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General Notes on Models of Abnormality

The ways that different perspectives explain problems = models

Also known as paradigms Understand events Interpret problems Develop solutions

Affect the way we see the world:


Will discuss most therapies in detail with disorders and at end of semester
Models of abnormality Copyright2004. Lana Crosbie

03/14/2004

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Biological Models

Read about brain anatomy and chemistry in the text Abnormality a result of illness involving malfunctioning in the body (usually brain)

medical model

Some abnormal behaviors are affected by physiology:


Schizophrenia too much dopamine Depression not enough serotonin


Models of abnormality Copyright2004. Lana Crosbie

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Biological Models

Genetics also play a role:


Schizophrenia, Mood Disorders, Alzheimers Dont know yet the exact genes involved, probably more than one gene

Polygenic resulting from more than one gene

Biological Treatments:

Drugs (know types, not each specific drug) Electroconvulsive Therapy (ECT) Psychosurgery
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Biological Models

Pros:

Research produces valuable information Treatments often provide relatively quick relief from symptoms Doesnt explain all abnormality Knowledge still inconclusive or incomplete Side effects from treatments Still dont know how/why some of them work
Models of abnormality Copyright2004. Lana Crosbie

Cons

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Psychodynamic Models

Behavior determined by mostly unconscious underlying psychological forces

Dynamic because they interact with each other

Abnormality results from conflicts between these forces

Deterministic all behavior determined by past experiences of abnormality Models


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Psychodynamic Models

Freud: Psychoanalysis

Personality has 3 parts: Id, Ego, Superego Develops in stages: Oral, Anal, Phallic, Latency, & Genital People can get stuck in any of these
Results in fixation Use defense mechanisms to deal with conflicts

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Defense Mechanisms, Know other psychodynamic theories, Models of abnormality


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Psychodynamic Models

Pros:

Understanding that normal and abnormal behaviors can result from same processes First explained existence of psychological conflict First to apply theory systematically to abnormal behavior Difficult to define and research Limited evidenceoffor its validity Models abnormality
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Cons:

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Behavioral Models

Behaviors result from learned responses

Conditioning Receiving rewards operant conditioning

Can be learned from:


B.F. Skinner developed techniques Explained by Ivan Pavlov, John Watson Therapeutic techniques developed by Mary Cover Jones Importance explained by Albert Bandura
Models of abnormality Copyright2004. Lana Crosbie

Temporal association classical conditioning


Observing others modeling

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Behavioral Models

Know process of classical conditioning, Pros:


Behaviors can be observed and measured Research supports effectiveness of techniques Symptoms developed in lab for research may not develop same way in real world Improvements may not last long-term
Models of abnormality Copyright2004. Lana Crosbie

Cons:

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Cognitive Models:

Abnormal behaviors can be explained by maladaptive or irrational thoughts, attitudes, and assumptions Aaron Beck and Albert Ellis developed cognitive therapies

Irrational/Illogical thinking processes result in abnormal functioning


Overgeneralization Personalization Models of abnormality

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Cognitive Models

Pros:

Has strong research support Therapies show good results

Depression, Sexual dysfunctions, panic disorder

Cons:

Dont know exactly how or why disturbed cognitions cause problems Therapies dont work for all people or all problems Models of abnormality
Copyright2004. Lana Crosbie

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Humanistic / Existential Models

Emphasize drive to better self, find meaning in life Abnormality results from lack of

Caring and support (Humanistic) Meaning in life and anxiety (Existential) Carl Rogers, Abraham Maslow (Humanistic) Rollo May, Irving Yalom, Victor Frankl (Existential)
Models of abnormality Copyright2004. Lana Crosbie

Important People:

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Humanistic/Existential Models

Pros:

More spiritual, appealing view of abnormality and human condition Optimistic Emphasizes personal responsibility May emphasize personal responsibility too much Difficult to define and research concepts (like psychodynamic theories) Models of abnormality
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Cons:

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Sociocultural Model

Abnormalities can be influenced by social experiences and cultural values

Abnormalities a result of a dysfunctional system, not just an individuals pathology Salvator Minuchin, Virginia Satir developed family system therapies Thomas Szasz challenged idea of mentally ill as being a troubling social label Models of abnormality
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Important People:

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Sociocultural Models

Pros:

Social factors do affect how we define mental illness


Homosexuality Hysteria

Recognizes that individual is part of social system Research tends to be correlational Models of who becomes mentally ill Doesnt predict wellabnormality 1.15 Copyright2004. Lana Crosbie

Cons:

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Biopsychosocial Models

Integration of:

Biological Social Psychological (Esp. cognitive & behavioral) Interaction of these factors no one cause Relative importance of each factor depends on individual and environment
Models of abnormality Copyright2004. Lana Crosbie

Abnormality caused by:

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Biopsychosocial Models

Explanations of mental illness:

Diathesis / Stress
Physiological, sociocultural or genetic predisposition to develop disorder Stressor that triggers manifestation of disorder

Reciprocal Effects
Certain key factors (e.g., genetic tendency towards introversion) influence other key factors (personality characteristics such as social awkwardness) These key factors influence other key factors (e.g., Models of abnormality unfulfilling social relationships) of disorders 1.17 Copyright2004. Lana Crosbie

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Biopsychosocial Models

Pros:

Take into account interactions between forces affecting psychological functioning Combines treatment methods better tailored for individual

Cons:

Hard to find one specific cause of problems Can be difficult to research hard to find single IVs. Models of abnormality
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