PROCESS ACTIVITY MAPPING

Guided By – Prof. Dinesh

Submitted By – Asav Solanki ( Roll No. 35) Harsh Gupta ( Roll No. 67 )

Contents

     

Introduction Applications Methodology ( How to use the tool) Analysis Illustration and its Analysis Benefits of using Process Activity Mapping Key points to remember while using the tool

Introduction

Process activity mapping has its origins in industrial engineering. It comprises a group of techniques that can be used to eliminate waste, inconsistencies and irrationalities and provide high quality goods and services easily, quickly and inexpensively. The tool is used widely to identify lead time and productivity opportunities for both physical product flows and information flows, not only in the factory but also in other areas of the supply chain

Introduction (cont.)

The non value adding activities and necessary non value adding activities consume necessary resources and time. Hence they result in higher product cost and production delays. As a lean stream mapping tool, Process activity mapping works to eliminate and reduce these activities by focusing only on the specific parts of the firm that actually add value to the products or services under construction.

Introduction (cont.)

This tool is used for identifying lead time and productivity opportunities for both physical product flows and information flows in the factory as well in the supply chain. The Idea is to map every step throughout the concerned process that has a number of different steps or stages.

Process Activity Mapping in Hospitals

Applications

Process activity mapping has its origin in Industrial Engineering and focuses on five process areas –  Flow of processes  Waste Identification  Arrangement of activities in more efficient sequences  Flow layout or transport routing for better flow patterns  Elimination of superfluous tasks

A top level or highest tier process map, which depicts the general actions of a company from the processing of cash from a sale of a product to the distribution, servicing and continued customer care within the system

Process Activity Mapping in Teaching Centers

Methodology
Process activity mapping involves the following simple steps –

Step 1: Preliminary analysis of process is undertaken Step 2: Detailed recording of all the items required in each process is done Step 3: The process is mapped and it is categorized in terms of variety of activity types

Methodology ( cont. )

Step 4 : The machine of area used with of these activities is recorded together with the distance moved, time taken and number of people involved Step 5: The total distance moved, time taken and people involved can be calculated and recorded Various contingent improvement approaches can be mapped similarly before the best approach is selected for implementation.

Illustration Case

The case company is a contract manufacturer that has no products of its own. The company specialized in manufacturing ketchups, mustards, sauces, and jams for leading brands. The products are designed and manufactured according to the wishes of customers, who are marketing companies, wholesalers, and industrial companies.

Illustration

Objective of Study – The aim of the case study was to analyze material and information flows within the company and its demand chains in order to find best practices and targets for further development. Although single-sourcing and long-term relations were used by customers, profit sharing and openness in negotiations were not common among wholesalers and marketing companies. Also, supplierdevelopment or chain-coordination activities were unknown to customers, whereas the role of the contract manufacturer was very active.

Illustration
Four different products were chosen for the analysis. In this illustration, an analysis of ketchup that was manufactured for the small marketing company is discussed.  Process Activity Mapping of Ketchup The aim of process-activity mapping was to clarify the value-added material flow of the product within the company. The flow of materials was examined at the factory level.

Illustration
Some facts given in the case  The longest that raw materials and packaging materials wait in inventory before production starts is six months and three months, respectively.  The holding tank between manufacturing and packaging acts as a buffer that guarantees flexibility in manufacturing.  End products are stored in the factory and the final inventory operates on the first-in-first-out (FIFO) principle.

Illustration with Analysis (cont.)

Process Activity Mapping of Ketchup Production with the corresponding average inventory holding period

Illustration

The mapping reveals that value-added material flows, including manufacturing and packaging processes, take very little time compared to non-value-added flows. The most important waste seems to be unnecessary inventories, especially for rawmaterial inventories, which was also noticed when the stock turnover was examined. The stock of raw materials turned over on average three times a year, while the end-product inventory turned over almost 28 times.

