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Hazard Communication & Chemical Safety

OSHA Standard 1910.1200

We use many chemicals

We want you to know how to use them safely You will learn about

The Hazards of Chemicals How Chemicals are Labeled Safe Use of Chemicals Material Safety Data Sheets Basic Procedures for Spills Who you can ask for more information

Hazards of Chemicals
There are 2 basic types of chemical hazards Physical Hazards Health Hazards The first rule of Chemical safety is "Know what you are working with and how to protect yourself and others

Physical Hazards
Chemicals are classified as having Physical Hazards if they are

Explosive Compressed Gas Combustible Liquids Flammable Unstable Water Reactive Oxidizers

Physical Hazards
Some chemicals may be safe by themselves, but become dangerous when in contact with other substances.

Health Hazards
Chemicals are classified as being a health hazard if they:

Can cause cancer Are poisonous (toxic) Cause harm to your skin, internal organs, or nervous system Are corrosive - such as acids Cause allergic reactions after repeated exposure

Chemicals can enter the body through:

your lungs if you breath fumes, mists or dustinhalation your skin if liquid or dust touches or spills on you or splashes in your eyesskin contact your mouth if you eat after handling chemicalsingestion

Health Effects
Some chemicals affect specific organs such as your kidneys, liver, reproductive or nervous system.

Flammable Chemicals

Chemicals can ignite to produce laboratory fire Reduce concentration of vapors Reduce ignition sources Reduce amounts of substances outside of cabinets Properly handle spills

Prevention Techniques

Fire Triangle
Three necessary
components Eliminate one leg and fire will be extinguished


Store excess
flammables in cabinet Close all bottles not in use


Typically oxygen in air Reducing air contact kills

Fire blankets deprive fires of oxygen


Ignition sources

Open flame Static Electricity Sparks Hot plate

Pouring water cools



Fume Hoods
flammables in fume hoods

Reduce vapor concentration Controls ignition sources Easier to handle fires


Flammable Storage
Store excess
chemicals in flammable cabinet Use approved refrigerator for cold flammables No more than 10 L outside of cabinet No more than 60 L in the entire lab

Flammable Spill
Small spill

Large spill

Alert coworkers Contain the spill Prevent vapor emission Remove ignition sources Use non-flammable adsorbent material
Alert coworkers Remove ignition sources Evacuate room Call for assistance

Toxic Chemicals

Toxic chemicals react with tissue to produce serious or deadly effects Reduce amounts of toxic chemicals in laboratory Hand chemicals in fume hood Wear appropriate protection Properly handle spills

Prevention Techniques

Toxic Chemicals
All chemicals are toxic, dose is

All things are poison, and nothing is


without poison, only the dose permits something not to be poisonous


Toxic Chemicals
Time horizons

Acute toxins produce reactions immediately (within 14 days) on contact with tissue Chronic toxins have delayed response often manifested in months or years
Effect depends on exposure

Dose Response
Dose has three components

Relative toxicity Concentration Exposure time


Relative Toxicity
Usually animal
studies with different routes of exposure Often measured in concentration needed to kill 50% of population on a per mass basis

LD50, LC50

Relative Toxicity
Substance Sucrose Grain Alcohol Methanol Trizol Carbon Tetrachloride LD50 29,700 mg/kg 7,060 mg/kg 7,300 mg/kg 317 mg/kg 429 mg/kg


Toxicity Handling
Follow prudent practices for prevention
of chemical contact

Wear appropriate gloves, eye protection and clothing Use fume hood or glove box to reduce concentration and as a secondary barrier Decontaminate before doing nonlaboratory activities Minimize exposure time to chemical Store according to chemical nature

Toxic Chemical Spill

For highly toxic chemicals do not
attempt to clean up any volume

Notify coworkers Evacuate room and close doors Call for an emergency
Give information on location, amount, chemical


Wait for emergency responders


Corrosive Chemicals

Corrosive chemicals react with tissue Corrosive chemicals react with metals Handle corrosives in fume hood Wear appropriate protection Neutralize spills

Prevention Techniques

Corrosive Substances
Acids with pH <2

Bases with pH > 12.5

H2SO4 HCl Acetic Acid



Corrosive Chemicals
React with skin to cause burns and
permanent tissue damage

Acids (not H2SO4) react to form protein barrier Bases do not form protein barrier and can penetrate deep into the tissue

