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Instructional Considerations in Curriculum Implementation

Instructional Considerations
Classroom-level implementation of curriculum plans Instructional considerations include such minutiae as content, grouping, materials, pacing/sequencing, grading, and many more variables. These decisions should be made according to the overall curriculum plan.

Instructional Considerations in Curriculum Implementation


Managing the Curriculum Contents Managing the Curriculum Methods Managing Instructional Materials Managing Evaluation of Instruction

Managing the Curriculum Contents

Managing the Curriculum Contents


Content should be relevant and significant. Because technology is advancing so quickly, subject matter in curriculums may become too old before they become printed or be seen in audio-visual form. Books must always be updated, whether in accordance to knowledge or technological externalities

Managing the Curriculum Contents


We always have to ask ourselves: What is basic? The back-to-basics movement, which stressed emphasis in basic skills such as reading, writing, and arithmetic. However, emphasizing the immediate present too much may have a tradeoff: curriculum experiences may stress less emphasis on preparation for the future. Responsiveness to society is one of the main features that a public school should have.

Managing the Curriculum Contents


Curriculum planners must be aware of changes taking place in the world today. One of the most important activities of curriculum planners is to develop loyalty to democratic human values. There should also be a balance between intellectual proficiency and societal perspective. According to Hilda Taba, technology requires that we arent only technologically proficient. It also requires that we are morally and socially grounded as well.

Managing the Curriculum Methods

Managing the Curriculum Methods


Teachers must be able to: Identify and separate the contributing elements constituting a given teaching-learning situation Conceptualize the relationships between those interacting elements Select and plan appropriate instructional strategies Develop and sharpen suitable skills in order to translate the selected strategies into practice Acquire reliable and meaningful feedback in the form of empirical and objective data Evaluate the effectiveness of the selected strategies Modify and revise strategies for future improvement

Managing the Curriculum Methods


Selecting optimal teaching methods should prompt teachers to ask: Who are my students? What should they learn? How should they learn? When should they learn it?

Managing the Curriculum Methods


Methods of presenting content will be easier once teachers have data from the students. These data include, but not limited to: physical and intellectual characteristics, age levels, maturity, IQ, performance evaluations, and reading ability. Attitudes of students, learning styles, and cultural backgrounds are also valuable cues.

Managing the Curriculum Methods


Here are the teaching methods that teachers can apply: Comparative Analysis Conference Demonstration Diagnosis Directed Observation Discussion Drill Experimentation Field Experience Field Trip Group Work Laboratory Experience Lecture Manipulative and Tactile Activity Modeling and Imitation Problem Solving Programmed Instruction Project Reading Recitation Role-Play Seminar

Managing Instructional Materials

Managing Instructional Materials


While the abundance of instructional materials may provide plenty of opportunities for students to learn in diverse ways, it may also confuse the teacher. Instructional materials should be selected primarily on the basis of its relevance to the goal-seeking activity involved. Another consideration is accuracy (factual and cultural). Lastly, instructional materials should be appropriate to the needs and interests of learners.

Managing Instructional Materials


Common Sources of Instructional Materials Teachers Schools School districts Regional agencies National networks Professional associations Commercial publishers and other businesses Professional journals

Managing Instructional Materials


Types of Instructional Materials Textbooks Other Printed Materials Self-pacing materials Games and Simulation Computer-assisted Instruction Educational films Educational Television Powerpoint presentations

Managing Evaluation of Instruction

Managing Evaluation of lnstruction


When we are talking about evaluation of instruction, we are taking about evaluation of teaching methods with an aim for revision and improvement of methods. Teaching improvement requires behavioral change that arises after careful analysis and feedback of information. Any curriculum program is only as good as the teacher who implements it.

Managing Evaluation of lnstruction


Flanders System of Interactional Analysis Interaction analysis is a method of determining the verbal dimension of teacher-pupil interaction in the classroom. Flanders method determines the amount of verbal interaction that takes place between teachers and students. The system allows an observer to find out whether the teacher is controlling (decreases students freedom of action) or not (increases students freedom of action)

Managing Evaluation of lnstruction


John Hough modified Flanders system of ten categories and turned it into 13 categories. Hough differentiated teacher statements as either indirect or direct. A teacher is indirect if he maximizes students freedom of response and direct if otherwise. Hough also classified student talk into four categories.

Managing Evaluation of lnstruction


Indirect Teacher Accepts feeling Praises or encourages Accepts or uses ideas of student Asks questions Answers student questions Direct Talk Lecture Gives directions Corrective feedback Criticizes students/justifies authority Student Talk Teacher-initiated student talk Student questions Student-initiated student talk Silence or confusion

Managing Evaluation of lnstruction


Continuous use of interactional analysis revealed: Excessive teacher talk. This happens when teacher talk accounts for 2/3 or more of classroom time. Recitation. Majority of teacher talk involved asking and reacting to questions that called for factual answers. Solicitation-response is the most common verbal exchange in the classroom.

Managing Evaluation of lnstruction


According to Marie Hughes, the most frequent teaching acts involve plenty of control: Goal-setting and directing children to precise thing where they will pay attention Identification of content for pupils Specific answer (and solution)

Managing Evaluation of lnstruction


There are reports that indicate that questioning today most likely involves no more than recall of memorized material. Questions should go beyond mere recall and should also do the following: Simulate student participation Initiate a review of materials previously covered Initiate discussion of topic or issue Involve students in logical thinking Diagnose student knowledge and thinking ability Determine the extent to which objectives have been mastered Encourage student participation in class discussion

Managing Evaluation of lnstruction


Nonverbal communication Analyzing nonverbal communication also counts in evaluation of instruction. Facial expressions, body movements, and vocal tones all count in nonverbal communication. Students are sensitive to nonverbal communication; thus, teachers must be consistent. For instance, teachers should not praise a students work verbally and at the same time gesture disapproval of the work nonverbally.

Managing Evaluation of lnstruction


While nonverbal communication is quite difficult to analyse objectively, teachers should know the significance of the nonverbal messages that they send. The more teachers can analyze the way they communicate nonverbally, the more they can answer: What does my behaviour mean to students? How is my behaviour interpreted by students?

Managing Evaluation of lnstruction


Classroom Management Jacob Kounins system of analysing classroom management deals with transitions from one unit to another. Here are some examples: Group alerting/thrusting Stimulus boundedness Overlappingness Dangle With-itness (timing/accuracy)

Managing Evaluation of lnstruction


Evaluation These guidelines are important to remember when using evaluation instruments: Evaluation instruments should be as objective as possible. Evaluation instruments should be relatively simple, understandable, and convenient to use. Evaluation criteria should focus on performance. All personnel should be familiar with instruments used along with the procedures to be followed. Personnel should be encouraged to evaluate themselves before others perform formal evaluations using instruments.