Illustration
Implications of Mapping the process

The company started its own development project that aimed to improve stock turnover and production planning system. The company started paying more attention to inventories and developed a collaboration with material suppliers in order to increase stock turnover. The vendor-managed inventory system was put in practice with package materials suppliers.

Illustration

The company analyzed and eliminated unnecessary inventories and other forms of waste along the supply chain. By implementing the solutions, the company increased customer value through cost reduction or through provision of additional value-enhanced services such as shorter lead times.

Benefits of using Process Activity Mapping

All the non value activities are eliminated and necessary non value adding activities are minimized or eliminated in an ideal way. This method prevents allocation of resources to unnecessary activities and makes the entire process more lean. Costs are allocated only to necessary value adding activities

Benefits of using Process Activity Mapping (cont.)

The accurate and lean allocation of resources gives the enterprise the opportunity to capture more market share Enterprises can stay ahead of their competitors when applying process activity mapping at regular intervals through continuous improvement to eliminate unnecessary activities as new technology emerge.

Key points to remember while using Process Activity Mapping

Always record where the activity is occurring, when it is occurring and who is involved. When mapping information flows: attach yourself to an order or forecast at the point it enters the company and follow it through all stages of order processing and production scheduling. When mapping material flows: attach yourself to a product at the start of your process and follow it through to the point of despatch to the customer.

The level of detail required will depend on what you need the data for. If it is time compression and you want to reduce a lead time from 4 weeks to 1 week, recording to the nearest second is not very useful. However, if you want to reduce time in a particular production cell then minutes will probably be appropriate. Don‟t get your units mixed up: never mix metres and kilometres or minutes with hours or days.

Check that nothing unusual is happening; find out what usually happens, but don‟t be fooled if you are continually being told „it‟s usually much better than this. When analysing the data always star t with the steps with the longest distances, longest times and most people involved. These are likely to yield the greatest gain.

DEMAND AMPLIFICATION MAPPING

Content


   

Introduction Application Methodology Analysis Illustration and its analysis Key points to remember while using the tool

Introduction

This is a graph of quantity against time, showing the batch sizes of a product at various stages of the production process. This may be plotted both within a company and along a supply chain. It can also be used to show inventory holdings at various stages along a supply chain through time. A „snapshot‟ of one month‟s data is often adequate, although a four to six month period gives a clearer picture.

An important result of the demand amplification map is to show the „bullwhip‟ or „Forrester effect‟, where demand changes amplify the further one gets away from the original demand source. The map is also useful to examine scheduling and batch sizing policies, and inventory decisions.

Example of Demand Amplification Mapping
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V O L U M E

TIME
The chart above shows the demand amplification effect for a well-known

Objectives of demand amplification mapping
1. See the extent of amplification as orders are passed upstream. The greater the amplification, the more difficult it is to encourage flow. The ideal, of course, is that all stages of production work at the customer‟s rate of demand, bringing uninterrupted flow. 2. Gain an insight into detailed batch sizing and scheduling policies, looking at both quantity and timing. The reasons for excessive batches or lack of synchronisation may then be explored. 3. Check inventory decisions. Inventory is the buffer between demand and supply; inventories should be low if there is synchronisation between demand and supply.

Methodology
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Step 1. Identify the stages at which data will be collected. The first stage will usually be actual demands made by the customer. Subsequent stages are at major production stages or cells. Look out for inventory storage and record data at and after each inventory location. Step 2. Identify the products or parts to be studied. If you have already collected data for other maps, use the same part. Otherwise select a representative part.

Methodology
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Step 3. Decide on the time horizon for data collection. The period should include a minimum of three batches at the longest manufacturing cycle. For instance, if fortnightly batches are made at a press stage, but assembly takes place every two days, then record data for three press batches over a time horizon of four weeks.

Step 4. Decide on the period for analysis. This should be a „typical‟ period. Avoid „rush‟ and „quiet‟ periods, if possible. You may be constrained by the company‟s record keeping system.

