Analog Electronics

Module-1 Semiconductor diodes
DURATION: 2 WEEKS

Module Contents:
• • • • • • • • Introduction Diode identification Diode Operation Testing a Diode Diode Application Lab Activity 1 Lab Activity 2 Review Exercise

Introduction
• A diode is a semiconductor device that acts as one-way conductor and therefore allows current to flow in only one direction. • Simplest form of a diode is the p-n (positivenegative) junction diode as shown in Figure 1.1a
Anode (A)
P-TYPE N-TYPE

Cathode (K)

+
Holes Electrons

a) Diode Structure

is considered a semiconductor because its conductivity can be changed by the introduction of impurities. . such as most metals. the base material of most transistors. allow electrical current to flow through them •These are known as conductors •Materials that do not allow electrical current to flow through them are called insulators •Pure silicon.What Is a Semiconductor? •Many materials.

Semiconductors • A material whose properties are such that it is not quite a conductor.Silicon (most common) • Ge – Germanium Si Si Si +4 +4 +4 • Both are group 4 elements.Indium Phosphide .Gallium arsenide +4 +4 +4 • GaP . – compound Si Si Si • GaAs . not quite an insulator • Some common semiconductors – elemental Si Si Si +4 +4 +4 • Si .Gallium phosphide • AlAs .Aluminum phosphide • InP .Aluminum arsenide • AlP .

Improving Conduction by Doping • To make semiconductors better conductors. add impurities (dopants) to contribute extra electrons or extra holes – elements with 5 outer electrons contribute an extra electron to the lattice (donor dopant)-produces n type silicon – elements with 3 outer electrons accept an electron from the silicon (acceptor dopant)-produces p type silicon .

. • The electrode connected to the p-type is called the Anode “A”. • The diode is contained in a small capsule made of glass or plastic and has two terminals or electrodes and hence the name diode (di  two and ode  electrode). and the electrode connected to the n-type is called the Cathode “K”.Introduction to diodes • The simplest form of a diode is the p-n (positivenegative) junction diode .

1b shows the symbol of the PN junction diode. where the arrow points to the direction of current flow.Introduction to diodes Figure 1.1c. The cathode (K) is marked with a silver color band as shown in Figure 1. Cathode (K) c) Typical Diode .

• Photo diodes. . • Small Signal (low power) diodes.Diode Types According to semiconductor material used: • Germanium diodes • Silicon diodes Application • Rectifier diodes. • Light emitting diodes (LEDs). • Zener diodes.

Typical diodes of different types .

3. (DO) refers to Diode Outline.Diode Packaging • Diode is generally mounted in one of three basic packages shown in Figure 1. . DO-5 DO-8 DO-41 These are designed to protect the diode from mechanical stress and the environment. The size of the package indicates the current rating (larger size means higher current rating).

Diode identification: Pro-Electron System& JEDEC System Pro-Electron System originated in Europe and is widely used for semiconductor devices developed and manufactured by European manufacturers JEDEC System: This numbering system originated in the USA and is widely used for semiconductors manufactured in North America .

the conduction is from anode to cathode. • Biasing: Arranging a diode suitably in a circuit is called biasing There are two types of diode biasing: • Forward bias • Reverse bias .Diode Operation • A diode conducts only in one direction.

we say that it is forward biased (FB).Figure 1.4: Diode operated in forward bias •When a diode is connected to the power supply such its anode (A) is connected to the positive terminal. and its cathode (K) is connected to the negative terminal as shown in figure .4 . •The diode in FB-direction allows the current to flow from A to K as shown in Figure 1.

The diode in RB-direction does not allow the current to flow as shown in Figure 1.5. .Diode operated in reverse bias Reverse biased: A diode is reverse biased (RB) when its anode (A) is negative with respect to the cathode (K).

6: Diode characteristics curve .Figure 1.

• The threshold voltage is around 0. . • Note that the diode needs a minimum voltage (called threshold or barrier or knee voltage) before it starts conducting (passing current) in the forward bias. while diode’s forward current and reverse current are measured along the positive and negative y-axes respectively.Diode characteristics curve • Diode’s forward voltage and reverse voltage are measured along the positive and negative x-axes respectively.7V for Germanium and Silicon diodes respectively.3V and 0.

connect the positive lead (Red) to the anode (A) and the negative lead (Black) to the cathode (K) as shown in Figure 1.8a.Testing the diode in FB direction using multimeter •Set the digital Multimeter knob to ‘diode testing’ function.7V for Si. .3V for Ge and  0. •Now. •For a diode in a good condition the reading will be in the range of  0.

8b.Figure 1. .5V for both types. the reading will be < 1.8b: Testing the diode in RB direction using multimeter • Connect the positive lead to the cathode and negative lead to the anode terminals of the diode. Digital Multimeter (K) Cathode IN 4001 (A) Anode For a diode in good condition. as shown in Figure 1.

