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BASIC INSTRUCTIONAL TECHNIQUES

Elisa M. Magtibay
18 April 2012

BASIC INSTRUCTIONAL SKILLS


What comes to your mind when you hear the word BASIC? What do you understand by the term INSTRUCTIONAL SKILLS? If you were to choose ONE basic instructional skill, what would you choose? Why?

REPORT OUTLINE
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II.
III. IV. V.

INTRODUCTION MOTIVATING SKILLS QUESTIONING SKILLS PRACTICE and DRILLS PERSONAL INSIGHTS

MOTIVATING SKILLS
MOTIVATION
- an inner drive that causes one to do something and persevere at it - while ability refers to what one can do, motivation refers to what one will do - refers to the initiation, direction, intensity and persistence of behavior

MOTIVATING SKILLS
INDICATORS OF HIGH LEVEL MOTIVATION
- Excited about learning and accomplishing things - Takes initiative to undertake learning tasks without being pushed - Has goals and dreams to accomplish and realize - Willing to give up immediate gratification for accomplishment of remote goals

TYPES OF MOTIVATION
INTRINSIC
- Source of motivation is from within the person - Evident when people engage in an activity for its own sake, without external incentive

EXTRINSIC
- When that which motivates a person is someone or something outside him/her - Necessary to develop intrinsic motivation where intrinsic motivation is absent

DIVERSITY IN MOTIVATION

May be traced to differences in age,


developmental stage, gender, socioeconomic and cultural background

Persons motivational drive reflect the elements of culture in which they grow up family, friends, school, church,
books

Motivation is likely to vary as a function of the abovementioned There is no single best method of motivating learners

THEORIES ON FACTORS AFFECTING MOTIVATION


1.

ATTRIBUTION THEORY
Attributing success or failure to several factors Factors are either
- internal or external - stable or unstable - controllable or uncontrollable

How Does Attribution Affect Motivation?


- internal, unstable, controllabe attributes likely to be motivated - external, stable, uncontrollable attributes likely to be less motivated

THEORIES ON FACTORS AFFECTING MOTIVATION


2.

SELF-EFFICACY THEORY
Belief that one has the necessary capabilities to perform a task, fulfill role expectations or meet a challenging situation successfully How Does Self-Efficacy Affect Motivation?
- The higher the persons sense of selfefficacy, the higher the likeliness to be intrinsically motivated

THEORIES ON FACTORS AFFECTING MOTIVATION


3.

SELF DETERMINATION & SELF REGULATION THEORIES


When one believes that one has some choice and control regarding the directions ones life takes Ability to master ones self set goals and standards, monitor progress, evaluate own performance How Does Self Determination & Self Regulation Affect Motivation?
- A person who has self-determination and selfregulation is more likely to be intrinsically motivated

THEORIES ON FACTORS AFFECTING MOTIVATION


4.

CHOICE THEORY
Suggests that all of our behavior represents our best attempt at any moment to satisfy our basic needs or genetic instructions
- survival, belonging, power or competence, freedom, fun

How Does Choice Theory Affect Motivation?


- A person is most likely to be intrinsically motivated when put in a need-satisfying environment

ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AFFECTING MOTIVATION


1. 2.

Human learning environment


Teachers, classmates, parents

Conducive learning environment


Emotional climate Social climate Physical climate Academic climate Psychological climate

QUESTIONING SKILLS

Good teaching involves good questioning Skillful questioning can:


Arouse curiosity Stimulate imagination Motivate to search out new knowledge Challenge and make one to think Help clarify concepts and problems

TYPES OF QUESTIONS
I.

According to thinking process involved (or cognitive taxonomy)


LOW LEVEL (knowledge) Questions HIGH LEVEL (evaluation) Questions CONVERGENT Questions DIVERGENT Questions

II.

According to type of answer required


III.

According to the degree of personal exploration or valuing

TYPES OF QUESTIONS
I.

According to thinking process involved


LOW LEVEL Questions
emphasize memory and recall of information focus on facts and do not test understanding correspond to lower cognitive process foster learning with those developing knowledge base assesses readiness for high level questions Guilford information Bruner concrete operations Jensen level-one thinking Ex. How old is PNU? Who is its first President?

TYPES OF QUESTIONS
I.

According to thinking process involved


HIGH LEVEL Questions
go beyond memory and factual information deal with complex and abstract thinking: analysis, synthesis, and problem solving Ex. Why was PNU built?

The ideal is to reach a balance between the two types of questions.

TYPES OF QUESTIONS
According to cognitive taxonomy
Benjamin Bloom
knowledge category correspond to low-level questions simplest form of learning and most common educational objective comprehension, application, analysis, synthesis, evaluation categories correspond to high level questions

TYPES OF QUESTIONS
II. According to type of answer required
Convergent Questions
Tends to have one correct or best answer Tends to require a single predictable answer Tends to call for defining, stating Usually start with what, who, when, where Ex. What is the capital of the Philippines?

Divergent Questions
Often open ended Usually have many appropriate, different answers Usually start with why or how Ex. Why was Manila made the capital of the Philippines?

TYPES OF QUESTIONS
III.

According to the degree of personal exploration or valuing


a process in which students explore their feelings and attitudes, analyze their experiences, and express their ideas Emphasis on the personal development of the learner through clarifying attitudes and aspirations and making choices Ex. Was it a hard decision? Who helped? Why is it important to you? How does that make you feel?