Methodology
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Step 5. Collect data on batch sizes and inventories. Take care on this: be aware that a batch may take more than one day to produce. Inventory data may or may not be available, but it can be derived from batch sizes as long as just one accurate snapshot of inventory can be made.
Step 6. Plot the data on a graph.

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Changes in end-user demand are amplified upstream along the supply chain, generating different negative effects. Use of demand amplification map as a collaborative planning tool, assisting suppliers and customers, represents an important mean to tackle these problems.

Illustration
Demand amplification mapping – pressed cheese

Illustration
The pressed cheese has some peculiarities its production strongly depends on farmers. milk production, which grows in spring months  Milk’s quantities are smaller in autumn and winter periods  the product need to be preserved  demand for pressed cheese in spring is reduced  the demand grows in winter season

Jan

Feb

Mar ch 750

Apri l 950

May

Jun e 500

July

Aug

Sept Oct

Nov

Dec

For eca st de ma nd Act ual de ma nd

700

700

500

600

600

650

700

900

1000

600

600

700

950

600

650

600

600

650

700

900

700

Causes for Demand Amplification in Supply Chain
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Demand signalling process; Delays in information passing and, in the same time, incomplete data; Forecasting errors, multiple tiers of forecasting; Rationing (supply shortages), overreaction to backlog, placing orders beyond the proportional response to the inventory shortages. Poor order batching; Price variations.

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 

Poor inventory management (bad records); Lack of necessary buffers; Misunderstanding underlying demand uncertainty; Inflexible MRP systems; Purchasing strategies; Inappropriate sales incentives and revenue management inconsistent with supply chain strategy; Functional silos; Erratic supply.

Other causes for demand amplification
Poor IT systems integration  Poor inventory management (bad records)  Lack of necessary buffers  Misunderstanding underlying demand uncertainty  Inflexible MRP systems  Purchasing strategies

Inappropriate sales incentives and revenue management inconsistent with supply  chain strategy  Functional silos  Erratic supply

Ways to eliminate the causes of demand amplification

In the presence of order lead times a simple forecasting rule could lead to demand amplification. A countermeasure against demand signaling is to share point-of-sales and inventory data among parties in the supply chain. Understanding the demand, the type of underlying demand and what are the main factors which influence it. Smaller batch sizes would decrease the endproduct inventory and increase flexibility. The companies can develop simple production

When, for a manufacturer, the major part of demand is originated from wholesalers, the cooperation between factory and wholesalers is the first compulsory step towards better logistics performance An effective countermeasure to shortage gamming is to apply different rules for allocating scarce capacity across customers in genuine shortage situations Product line rationalization to reduce complexity alongside modularity for postponement

Questioning where to keep inventory and ways that inventory can be tactically used for buffering stability Creating more level schedules that can be achieved with reduction of changeover time and production of smaller batches and the effective use of bottlenecks and islands of pull based flows Proper system design and collaborative management

Analysis of Demand Amplification Mapping
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The demand amplification map is a very powerful tool for looking at scheduling and inventory policies and decisions. Rather than asking schedulers how they make up schedules (and getting a theoretical answer), the map allows discussion around what actually happens, and how it can be improved.

Analysis of Demand Amplification Mapping
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Look for variation in batch sizes. What is the consistency of the ratio of batch size to customer demand? Then ask about batch sizing policies. Look out for the temptation to overproduce whilst the set-up is in place. Look out for regularity of batches. A lean operation should be attempting not only to run products as frequently as possible, but as regularly as possible – say the same day each week.

Key Points to remember while using Demand Amplification Mapping
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1. Make sure you use appropriate units of measurement. For instance, if you are producing plastic moulding with a shot (raw material) weight of 50g then measure raw material purchases so that 50g is equal to 1 unit. 2. In some firms it is possible to collect data from more than a dozen points, but be selective, three or four well chosen points will give you 99% of the information with far less work and

Conclusion

Changes in end-user demand are amplified upstream along the supply chain, generating different negative effects. Use of demand amplification map as a collaborative planning tool, assisting suppliers and customers, represents an important mean to tackle these problems.

