8.0 QH i. Calculate values of for each approximation ii. Explain also why and when different values of are to be considered in estimating the net power in a given hydroelectric power plant. b. By choosing and justifying an appropriate expression from those given above, calculate P given the following values of discharge rates and heads for an HEPP, respectively (i) 2.1m3s-1 and 25m (ii) 5.8 m3s-1, and 10m (iii) 10 m3s-1 and 100m (iv) 3 units, with 7.3m3s-1 per unit and 600m (v) 61.6 m3s-1 and 300m (vi) 105.4 m3s-1 and 48m 17 3s-1 per unit and 200m (vii) 3 units, with 41.5 m

a) i. Net power = approximate power 9.81QHd = 8.5 QHd = 8.5/9.81 = 0.866 = 8.2/9.81 = 0.836 = 8.0/9.81 = 0.8155 ii. Depending on the amount of gross head and flow rate we can use different approximations b) By choosing and justifying an appropriate expression from those given above, calculate P given the following values of discharge rates and heads for an HEPP respectively i. 2.1m3s-1 and 25m P = 8.0 QH = 8*2.1*25 = 420 kW ii. 5.8 m3s-1, and 10m P = 8.0 QH = 8.0*5.8*10 = 464 kW

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Contd

iii. 10 m3s-1 and 100m

P = 8.5 QH = 8.5*10*100 = 1850 kW iv) 3 units, with 7.3m3s-1 per unit and 600m P = 8.5 QH P = 8.5*7.3*600 = 37230 = 37.23MW Total Power = 3*37230 =111.69MW (v) 61.6 m3s-1 and 300m P = 8.0* 61.6* 300 = 147.840 MW (vi) 105.4 m3s-1 and 48m P = 8.0*QH = 8.0*105.4*48 = 40.4736 MW (vii) 3 units, with 41.5 m3s-1 per unit and 200m P = 8.0*QH = 8.0*41.5*200 = 66.4 MW Total Power = 3*66.4 = 199.2 MW

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Assignment II

1. For each of the following water reservoirs of HEPPs with estimated storage capacities K in cubic meters (m3), and gross heads H in meters(m), calculate the gross available energy in Gigawatt hours (GWh) or kilowatt-watt hours(kWh) (a) K = 1680 x 106 m3 and H = 42 m (b) K = 2.3 x 106 m3 and H = 59 m (c) K = 625 x 106 m3 and H = 550m

2. Continuously 12 hours per day In a 770kw HEEP ,180m3 of water passes through the turbine each minute. a. Assuming complete conversion of waters initial gravitational potential energy to electrical energy, through what head does the water fall? b. Taking turbine and generator efficiency as 0.85 and 0.95, respectively ,again through what head does the water fall? c. Calculate the specific water consumption per kWh if the plant 20 to be operated

P (kW) = gQHd The factors which affects the potential of hydropower are the following Head and head losses Flow rate System losses Component inefficiencies

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Contd

Head

Head is one of the factors which have great influence on the system capacity. In any real system water losses its some energy because of frictional drag and turbulence as it flows in channels and through pipes and the effective head will be less than actual head. These flow losses vary from system to system: in some cases the effective head can be less than 75% of actual head, in others it can be greater than 95% For example: Two systems with flow rate of 100 m3/s and plant efficiency of 83% First system(low-head) Second system(high-head) Effective head 10 m 110 m Available power(ghQ) 8,142 kW 8,9565.3 kW 22

Contd

Flow rate Flow rate is another very important factor which can influence system capacity. For example: Two systems with effective head of 100 meters and plant efficiency of 83% First system Second system Flow rate 0.0024 m3/s 6000 m3/s Available power 1.95 kW 4,885,380 kW

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Contd

System losses When electricity is transported along a transmission system, the losses occur. As a result, what comes out of the system at the consumer is less than what is input into the system at the generation site. Component inefficiencies Component losses include losses in:

Penstock Turbine Generator Step up & down transformer losses Transmission losses The generator efficiency gives the ratio between mechanical energy of the turbine shaft and electrical energy delivered from the generator. 24

of two main variables of the water water flow hydraulic head A graphical representation of the percentage of time in the historical record that a flow of any given magnitude has been equaled or exceeded

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Design Flow

Design flow is the maximum flow for which your

hydro system is designed. It will likely be less than the maximum flow of the stream (especially during the rainy season), more than the minimum flow, during dry season If a system is to be independent of any other energy or utility backup, the design flow should be the flow that is available 95 percent of the time or more. Therefore, a stand-alone system such as a microhydropower system should be designed according to the flow that is available year-round; this is usually the flow during the dry season.

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Reserved flow: it is the minimum flow required to avoid aquatic life damage in the water stream Firm flow: The firm flow is defined as the flow being available X % of the time, where X is a percentage specified by the user and usually equal to 95%.

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Hydraulic head

GROSS HEAD of a hydropower facility is the difference between headwater

elevation and tail water elevation. With the use of survey instrument, gross head can be determined systematically and accurately Maximum Head (Hmax) - above which the excess water spilled after impounding during or after a heavy rainy season with possible flood. Minimum head (Hmin) - below which the reservoir should ideally be not allowed to be drawn down , and water contents in a given reservoir is said to have been lowered down so a dead storage state. Design head (Hd) - which is used the actual in water capacity calculation for a given HEPP, which can also be referred to as the effective head , which in turn equal to the growth head minus hydraulic losses before entrance to the turbine and outlet losses

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Power output

By taking the above design parameters in to consideration, the power output formula can be modified as P = gQdHdtot Where Qd = Design flow Hd = Design head tot = Total efficiency

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The plant factor is the ratio of the actual energy generated to the maximum energy that can be generated if the system runs continuously It expresses the extent to which the hydropower installation is actually it is exploited for profitable use. Energy production can be estimated on a yearly base as E(kW) = Power *t (time of generation) Time in a year = 365*24 = 8760hr = 365.25*24 = 8766hr. Therefore Plant Factor is defined as: Plant Factor = Actual Energy Produced Maximum Energy Available that can be generated

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Contd

e.g. Given a hydroelectric power plant with generating capacity P(KW), P(MW), P(GW), if we use the rated capacity for a time tH in a year Therefore the plant power factor is PF = Power used*Time used = P* tH installed power*8760 P*8760 Suppose tH = 3000hr Then PF = 3000/8760 = 0.35 take also tH = 5000hr PF = 5000/8760 = 0.57 Note-If a PF~0.3, then the plant is normally called PEAK LOAD PLANT If a PF~O.55-0.57 then the HEPP is called BASE LOAD PLANT

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Contd

e.g. Given a hydroelectric power plant with generating

capacity P(KW), P(MW), P(GW), if we use the rated capacity for a time tH in a year Therefore the plant power factor is PF = Power used*Time used = P* tH installed power*8760 P*8760 Suppose tH = 3000hr Then PF = 3000/8760 = 0.35 take also tH = 5000hr PF = 5000/8760 = 0.57.

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Example 2

For a 100-MW HEPP with a design head of 300m, and plant factor of 0.6, determine: i. Electrical energy generated in one year ii. an approximate value of the theoretical energy stored in a year in the reservoir of the HEPP for conversion into useful energy iii. depth of water in the reservoir between a season with floods and a dry season and iv. the approximate surface area of the reservoir (Hint: For part (iv), potential energy of the stored water in joules is given by E FHgH, with F = surface area, H = is the depth of the reservoir needed for energy conversion; K = FH = volume of useful stored water; = water density, g = acceleration due to gravity, and Hd is the design head) Note: You can assume that Hd = 0.78Hmax and Hmin = 0.61Hmax, where Hd is the "design head", Hmax is the maximum allowable head in the reservoir and Hmin is the minimum head in the 33 reservoir during a dry season.

Solution 2

Given P = 100MW, PF = 0.6, Hd = 300m i. Electrical energy generated in one year E = P * time of operation in one year E = P * 8760 * PF = 100MW * 8760 * 0.6 h = 525.6GWh .ANS ii. An approximate value of the theoretical energy stored in a year in the reservoir of the HEPP for conversion into useful energy. Eactual = Ethoretical * Ethoretical = 525.6 = 641GWh .ANS 0.82 iii. Depth of water in the reservoir between a season with floods and a dry season is H and change in energy production between the flood and dry season is E.

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Contd

Therefore E = VgHd = HAgHd .equation ** Where: A = Surface area of the reservoir H = Hmax Hmin change in water elevation But it is given that Hd = 0.78 * Hmax Hd = 0 .78 * Hmax, Hmax = 300 0.78 = 364.6 m Hmin = 0.61 * Hmax Hmin = 0.61 * 364.6 = 254.6 m Therefore, H = Hmax Hmin = 110 m ANS

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Contd

iv. The approximate surface area, From equation ** A = E HgHd Note, 1KWh = 3.6 MJ 641GWh = 641*106*1KWh = 641*106*3.6*106J = 2307.6*1012J Finally A = E HgHd = 2307.6 *1012 1000*110*9.81*300 = 712.8*103 m2 = 712.8 km2 .ANS

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Power plants can be classified in several different ways like available head, size of plant and type of impoundment. i. Based on available Head Low-head Medium-head High-head ii. Based on Generating capacity Micro-hydro Small-scale hydro Large-scale hydro iii. Based on Type of Impoundment Impoundment type Diversion and Canal type Run-of-the River type Pumped Storage type

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Low-head Low head" hydroelectric plants are power plants which generally utilize heads up to 10 meters Power plants of this type may utilize a low dam or weir to channel water, or no dam and simply use the "run of the river Run of the river generating stations cannot store water, thus their electric output varies with seasonal flows of water in a river A large volume of water must pass through a low head hydro plant's turbines in order to produce a useful amount of power Low-head type of hydroelectric installation is shown in the figure

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Contd

Medium-head Medium-head (10 meters - 100 meters) Hydro power plants consist of a large dam in a mountainous area which creates a huge reservoir. Another type of medium-head facility is a pumped storage plant

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Contd

High-head High-head hydro power plants have an elevation difference of at least 100 meters between the turbines and the water surface Generating stations of this type are found in the mountains areas, and high-speed turbines are used.

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Very small hydropower plants(pico-hydro power plants): 0.25-1KW Micro hydropower plant : 10-100KW Mini hydro : 0.1MW-1MW Small scale hydro : 1-10MW Medium-scale : 10-100MW Medium-Large scale : 100-300MW Large scale : >300MW

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Impoundment (Storage) Power Stations An impoundment facility, typically in a large hydropower system, uses a dam to store river water in a reservoir The water may be released either to meet changing electricity needs or to maintain a constant reservoir level Depending on their storage capacity are referred to as week, season or year storage stations During periods with low power requirements the water can be stored (although there could be losses due to evaporation during daytimes) and utilized when the demand is high, thus ensuring flexible operation Hydroelectric plants of the storage type may be electrically coupled, i.e. they may all serve the same power transmission system (or grid) load. Hydroelectric plants could also be coupled hydraulically, i.e. the water out flow of one plant may be a significant portion of the inflow to one or more other downstream or cascaded plants 42

Contd

Run-of-river type A dam with a short penstock (supply pipe) directs the water to the turbines, using the natural flow of the river Power stations of this type are built on rivers with a consistent and steady flow of water and have little or no reservoir capacity for storage Diversion and Canal type The water is diverted from the natural channel into a canal or a long penstock, thus hanging the flow of the water in the stream for a considerable distance Pumped Storage Type When the demand for electricity is low, pumped storage facility stores energy by pumping water from a lower reservoir to an upper reservoir. During periods of high Electrical demand, the water is released back to the lower reservoir to generate electricity 43

Hydropower Advantages

A big advantage of hydroelectric power is the ability to quickly and readily vary the amount of power generated, depending on the load presented at that moment It utilizes a renewable energy source as fuel (water) Generation process is environmentally clean High reliability Non polluting, utilizes indigenous resource

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Hydropower Disadvantages

It requires large initial investments It requires long transmission lines Social and environmental impacts Social impact Population displacement Loss of social networks and changing way of living Dams can facilitate development of diseases Diversion of mountain streams Blockage of fish passage both upstream and downstream Storing water in reservoir may reduce the final flow as a result of evaporation

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Contd

Environmental impacts Reduction in the flow of soil and nutrients Pollution is stored in the reservoir Possible dam failure Loss of cultural heritage local increase in water vapor and some temperature effects Vegetation rotting under water produces methane implies emissions

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Assignment III

1. For a given HEPP, the normal water level of the reservoir is given to be 1669 m.a.s.l (meter above sea level), and the dead water level is 1648 m.a.s.l. The live storage of the reservoir is 865*106 m3, and its dead storage is 135*106m3.The tail water level is 1439.4m.a.s.l a. Sketch (with clear labels) a schematic diagram of the HEPP b. Define the center( Hr) of the water level to correspond to 50% of the live storage plus dead storage, estimate Hr c. Given that the design flow rate 30m3/s, and assume the head loss is approximately given by H = 0.0414Q2 + 0.0772*Q2/D4 Where D = 6.6m is the diameter of the tunnel leading the water from the reservoir to the turbine, determine the design head and the installed power d. Determine the growth available energy e. Using you own assumptions, estimate the mean annual electrical energy

(in GWh) that can be firmly supplied by the given HEEP

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