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INNOVATIVE METHODS OF TEACHING

Muraleedharan.T, Principal, CUTEC-Vatakara

A CLASS ROOM TEACHING

A BHUTANESE CLASS ROOM

A MONTESSORIE CLASS ROOM hes words and illustrations as his teacher looks on. The Italian educator Maria Montessori introduced her method of teaching children in 1907. The Montessori method encourages .

MARIA MONTESSORIE .

AN ADULT LITERACY CLASS .

AIDS EDUCATION .

A CLASS ROOM IN U.A .S.

A FIELD TRIP TO MUSEUM .

A LANGUAGE CLASS IN AN UNDERDEVELOPED COUNTRY .

A HIGH SCHOOL CLASS AT MALI .

KINDERGARTEN CLASS .

A KUWAITI CLASS ROOM .

A YOGA CLASS IN INDIA .

AFGANISTHANI WOMEN ATTEND CLASS .

WHICH IS CORRECT ? METHOD OF TEACHING OR METHOD OF LEARNING .

M Advance Organizer.M Group Investigation Bruner Suchman Role Playing Project Method Collabor ative Lg.TEACHING METHODS Reception Learning Discovery learning Lecture. Jean Piaget Dramatization . .

PSYCHOLOGICAL REALITY OF LEARNING HOW DOES THE LEARNING TAKES PLACE? WHETHER KNOWLEDGE ACQUIRE OR CONSTRUCT? CAN WE TEACH ANYTHING? .

cognitivism. behaviorism. learning theories are attempts to describe how people and animals learn. and constructivism.LEARNING THEORY In psychology and education. . There are basically three main perspectives in learning theories. thereby helping us understand the inherently complex process of learning.

under the assumption that it does not necessarily reflect any external "transcendent" realities. and social experience. it is contingent on convention. .CONSTRUCTIVISM  Constructivism is a perspective in philosophy that views all of our knowledge as "constructed". human perception.

CONSTRUCTIVISM      COGNITIVE CONSTRUCTIVISM SOCIAL CONSTRUCTIVISM CULTURAL CONSTRUCTIVISM RADICAL CONSTRUCTIVISM CRITICAL CONSTRUCTIVISM .

and cultural knowledge. Effective teaching employs a variety of learning strategies .BASIC PRINCIPLES OF CONSTRUCTIVIST TEACHING • "The brain is a parallel processor". including thoughts. It simultaneously processes many different types of information. emotions.

2 • "Learning engages the entire physiology" Teachers can't address just the intellect. .PRINCIPLE .

PRINCIPLE . . and that students' understandings are based on their own unique experiences.3 ► "The search for meaning is innate" Effective teaching recognizes that meaning is personal and unique.

Effective teaching connects isolated ideas and information with global concepts and themes.4 "The search for meaning occurs through 'patterning' ’’.PRINCIPLE . 1. .

"Emotions are critical to patterning" .5 1. . and attitudes. Learning is influenced by emotions. feelings.PRINCIPLE .

PRINCIPLE . People have difficulty learning when either parts or wholes are overlooked. .6  "The brain processes parts and wholes simultaneously" .

and climate.7 • "Learning involves both focused attention and peripheral perception".PRINCIPLE . Learning is influenced by the environment. culture. .

Students need time to process 'how' as well as 'what' they've learned.8  "Learning always involves conscious and unconscious processes". .PRINCIPLE .

. Teaching that heavily emphasizes rote learning does not promote spatial.PRINCIPLE .9 1. "We have at least two different types of memory: a spatial memory system. experienced learning and can inhibit understanding. and a set of systems for rote learning" .

PRINCIPLE .10 "We understand and remember best when facts and skills are embedded in natural. Experiential learning is most effective. spatial memory" (p. . 86).

PRINCIPLE . The classroom climate should be challenging but not threatening to students .11  "Learning is enhanced by challenge and inhibited by threat" .

PRINCIPLE . .12 • "Each brain is unique" . Teaching must be multifaceted to allow students to express preferences.

which holds that learning should build upon knowledge that a student already has. rather than when he/she is passively listening to a lecture.Constructivist teaching  Constructivist teaching is based on the constructivist learning theory. and that learning is more effective when a student is actively involved in the construction of knowledge. the learners give meaning to the knowledge based on their personal experiences. .Thus.

.Constructivist learning  JEAN PIAGET’S LEARNING THEORY.  LEV VYGOTSKY’S LEARNING THEORY.

and political activist Noam Chomsky is considered the founder of transformationalgenerative linguistic analysis. . teacher.NOAM CHOMSKY American linguist. writer. which revolutionized the field of linguistics.

Piaget was associated with several universities. Switzerland. and in 1955 he served as director of the International Center for Epistemology in Geneva.JEAN PIAGET Swiss psychologist Jean Piaget is recognized for his studies of the mental development of children. .

and Development of the Higher Mental Processes (1960). Lev Semionovich (1896–1934). Soviet psychologist. Selected Psychological Studies (1956).  . whose work on language and linguistic development is based on his supposition that higher cognitive processes are a product of social development.LEV SEMIONIVICH VYGOTSKY  Vygotsky. His major works include Thought and Language (1937).