PRODUCT VARIETY FUNNEL

Content


     

Introduction Application Areas Methodology Practical examples of the tool Illustration and its analysis Analysis Key Benefits Key points to remember while using the tool

Introduction

This is a visual mapping technique that plots the number of product variants at each stage of the manufacturing process. This technique is used to identify the point at which a generic product becomes either increasingly or totally customer specific. The risks of holding „specific‟ stock is that it will not sell and the company will be left holding inventory costs. The map also provides some insights into possible factory inventory policies, in terms of combining the flexibility of the plant with short lead time.

Basic Production Funnels

Basic production funnels

The two simple steps add enormously to their usefulness –
(1) at critical stages of the process, mark on the funnel the number of items which can be separately identified, redrawing the funnel to scale, and (2) use the horizontal scale to represent the proportion of the production process which is completed up to particular stages. This may be in terms of elapsed time in the manufacturing area or proportion of labour input up to that stage, or any other clearly defined measure.

IVAT Analysis
A similar method is IVAT analysis which views internal operations in companies as consisting of activities that conform to I, V, A or T shapes: • “I” plants consist of unidirectional, unvarying production of multiple identical items such as a chemical plant. • “V” plants consist of a limited number of raw materials processed into a wide variety of finished products in a generally diverging pattern. • “V” plants are typical in textiles and metal fabrication industries.

IVAT Analysis
• “A” plants, in contrast, have many raw materials and a limited range of finished products with different streams of raw materials using different facilities; such plants are typical in the aerospace industry or in other major assembly industries. • “T” plants have a wide combination of products from a restricted number of components made into semi-processed parts held ready for a wide range of customer-demanded final versions; this type of site is typical in the electronics and household appliance industries.

Applications

The product variety funnel is useful in understanding where variety is added along a supply chain. The principle is that variety should be added as late as possible; adding variety too early cuts responsiveness, adds inventory, and reduces flexibility. This has much in common with ideas on mass customization and product platforms

Methodology
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1. Take a piece of graph paper and create the horizontal (process path) axis and vertical (number of products) axis. 2 . Select each product, or generic family group of products, and identify the process path through the manufacturing facility. The key item of the bill of materials is likely to be one which follows the entire length of the production sequence.

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Examples of these products would include water (the primary element of soft drink manufacturing), yarn or fibre for textiles, or the „body in white‟ element of vehicle assembly. 3. At each stage of the conversion process, identify the number of products that are created. As each process is analysed, plot the final number of „outputs‟ produced from each stage on the chart.

Practical Examples of Production Variety Funnel

Example 1. The Ajax- Bellow Company
20 materials are pressed into 38 tubes on the first operation, these form 110 tubes after the third operation and 1,000 tubes/bellows after the final press operations. Furthermore, the third press operation is some 40 per cent of the way through the manufacturing process.

Example 2. The Aircraft Paint Company

The basic raw materials for the manufacture of colouring items number about 400 including pigments. However, at the packaging stage a number of products are formed by taking sets of different colours from a range and putting them together (usually with brushes, palettes and water pots) to form a paint-box. Some 1,800 different items are actually manufactured and about 2,000 packaging items enter the manufacturing system after manufacture in order to form the full product range.

Example 3. Burnham Aero-Engine Company

A wide range of raw materials is used to manufacture a very large number of components which are assembled in several stages, often with intermediate machining operations, to form a relatively small range of finished items. The level numbers used range from —2 (for some raw materials) through 0 (single components) and up to 10 (assemblies ready for engine build). Each different item is assigned a level number such that: it is not a component of any item with the same or a lower level number, and consequently all the components of the items have lower level numbers.