•A good diode must display low resistance (typically < 10) in FB.Testing the diode in FB direction using ohmmeter •Connect the positive meter-lead (Red) to the anode (A) and connect the negative meter-lead (Black) to the cathode (K) as shown in Figure 1.7a. which can FB or RB a diode.5 V). •Note that the ohmmeter consists of an internal battery (1. .

7b. and the negative meter-lead (Black) to the anode (A) as shown in Figure 1. •A good diode must display a very high resistance (>1000 M) in RB.Testing the diode in RB direction using ohmmeter •Connect the positive meter-lead (Red) to the cathode (K). .

AC current reverses its direction as shown in Figure 1.Diode Application • Diode has a unique ability to offer very little resistance to current flow in the forward-bias direction. AC current behavior for a sine-wave: • During the positive half-cycle. reaches the maximum (positive) and decreases to zero. AC current flows first in one direction. diodes are used in rectification. . For this reason. • During the negative half-cycle. • Rectification is the process of converting AC signal to pulsating DC signal. • In each cycle. but maximum resistance to current flow when reverse biased. the current follows in the same manner in the opposite direction. and the diodes used for this purpose are called rectifier diodes.9.

9: Sine-wave AC current .Figure 1.

10.Half-wave rectifier circuit The half-wave rectifier circuit is constructed simply by connecting a diode between the secondary of a transformer and the load as shown in Figure 1. .

7V for Silicon and 0.11a: Operation during positive half-cycle •During the positive half-cycle.Figure 1. the diode conducts when the input voltage exceeds the barrier potential (0. .3V for Germanium diodes) and current flows through the load and returns along the 0V line.11a. •Only the positive half-cycle appears across the load as shown in Figure 1.

11b.Figure 1.11b: Operation during negative half-cycle •During the negative half-cycle. . •This will prevent any current from flowing. and no voltage appears across the load as shown in Figure 1. the diode turns OFF (RB).

it is called a half-wave rectifier. providing a pulsating DC voltage at the output as shown in Figure 1. .12: Input and output of a halfwave rectifier •The net result is that only the positive half-cycles of the AC input voltage appear across the load. •Since this circuit produces output current only during one cycle.12.Figure 1.

Challenge • Explain why the amplitude of the output voltage is less than the amplitude of the input voltage? • _____________________________________ _____________________________________ _____________________________________ ______________ • .

50 or 60 Hz-1 • Digital Multimeters-2 • Oscilloscope-1 • Diode (SY356/6). R = 10k-1-each . 12 V rms. ac supply.Lab activity-1 Apparatus • Quantity • Electricity & Electronics Constructor. EEC470-1 • Basic Electricity and Electronics Kit EEC471-2-1 • Power supply unit 0 to 20 V (Feedback Power Supply 92-445)-1 • Power supply unit.

Constructor-EEC470. Half-wave Rectification .

• Give ac supply through feedback kit. • Connect output to oscilloscope probes at the output. • Make sure that diode is in a proper direction. .STEPS OF EXPERIMENT • Connect the circuit as shown in picture.

13 rectifies AC by using a bridge of four diodes.Full Wave Rectifier Figure 1. It is therefore called a full-wave bridge rectifier.13 Bridge Rectifier •The circuit in Figure 1. .

so they conduct.14: Conduction during positive half cycle During the positive half cycle. Current flows through the load as shown in Figure 1. Diodes D3 and D4 are reverse biased and do not conduct. diodes D1 and D2 are forward biased. .14.Figure 1.

.Figure 1.15: Conduction during negative half cycle During the negative half cycle diodes D1 and D2 are reverse biased. so they do not conduct. Diodes D3 and D4 are forward biased and conduct.

Figure 1.16: Input and Output Waveforms •The result is that the current continues to flow through the load in the same direction in both half cycles. •The rectifier produces output during both half cycles. .

Challenge: What is the voltage difference between the amplitude of the output and input signals for the bridge rectifier circuit. assuming Silicon diodes are used? _______________________________________ _____________________________________ _____________________________________ ____________ .

50 or 60 Hz-1 • Digital Multimeters-2 • Oscilloscope-1 • Bridge-Rectifier. EEC470-1 • Basic Electricity and Electronics Kit EEC471-2-1 • Power supply unit 0 to 20 V (Feedback Power Supply 92-445)-1 • Power supply unit. ac supply. R = 10k-1-each .Lab activity-2 Apparatus • Quantity • Electricity & Electronics Constructor. 12 V rms.

Figure 1.21: Constructor-EEC470. Test Circuit (full-wave rectifier) .

• Connect output to oscilloscope probes at the output. . • Give ac supply through feedback kit. • Make sure that bridge module is in a proper direction.STEPS OF EXPERIMENT • Connect the circuit as shown in picture.

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful