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15 views18 pagesMELJUN CORTES Number Bases

Feb 01, 2013

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MELJUN CORTES Number Bases

© All Rights Reserved

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MELJUN CORTES Number Bases

© All Rights Reserved

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You are on page 1of 18

Human base

Computer base

NUMBER SYMBOL

Base

Lesson 1 - 1

CS113/0401/v1

Year 1

Decimal / Denary

Positional value Digit 100 2 10 5 1 8

2 1 0

Binary

Positional value Digit 32 1 16 1 8 0 4 1 2 0 1 1

(1 x 32) + + + + + (1 x16) (0 x 8) (1 x 4) (0 x 2) (1 x 1)

CS113/0401/v1

32 16 0 4 0 + 1 53

Lesson 1 - 2

Year 1

Number System Base Digits Used Decimal 10 0 1 2 Binary 2 0 1 Octal 8 0 1 2 Hexadecimal 16 0 1 2

3

4 5 6 7 8 9

3

4 5 6 7

3

4 5 6 7 8 9 0 A B C D E F

CS113/0401/v1

Lesson 1 - 3

Year 1

Octal

512 64 8 1

Positional value

Digit

+

+ +

(0x64)

(5x8 ) (6x1 ) +

0

40 6 1582

CS113/0401/v1

Lesson 1 - 4

Year 1

Hexadecimal

4096 256 16 1

Positional value

Digit

+ (Fx256)

+ (Ax16) + (6x1)

15x256

10x16

3840

160 + 6 12198

CS113/0401/v1

Lesson 1 - 5

Year 1

Decimal

Positional value 10 1 . 0.1 0.01 0.001

Digit

Positional value Digit 4 1 2 0 1 1 . . 0.5 0.25 0.125 0 1 1

(1 x 4) + + + (0 x 2) (1 x 1) (0 x 0.5) 4.0 0.0 1.0 0.0

+

+

(1 x 0.25)

(1 x 0.125)

CS113/0401/v1

0.25

+ 0.125 5.375

Lesson 1 - 6

Year 1

Octal Fractions

Positional value Digit 8 3 1 1 . 0.125 0.015625 . 2 7

+ (1 x 1)

+ (2 x 0.125) + (7 x 0.015625) +

1.0

0.25 0.109375 25.359375

CS113/0401/v1

Lesson 1 - 7

Year 1

Hexadecimal Fractions

Positional value Digit . . 0.0625 C 0.00390625 F

(C x 0.0625) 12 x 0.0625 0.75 +0.05859375 0.80859375

+ (F x 0.0390625)

15 x 0.0390625

CS113/0401/v1

Lesson 1 - 8

Year 1

Divide by required base and note remainder Continue dividing quotients by required base until the answer is zero Write the remainder digits from right to left to give the answer 117 Decimal to Binary 2 ) 117 remainder 2 ) 58 2 ) 29 2 ) 14 2) 7 1 0 1 0 1

2)

2)

3

1 0

1

1

CS113/0401/v1 Lesson 1 - 9

Year 1

236 Decimal to Octal 8 ) 236 remainder 8 ) 29 8) 8 4 5 3

437 Decimal to Hexadecimal 16 ) 473 remainder 16 ) 29 16 ) 1 9 13 1

437 Decimal= 1 D 9

CS113/0401/v1 Lesson 1 - 10

Hexadecimal

Year 1

Method

Multiply fraction part by base Remove integer part of result as first digit of answer Continue multiplying remaining fractional parts by the base and extracting the resulting integers as answer digits Stop when answer contains enough digits for accuracy required, or when remaining fraction is zero If remaining fraction is zero, the representation is exact

Lesson 1 - 11

CS113/0401/v1

Year 1

.743 x 2 1 .486 x 2 0 .972 x 2 1 .944 x 2 1 .888 x 2 1 .776 x 2 1 .552 x 2 1 .104 x 2 0 .208 0.1 0 1 1 1 1 1 0 Binary = 0.743

CS113/0401/v1 Lesson 1 - 12

Year 1

DECIMAL TO OCTAL

DECIMAL TO HEXADECIMAL

Remember that integer part can be bigger than 10 giving A to F in the answer

CS113/0401/v1

Lesson 1 - 13

Year 1

Octal or hexadecimal are often used as shorthand for binary

Lesson 1 - 14

CS113/0401/v1

Year 1

Express each octal digit as three binary digits, or each hexadecimal digit as four binary digits, then write all the binary digit, as continuous string

OCTAL BINARY HEX 1 001 3 7 111 3 011 D 2 010 A

Add leading zeros (trailing zeroes to fractions) for clarity To convert from octal to hexadeximal or vice-versa go via binary

CS113/0401/v1 Lesson 1 - 15

Year 1

OCTAL ADDITION

The sum of two octal numbers can be deduced by the usual addition algorithm to the repeated addition of two digits ( with possibly a carry of 1 ). The sum of two octal digits, or the sum of two octal digits plus 1, can be obtained by : i. Finding their decimal sum and ii. Modifying the decimal, if it exceeds 8 7, by subtracting 8 and carrying 1 to the next column.

Example:

58 + 6 8 + 28 = 15 8 58 + 68 28 13 8 158

Lesson 1 - 16

CS113/0401/v1

Year 1

HEXADECIMAL ADDITION

The sum of two hexadecimal digits, or the sum of two hexadecimal digits plus 1, can be obtained by : i. ii. Finding their decimal sum and Modifying the decimal, if it exceeds 15, by subtracting 16 and carrying 1 to the next column. A16 + 916 A + Decimal sum Modification Octal sum

CS113/0401/v1

Example :

9 19 16 13 16

Lesson 1 - 17

Year 1

MODULAR ARTHMETIC

In our daily life, there are so many counting / measuring systems around us. E.g. 100 cm is not the same as 100 inches, because measuring is different. Example: If Peter starts work at 8 0 clock in the morning and work for 8 hours, at what time will Peter finish work? Solution: Step 1. Add 8 hours to 8 o clock = ( 8 + 8 = 16 ) Step 2. 16 Divide by 12 ( because 12 hours ) = ( 16 mod 12 ) Step 3. The remainder is 4 = ( 16 mod 12 = 4 )

CS113/0401/v1 Lesson 1 - 18

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