Illustration
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To illustrate the use of this technique, brewing companies often produce a high gravity 9% beer during the initial process of fermentation. This „mother brew‟ is not sold at this alcohol content but is „cut‟ during the conditioning process into many different products through a process of lowering the alcohol content, say to a 5% brew, a 4.2% brew and a 3% brew. These products are then packed into different can volumes (such as 500 ml and other volumes) before being placed into a tray. This means the single product entering the process has multiple points at which that

Illustration
73

Analysis
74

This technique also generates a series of questions relating to the logical reasons for product diversity and the need to maintain such complexity for the supply chain. The map also suggests the logical point at which buffer stocks may be held prior to customisation. The technique is useful when analysing the ability to postpone the manufacturing process rather than maintaining stocks of production output at each stage of the production process.

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The point at which the product variety rises (expands) rapidly is of key concern and it is the buffer (prior to this point) that creates flexibility from the production system. In short, with favourable manufacturing and demand characteristics, this buffer point can be used to create high levels of customer service without incurring the penalty costs of stock holding further downstream. The map also provides useful data for potential product and inventory rationalisation.

Benefits

It is a very economical presentation of a number of closely interrelated factors and in a way is another tool to use to identify those areas of operations where it is worth looking first for improvements in operating performance. It is a supplement to such tools as product cost analysis, inventory turnover, etc. It is also one of the few tools which tries to describe the operating system as a whole, rather than as a collection of isolated pieces of information.

Key point to remember while using Production Variety Funnel
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1. Select the component to be mapped carefully. It must be an element that is integral and significant to the finished product, not a screw or piece of packaging. 2. Look for subtle changes in the product at each stage of the process, for example the colour matching, piercing holes in in the product, and any other activity which changes the component into a new product.

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3. Accuracy is always important and therefore it does pay to cross-reference the numbers of outputs, at each stage of the conversion process, with the bill of materials code for that product. The collection of these codes is important when secondary analyses are undertaken to find out the actual stock levels of each identified output.

APPLICATION OF DIFFERENT VALUE STREAM MAPPING TOOLS

Application of Numerous Tools

The specific focusing of which tools to use in what circumstances is done using a simplified version of the value stream analysis tool (VALSAT). The first part of this process is to identify the specific value stream to be reviewed. Second, through a series of preliminary interviews with managers in the value stream, it is necessary to identify the various wastes that exist in the value stream that managers believe can and should be removed (reference should be made to the earlier discussion of the seven wastes). In addition, it is important to gain the views of these managers on the importance of understanding the complete industry structure, irrespective of which wastes are to be removed.

Application of Numerous Tools

This selection of tools is achieved by giving the interviewees a written overview of each of the wastes as well as an explanation of what is meant by the industry structure. At this stage, if necessary, descriptions of the seven wastes may be reworded in terms more appropriate to the industry under consideration. For instance, in the health-care industry the concept of overproduction may not have great value. However, to call this potential waste ―doing things too early‖ instead may be more useful in getting the interviewees to relate the concept to their own situations.

Application of Numerous Tools

Once this has been done, the reworded seven wastes and the account of the overall structure are recorded as row eight in the VALSAT in Table I diagram, or as eight rows in area A of Figure . Comparison of Table I and Figure will show that the former is a simplification of the latter but with sections A, B and C already completed. Thus using this VALSAT method, the different approaches to identifying how these eight variables can be mapped has already been completed by the addition of the seven value stream mapping tools (B). In addition, area C of Figure has already been completed as the correlation between tools and wastes was completed within the main body of Table I.

