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DEFINITION :

Pump is a mechanical device used to add kinetic and potential energy to a liquid for the purpose of moving it from one point to another. This energy will cause the liquid to do work such as flow through a pipe or rise to a higher level and Pump gives pressure to fluid passing through it.

Types:
Centrifugal Pump Positive Displacement: Reciprocating: Piston pump Plunger pump Diaphragm pump Rotary: Gear pump Screw pump Lobe pump

Centrifugal Pump

Lobe Pump

External-gear Pump

Internal-gear Pump

PUMP TERMINOLOGY
NPSHa (Net Positive Suction Head available):

Net pressure in a given system, based on vessel pressure and static head, minus the liquid vapor pressure.
NPSHr (Net Positive Suction Head required):

Minimum head needed by the pump based on pump characteristic (depends on Impeller inlet, Impeller design, pump flow rate, impeller speed, type of liquid).
Vapor Pressure:

Pressure level when liquid flashes or changes to vapor

CAVITATION:
Cavitation is the formation of vapor bubbles in a high-velocity, low-pressure region and by the subsequent collapse when the bubbles move to a higher pressure region. Cavitation can cause loss of head and capacity. Also can create excessive erosion and vibration. Indication: Knocking noise due to formation and subsequent collapse of vapor bubbles. Cavitation occures due to : Pump cavitation can result from insufficient available NPSH (NPSHa < NPSHr) High pump-suction velocities and long piping increase pressure fluctuations in the pump.

THE MEDICINE
Increase NPSHa by : Increase pressure at suction of pump Decrease liquid temperature Reduce head losses Reduce NPSHr (Depends on Impeller inlet, Impeller design, Pump flow rate, impeller speed, type of liquid)

PUMP LOCATION
Primary Purposes:

1. Minimize the length of the suction piping


2. Satisfying piping flexibility requirement / Sup 3. Adequate access for operation & maintenance / repair

1A, 1B: under pipe rack minimal hydrocarbon spill from air cooler provide support from pipe rack 3A, 3B: partially under pipe rack discharge piping can rise vertical into the vertical slot 6A, 6B: outside the pipe rack potentially hydrocarbon spill

7A, 7B: under equipment equipment such as drums, HE, provide support from proximity pipe steel structure 9A, 9B: inline pump

TYPICAL PIPING PUMP ARRANGEMENT & RULES

SUCTION LINE
Suction piping is one or two line sizes larger than the pump suction nozzle size.
Suction Line Fittings :

1. STRAINER Strainers is used to catch any foreign matters that may have collected during piping construction. Strainers will be located between pump suction block valve and pump. Type of strainer 1) Temporary strainer 2) Permanent strainer

Conical strainers are longer than the basket type. These are used on suction lines 2 and larger.

For basket and conical types a removable spool piece must be provided downstream of suction block valve

Flat strainers use with very short suction lines where no debris is expected

Permanent Strainer:
Bathtub or tee type strainers as most expensive, it does not require unbolting and removing spool piece to remove the strainer.

Y- type strainer to permit servicing of the strainer. Also, a blow-off connection may be provided in the end cap to flush the strainer.

2. REDUCERS;
Should be as close as possible to the pump suction nozzle so that pump suction will not starved. Use Eccentric reducer with Flat Surface Up for horizontal line Reducer located as close as possible to pump nozzle

Air pocket formed along upper side of pipe by concentric reducer.

3. Block Valve

Suction line should have positive shut off valve, use gate valve at

the upstream of strainer.


Pump valves are operating valves, thus keep them as low as

possible

PUMP PIPING LAYOUT CONSIDERATION


1. Flexibility & Support of the pump piping
Allowable loading on the pump nozzle is very low and the piping must

be properly supported to avoid overstressing.


Is there any structure or pipe rack nearby? If there is no structure/pipe rack nearby consult to pipe stress

engineer to find best place to make support.

When expansion loops are required between pumps, it is necessary to partially run the lines over pumps and driver . Every effort must be made to minimize maintenance obstruction by running the piping outside the area of the pumps or at a high enough elevation to permit the removal of the pump or driver.

2. Pump Maintenance & Operational


Consider how each component is to be physically removed if they need to be maintained or replaced and the tool needed to do that. Make sure there is enough space to pick and move the component.

There will be some valves that need to be operated so make sure there is adequate space on pump area to access the valve. Orientation of block valves must minimize the plot area required.

The elevation of the valves should generally be as low as possible and common in both lines when possible.

3. Uniformity
Duplicate piping configurations at groups of pumps of

similar size

MULTIPLE PUMP ARRANGEMENT

The lines should be configured so the piping flexible enough & receive optimum support.

The elevation of the block valves should be within the reach of the operator.

Multiple pumps arrangement, which the one in the center is a spare pump.

BELOW GRADE SUCTION PUMP


Use Flat Side Top (FST) reducer to avoid cavitation. Use of basket strainer in this case is more practical

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