Corrosives can cause irreversible

damage to eyes

Corrosive Protection
PVC and nitrile
gloves often provide appropriate protection Use splash goggles Use face shield if splashing is possible

Corrosive Compatibility
Corrosive + Flammable = Fire

Nitric Acid + Organic Solvent

Corrosive + Toxin = Toxic gas Corrosive + Metal = Hydrogen gas Corrosive + Water = Violent reaction


Corrosive Adsorbents
Have appropriate
spill clean up for corrosives in laboratory Sodium bicarbonate is effective at neutralizing acids and bases

Small Corrosive Spill

Wear correct safety attire Notify coworkers of spill Contain spill to prevent spreading Use suitable neutralizers to balance pH Clean up the spill and properly dispose
of contaminated materials


Corrosive Storage
Acids and bases can
be stored in same cabinet if secondary storage like plastic bins are used


Incorrect Corrosive Disposal


Compressed Gasses

Compressed gasses can act as missiles Compressed gasses can be flammable, toxic, or other wise hazardous Compressed gasses can displace air

Prevention Techniques

Properly store gasses Use correct regulator Use proper moving techniques

Compressed Gasses


Compressed Gas Storage

Valve cover
must be on when not using gas

Cylinders must

be upright and firmly attached


Compressed Gas Handling

Do not move a
cylinder more than a foot without a cart Firmly secured No never move cylinder without having a valve cap


Compressed Gas Storage

All cylinders must
be secured even if they are empty Separate accordingly to hazard class

Flammable Oxidizer Toxic


Compressed Gas Regulators

Must use correct

Dunning Hall

Regulator must be
closed when not using tank


Labeling of Chemicals
Chemical Labels provide information on Identity, Hazards and Safe Use All chemical containers are labeled by the manufacturer


Labeling of Chemicals
If chemicals are placed in another
container, this new container must have a label placed on it.

All containers must be properly labeled


2 Basic Uniform Labels

HMIS - Hazardous Material Identification System NFPA - National Fire protection Association
Both types must identify the chemical name and hazards


Uniform Labels
Pictures may be used to identify hazards and required protection
This Information may also be on the Manufacturers label

HMIS & NFPA labels are very similar

Both use colored boxes to identify
specific hazards Numbers or codes in the boxes tell you the hazard value higher numbers = higher hazard


NFPA & HMIS Label Colors

Red - Fire Hazard Blue - Health Hazard Yellow - Reactivity Hazard - explosive, unstable White - Special Hazards - corrosive, radioactive, water reactive, acid


NFPA Label..
The purpose of the NFPA 704 labeling system is to provide a way of quickly identifying the various fire related hazardous associated with a particular material. The NFPA 704 "diamond" is commonly found on bulk storage containers, but is also widely used on chemical containers and MSDS sheets.


NFPA Flammability Codes

4 Materials that will rapidly or completely
vaporize at atmospheric pressure and normal ambient temperature, or that are readily dispersed in air and that will burn readily. Liquids with a flashpoint below 73F and a boiling point below 100F.


NFPA Flammability Codes

3 Liquids and solid that can be ignited
under almost all ambient temperature conditions. Liquids with a flashpoint below 73F and a boiling point above 100F or liquids with a flashpoint above 73F but not exceeding 100F and a boiling point below 100F.


NFPA Flammability Codes

2 Materials that must be moderately
heated or exposed to relatively high ambient temperatures before ignition can occur. Liquids with flashpoint above 100F but not exceeding 200F.


NFPA Flammability Codes

1 Materials that must be preheated before
ignition can occur. Liquids that have a flashpoint above 200F.

0 Materials that will not burn.


NFPA Health Hazard Codes

4 Materials that on very
short exposure could cause death or major residual injury.

3 Materials that on short

exposure could cause serious temporary or residual injury.


NFPA Health Hazard Codes

2 Materials that on intense
or continued, but not chronic exposure could cause incapacitation or possible residual injury.


NFPA Health Hazard Codes

1 Materials that on exposure would cause irritation but only minor residual injury.
0 Materials that on exposure under fire conditions would offer no hazard beyond that of ordinary combustible material.


NFPA Reactivity Hazard Codes

4 Materials that in themselves are readily
capable of detonation or of explosive decomposition or reaction at normal temperatures and pressures.


NFPA Reactivity Hazard Codes

3 Materials that in themselves are
capable of detonation or explosive decomposition or reaction but require a strong initiating source or which must be heated under confinement before initiation or which react explosively with water.