2 MAJOR PURPOSES OF QUESTIONING


1. Instructional Questioning used in new learning and practice is generally convergent preferred or right answers 2. Diagnostic Questioning designed to elicit information from students about their understanding of the topic generally divergent responses are not labelled right or wrong

GUIDELINES IN ASKING QUESTIONS


1.

Provide sufficient wait time


the interval between asking a question and the student response is 3-4 seconds Benefits of wait time
Increased length of responses Increased unsolicited but appropriate responses Increased confidence Increased speculative responses Increased student-to-student responses Increased student questions Decreased failure to respond

GUIDELINES IN ASKING QUESTIONS


2.

Direct
Ask the question, then call a students name because MORE students will be alert and think about the question Better to be unpredictable in calling on students and calling non-volunteers

3.

Redirect/Rephrase
Used when a students response is inadequate Teacher should not provide the answer but redirect or rephrase the question to another student

GUIDELINES IN ASKING QUESTIONS


2.

Follow Up
Used when a students response is incorrect Is directed from one student to another

3.

Probe
The teacher stays with the same student, asking for clarification or asking related questions, and restating the students ideas Not cross-examination

FORMULATING QUESTIONS
1.

Plan ahead
o o

Formulate pivotal questions that relate to the major objectives of the lesson Formulate emerging questions as the discussion progresses to keep the flow of ideas and maintain interaction

2.

Examine questions in terms of 5 major characteristics


o o o o o

Conciseness Challenge Group orientation Appropriateness to age and ability of students Variety

DONTs in ASKING Qs
1. Ask yes or no questions that allow a 50-50 chance of getting the right answer. 2. Ask indefinite or vague questions. 3. Ask guessing questions. 4. Ask double or multiple questions. 5. Ask suggestive or leading questions. 6. Ask fill-in questions. 7. Ask overload questions.

EXAMPLES
Did Andres Bonifacio write the Noli Me Tangere? What do you see in the picture? Who is the wife of Abraham? What is fact? What is opinion? Why was Marcos a bad president? The chemical formula for salt is? How did the Americans propagate colonialism while influencing the Philippine education system that led to materialism among many Filipinos while developing a deep sense of nationalism to those who

DONTs in ASKING Qs
8. Ask tugging questions.

EXAMPLES
What else? Who else? Any other?

9. Cross-examination questions.
10. Call the name of the student before asking a question.

11. Answer a question asked by a student if students should know the answer.
12. Repeat questions or repeat answers given by students. 13. Exploit bright students or volunteers. 14. Allow choral responses or handwaving. 15. Allow improper speech or incomplete answers to go unnoticed.

Instead, ask: Who can answer that question?


Instead, ask: Who can repeat that question or that answer? The chemical formula for salt is?

DOs in ASKING Qs
1. Ask stimulating questions. 2. Ask questions that are commensurate with students abilities. 3. Ask questions that are relevant to students. 4. Ask questions that are sequential. 5. Vary the length and difficulty of questions.

6. Ask clear and simple questions


7. Encourage students to ask questions of each other and to make comments. 8. Allow sufficient time for deliberation.

9. Follow up incorrect answers.


10. Follow up correct answers. 11. Call on volunteers and non-volunteers. 12. Call on disruptive students.

13. Prepare five or six pivotal questions.


14. Write the objective and summary of the lesson as a question. 15. Change your position and move around the room.

PRACTICE & DRILL


What comes to your mind when you here the words practice and drill? Would you have unforgettable practice and drill experiences?

a common method used to teach the fundamentals to students, especially young children

APPLICATIONS of Practice & Drill


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2.
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Busywork Seatwork Activities Back-to-Basics Approach


Elementary : 3Rs High School : Ma, Sc, Eng, His, ForLang

4. 5.

Behaviorist Approaches Mastery Learning Methods


Adequate mastery and learning through practice and drill before progressing to more complex concepts and skills Ex. Kumon

6.

Remedial Instruction

FUNCTIONS OF PRACTICE & DRILL


1. 2. 3. 4.

5.
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Review the previous days work and homework. Present skills and concepts necessary for new content. Provide students practice and checks to evaluate student responses. Receive feedback from student work and questions and re-teaching common problems. Provide students with methods for independent practice. Conduct weekly or monthly reviews in test or non-test forms.

GUIDELINES FOR IMPLEMENTING PRACTICE & DRILL


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3. 4. 5.

Practice must follow understanding and can enhance understanding. Practice is more effective if students. have a desire to learn what is being practiced. Practice should be individualized. Practice should be specific and systematic. Practice should be intermixed with different materials and parts of the lesson.

GUIDELINES FOR IMPLEMENTING PRACTICE & DRILL


Practice should be organized so that students experience high rates of achievement. 8. Practice should be organized so that students and teacher have immediate feedback. 9. Practice material should be used for diagnostic purposes. 10. Practice material should provide progressive continuity between learning tasks.
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IMPROVING PRACTICE & DRILL


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Have a clear system of rules and procedures for general behavior. Move around the room to monitor students seatwork. Provide comments, explanations, and feedback. Spend more time teaching and reteaching the basic skills. Use practice during and after learning. Provide variety and challenge in practice and drill. Keep students alert and focused on the task. Maintain a brisk pace.

PERSONAL INSIGHTS
What struck you most? Why? What do you agree with most? Why? What do you disagree with most? Why?

REFERENCES
STRATEGIES FOR EFFECTIVE TEACHING Allan C. Ornstein PRINCIPLES AND STRATEGIES OF TEACHING
Brenda B. Corpuz, and Gloria G. Salandanan FACILITATING LEARNING: A METACOGNITIVE PROCESS Maria Rita D. Lucas, and Brenda B. Corpuz