The seven Mapping Tools (Table I)

Application of Numerous Tools

Application of Numerous Tools

At this point it is informative to ask the firm or firms involved to identify for each of the eight wastes/structure (D) the benchmark company in their sector. In other words, by opening these discussions at this stage it forces the firm to think about which of their competitors is best at reducing particular wastes and managing their complete supply/distribution chain. This knowledge may then lead on to more formal benchmarking with these companies, if this is felt to be appropriate, or at least a good focus for subsequent mapping

Application of Numerous Tools

The next stage (E), therefore, is to ascertain the individual importance weighting of the seven wastes and the overall industry structure. This is achieved most effectively by allocating a total of 40 points for the eight factors and asking the interviewee to apportion these on the basis of an importance rating between the factors, with the proviso that no one factor can attract more than ten points. If there is more than one interviewee, then the different scores may be aggregated and rebased to total 40 points.

Application of Numerous Tools

The last arithmetical stage of this approach is to create total weights for each tool. In effect, what is being done here is to give a rating to each tool in terms of how useful it is in identifying the various wastes designated as of most importance by the organization or organizations. This is achieved by giving each of the different correlations given in Table I a score. Thus, high correlations are equivalent to nine points; medium three points; and low, to a single point. Then, for each correlation, a total importance score is calculated. This is achieved by multiplying the weighting of each waste/structure by the correlations. Thus, referring to the correlations in Table I, if the weighting for overproduction is six points the usefulness of the tools in addressing overproduction will be:

Application of Numerous Tools
       

six for process activity mapping (6*1); 18 for supply chain response matrix (6*3); zero for production variety funnel (6*0); six for quality filter mapping (6*1); 18 for demand amplification mapping (6*3); 18 for decision point analysis (6*3); and zero for physical structure mapping (6*0). This type of calculation is then applied to each of the other rows so that scores are recorded for each individual correlation. Once this is complete the total scores for each column are then summed and recorded in the total weight section, or ―F‖ in Figure

Application of Numerous Tools
  

The columns which have the highest scores are those that contain the most appropriate tools. As a rule of thumb it is useful to choose more than one tool. Indeed, as a final check, the more important two or three wastes/structure should have been addressed by tools with which they are highly correlated or failing this by at least two tools with which they have a medium correlation. This will ensure that each waste/structure is covered adequately in the mapping process. However, once the tools have been run it may be that some unexpectedly high wastes have become apparent. For instance, the demand amplification mapping tool may have been employed to identify unnecessary inventory and waiting.

Application of Numerous Tools

However, as the tool also has a medium correlation with overproduction, it will be useful in identifying such waste if it exists but was not recognized at first by the managers involved. This back flushing may therefore identify some unanticipated but potential improvement areas and, hence, lead to some breakthroughs. After this mapping process is complete, the researcher will be able to use each individual tool with its associated benefits to undertake more detailed analysis of the value stream with a view to its improvement. As stated above, it is not the purpose of this paper to convert other researchers to a kaizen or business process reengineering approach in this subsequent work. However, the various mapping tools described will help with whichever approach is chosen.

Application of Numerous Tools

In general, the removal of non-value adding waste is best done using a kaizen approach, whereas the removal of necessary but nonvalue adding waste requires a more revolutionary strategy wherein the application of business process re-engineering may be more appropriate.

Example of Application

The company involved is a highly profitable leading industrial distributor with over 60,000 products and an enviable record for customer service. After undertaking preliminary discussions it was decided to focus on the upstream value stream to the point at which goods are available for distribution by the firm. Nine products were chosen based on a Pareto analysis from one particular value stream, namely: the lighting product range. Within this range, interviews with key cross-functional staff showed that unnecessary inventory, defects, inappropriate processing and transport were the most serious wastes in the system. In order to understand this in more detail, and using the mapping correlation matrix (Table I), it was decided to adopt five of the tools:

Example of Application
1. 2. 3. 4.

5.

Process activity mapping; Supply chain response matrix; Quality filter mapping; Demand amplification mapping; and Decision point analysis. The on-site mapping work was carried out over a three-day period and proved that each of the tools was of value in analysing the selected value streams. An example of the effective interplay of the tools was that the supply-chain response matrix suggested, as the key priority for the firm, supplier lead-time reduction. However, when the data from the quality filter mapping were added, it was found that the real issue was on-time delivery rather than lead-time reduction.

