MELJUN CORTES Binary Calculations

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MELJUN CORTES Binary Calculations

© All Rights Reserved

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Computers store numbers in binary They calculate in binary Principles of binary calculation are essentially similar to those for decimal When using computers, make sure you know what the binary data means!

CS113/0401/v1

Lesson 2 - 1

Year 1

BINARY ADDITION

0 0 1 1 + + + + 0 1 1 1 + 1 = = = = 0 carry 1 carry 0 carry 1 carry 0 0 1 1

CS113/0401/v1 Lesson 2 - 2

1101111

carry

Year 1

BINARY SUBTRACTION

1 -

1

101

10

1

10

10

0 0

12 02

1 1

1 1

12

Result 11010012

CS113/0401/v1

Lesson 2 - 3

Year 1

SHIFT OPERATIONS

In reality, multiplication and division are done using Shifting Circular, Logical and Arithmetic shifts exit We will consider the Arithmetic Shift

CS113/0401/v1

Lesson 2 - 4

Year 1

1 1 = 1

1 0

0 1

1 0

Lesson 2 - 5

CS113/0401/v1

Year 1

Binary shift left n places multiples by 2n Fill in right hand side with zeros Beware the sign bit! Repeated doubling cannot change a numbers sign, but it can send it out of range Computers have a special register to detect this

CS113/0401/v1 Lesson 2 - 6

Year 1

CS113/0401/v1

Lesson 2 - 7

Year 1

Computer store is arranged in words Words are fixed length groups of binary digits (bits) Words vary in length on different types of computer Common word lengths are 8, 12, 16, 24 and 32 bits We shall use 12 bit words in examples NB : An 8-bit word is called a byte

CS113/0401/v1 Lesson 2 - 8

Year 1

Computer stores are of finite size This limits the range of values which can be stored and the accuracy of fractions Example

16-bit words are common and can hold integers in the range from -32768 to +32767

CS113/0401/v1

Lesson 2 - 9

Year 1

0 0 1 0 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 1

By convention, the first (left-hand) bit is the SIGN BIT Therefore only 11 bits are left for the number value

0 0 1 0 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 1

CS113/0401/v1

Lesson 2 - 10

Year 1

Sign bit

Padding

Decimal 9

Padding is not really wasteful, it is necessary to make the calculation method work properly

CS113/0401/v1

Lesson 2 - 11

Year 1

The upper limit for storing a number in a 12-bit word is 011111111111 = 2047 decimal

CS113/0401/v1

Lesson 2 - 12

Year 1

CS113/0401/v1

Lesson 2 - 13

Year 1

CS113/0401/v1

Lesson 2 - 14

Year 1

CS113/0401/v1 Lesson 2 - 15

Year 1

Usual convention is one word for integral part, the other for fraction

CS113/0401/v1 Lesson 2 - 16

Year 1

TYPES OF NUMBERS

Even if you know that the data is numeric, make sure you have the right format

CS113/0401/v1

Lesson 2 - 17

Year 1

Sign-and-modulus method is unsuitable for calculation Computers usually use twos complement method Three stages to finding a twos complement

CS113/0401/v1

Lesson 2 - 18

Year 1

CS113/0401/v1

Lesson 2 - 19

Year 1

Total range of 12 bits is -2048 to + 2047 Multiple length works with negative values as well

CS113/0401/v1

Lesson 2 - 20

Year 1

CS113/0401/v1

Lesson 2 - 21

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