NFPA Reactivity Hazard Codes

2 Materials that readily undergo violent
chemical change at elevated temperatures and pressures or which react violently with water or which may form explosive mixtures with water.


NFPA Reactivity Codes

1 Materials that in themselves are
normally stable, but which can become unstable at elevated temperatures and pressures.


NFPA Reactivity Codes

0 Materials that in themselves are
normally stable, even under fire exposure conditions, and which are not reactive with water.


NFPA Special Hazard Codes

ACID = Acid Products ALK = Alkali or Bases COR = Corrosive Products OX = Oxidizer W =Reacts with water Radioactive



Examples of Hazards
Glacial Acetic Acid 2 3

Sodium Hydroxide 0 3

Hydrofluoric Acid

Lithium 2

4 2



What do I do
if there is no label or I cannot read the label? STOP - do not use the chemical TELL your supervisor READ the MSDS and have another label put on the container


Chemicals can be safely used if

you know the hazards and how to
protect yourself they are used only for approved purposes they are stored properly you use the correct personal protective equipment

Chemicals can be safely used if

you do not eat in areas where
chemicals are used

you wash immediately if you come in

contact with chemicals


Chemical Disposal
Each chemical and container must be
disposed of properly No container is truly "empty" unless properly cleaned Follow MSDS requirements for container disposal


Chemical Disposal
Recycle unused
chemicals Do not place hazardous chemicals in normal trash receptacles. Do not pour chemicals into sinks, onto the ground or in storm drains

Safe Storage
Store incompatible chemicals in
separate areas Limit the amount of flammable material to the minimum needed Store flammable liquids in approved flammable storage lockers


Safe Storage
Store acids in separate flammable
storage lockers Do not store chemicals in a refrigerator used for food storage Do not store food in refrigerators used for chemical storage


In case of an emergency
Implement the proper Emergency
Action Plan Evacuate people from the area Isolate the area- keep other from entering Turn off ignition and heat sources Only trained employees are permitted to clean up spills

Material SafetyData Sheets (MSDS)

Show chemical safety information Each chemical has a separate MSDS MSDS is written by the chemical

manufacturer MSDS are kept in the workplace for your use If you can't find an MSDS, ask your supervisor

Material Safety Data Sheets

are provided by the chemical manufacturer to provide additional information concerning safe use of the product.


Each MSDS tells you

1. Common Name and Chemical Name of the material 2. Name, address and phone number of the manufacturer 3. Emergency phone numbers for immediate hazard information 4. Date the MSDS was written

5. Hazardous ingredients 6. Physical & Health Hazards of the chemicals 7. Identification of chemical and physical properties 8. First Aid / Emergency Information 9. Safe handling and use information

have specific hazard information on

Fire & Explosion Chemical Reactions Control Measures Health Hazards Spill & Leak Procedures



Fire & Explosion Information

Material Flash Point, auto-

ignition temperature and upper/lower flammability limits Fire extinguishing agents to be used Fire fighting techniques Any unusual fire or explosive hazards

MSDS Reaction Information

Stability of Chemical.. Conditions and other materials which can cause reactions with the chemical Dangerous substances that can be produced when the chemical reacts



Control Measures

Engineering Controls required for safe

product use Personal protective equipment required for use of product Safe storage requirements and guidelines Safe handling procedures

MSDS Health Hazards

Permissible Exposure and Threshold
Limits (PEL & TLV) Symptoms of exposure Routes of entry into the body Medical conditions that can be made worse by exposure Cancer causing properties Emergency & First Aid Procedures

MSDS Spill & Leak Procedures

Clean up techniques Personal Protective Equipment to be

used during cleanup Disposal of waste & cleanup material


Protecting Yourself
Personal Protective
Equipment (PPE) may be needed to protect yourself from chemical hazards Use the PPE our Company has required for each chemical Check the PPE before use to make sure it is not damaged

Protecting Yourself
Use face shield and Goggles if there is a
splash hazard

Use the proper respirator for dusts,

mists and fumes


Protecting Yourself
Use the right gloves when handling
chemicals Properly clean and store your PPE after use Don't take PPE home - why risk exposing your family?


Stay safe when using chemicals

Know what you are working with Know where MSDS are located and how
to use them Ask your supervisor if you have questions Only trained employees may use chemicals


Stay Safe
Make sure all containers are properly labeled Use the proper protective equipment Store chemicals only in approved areas Immediately report leaks and spills Dispose of used chemicals and containers