Example of Application
Thus, if the supply-chain response matrix had been used on its own, it might have resulted in shorter lead time, but would have exacerbated the true problem of on-time delivery.  The work assisted the firm to conclude that, although it did not need to change, there was plenty of room for improvement, particularly regarding the relatively unresponsive suppliers.  As a result, attention has been paid to the setting-up of a cross-function-driven supplier association, with six key suppliers in one product group area for the purpose of supplier co-ordination and development. In this supplier association there is an awareness-raising programme, involving ongoing benchmarking, of why change is required.  In addition, education and implementation are being carried out using methods such as vendor-managed inventory, due date performance, milk rounds, self certification, stabilized scheduling and EDI.

Example of Application

The company has found the ongoing mapping work to be very useful, and one senior executive noted that ―the combination of mapping tools has provided an effective means of mapping the [company’s] supply chain, concentrating discussion/action on key issues‖. Another described the work as ―not rocket science but down to earth common sense which has resulted in us setting up a follow-up project which will be the most important thing we do between now and the end of the century‖. Indeed, a conservative estimate of the savings that could be reaped is in excess of £10m per year as a result of this follow-on work.

Tools Comparison

Tools Comparison

References

Implications of postponement for the supply chain – B Yang and N Burns – international journal of production research, 2003, vol. 41, no. 9, 2075–2090 Using the Information Decoupling Point to Improve Supply Chain Performance - Rachel Mason-Jones and Denis R. Towill - The International Journal of Logistics Management, Volume 10, Number 2 1999 The seven value stream mapping tools - Peter Hines and Nick Rich - International Journal of Operations & Production Management, Vol. 17 No. 1, 1997, pp. 46-64 IMPROVEMENT OF TRANSFORMATOR PRODUCTION SYSTEMS TO MINIMIZING WASTE - Didik Dwi Rahmanto – http://www.bizbodz.com/Business-Improvement/Valuestream-mapping/
Gagandeep Singh Rehal and Ankit Bahl

References

http://www.maharashtradirectory.com/SearchR esult.asp?ProductID=330 http://info.shine.com/ListofCompany/FMCG/78 0.aspx# http://www.scribd.com/doc/24540042/Salesand-distribution-process-of-itc-vivel-soaps

Gagandeep Singh Rehal and Ankit Bahl

Referances

 

The seven value stream-mapping tools-Peter Hines and Nick Rich-Lean Enterprise Research Centre, Cardiff Business School, Cardiff, UK The Lean Concept in the Food Industry: A Case Study of Contract a Manufacturer - Ulla Lehtinen and Margit Torkko Using VSM to improve Forging process – SV Kings The path from Lean manufacturing to Lean construction: Implementation and Evaluation of Lean Assembly – O Salem, A Genaidy, M Leugring, O Paez and J Solomon Value stream mapping - A distribution industry application Peter Hines, Nick Rich and Ann Esain Cardiff University, Cardiff, UK

Referances

 

Evaluation of value stream mapping in manufacturing system redesign - Ibon Serranoa; Carlos Ochoab; Rodolfo De Castroc Value Stream Mapping – An Introduction – Tony Manos An evaluation of the value stream mapping tool - Ibon Serrano Lasa, Carlos Ochoa Laburu, Rodolfo de Castro Vila Utilizing Simulation to Enhance Value Stream Mapping: A Manufacturing Case Application THOMAS McDONALD,1 EILEEN M. VAN AKEN1* & ANTONIO F. RENTES2 New developments in time compression management Kei Chang and Brian H. Kleiner - Work Study - Volume

Referances

Towill, D.R. (1996), ―Time compression and supply chain management – a guided tour‖, Supply Chain Management, Vol. 1 No. 1, pp. 15-27. Time compression in the supply chain: Information management is the vital ingredient - Rachel Mason-Jones and - Denis R. Towill

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