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Space Time Block Code

PRESENTED BY
A.G.LAXMI NAGAMBHAL,
K.NAGARJUNA.
A Computationally

Efficient Algorithm

for STBC Decoder
Introduction

The next generation wireless systems are required to have high voice quality as
compared to current cellular mobile radio standards and provide high bit rate
data services.

At the same time, the remote units are supposed to be small lightweight pocket
communicators.

The next generation systems are supposed to have better quality and coverage,
be more power and bandwidth efficient, and be deployed in divers
environments.

The fundamental phenomenon, which makes reliable wireless transmission
difficult, is time-varying multipath fading.

In wireless communications, the performance of the system is degraded due to
multipath fading.

Diversity techniques are widely applied in combating time varying fading
channels.





Diversity Techniques:
A diversity scheme refers to a method for improving the reliability of a
message signal by utilizing two or more communication channels with
different characteristics.
Diversity plays an important role in combating fading and co-channel
interference and avoiding error bursts.
Time diversity:
Multiple versions of the same signal are transmitted at different time
instants.
A redundant forward error correction code is added and the message is
spread in time by means of bit-interleaving before it is transmitted.
Thus, error bursts are avoided, which simplifies the error correction.
Frequency diversity:
The signal is transferred using several frequency channels or spread over
a wide spectrum that is affected by frequency-selective fading.
. OFDM modulation in combination with subcarrier interleaving and
forward error correction
. Spread spectrum, for example frequency hopping or DS-CDMA.
Space diversity:
- The signal is transferred over several different propagation paths
- It can be achieved by antenna diversity using multiple transmitter antennas
(transmit diversity) and/or multiple receiving antennas (reception
diversity).
Why transmit diversity?

Transmit diversity allows
all the processing
complexity to be placed at
the base station.
A spacetime code (STC) is a method employed to improve the reliability of
data transmission in wireless communication systems using multiple transmit
antennas.

STCs rely on transmitting multiple, redundant copies of a data stream to the
receiver in the hope that at least some of them may survive the physical path
between transmission and reception in a good enough state to allow reliable
decoding.

Space time codes may be split into two main types:
Spacetime trellis codes (STTCs) distribute a trellis code over multiple
antennas and multiple time-slots and provide both coding gain and
diversity gain.
Spacetime block codes (STBCs) act on a block of data at once (similarly to
block codes) and provide only diversity gain, but are much less complex in
implementation terms than STTCs.
Why STBC ?
Space-Time Block Codes (STBC) recently emerged as a
promising transmit diversity scheme due to simple
decoding complexity at the receiver.

The orthogonal structure of STBC provides decoupling
of the signals from different antennas and allows a
decoding complexity dependent only on the
constellation size.

A Brief Overview of STBC
The STBC transmission matrices and the Maximum likelihood decision
metrics.
We will use the 2x2, 8x3 and 8x4 STBC transmission matrices, which will be
referred to as G
2
, G
3
, and G
4
respectively.
The subscripts of the transmission matrices refer to the number of transmit
antennas employed in that code. Each column represents the transmitted
symbols from a specific antenna, while each row defines a time slot.
G
2
is used to transmit 2 symbols in two time slots, while G
3
and G
4
send 4
symbols in 8 consecutive time intervals.




The entries of matrices c
i
, are selected from the employed
signal constellation and c
i
*
, refers to the complex conjugate
of that signal.

The orthogonal structure of space-time block codes can be
observed by taking the dot product of any two columns.

At the receiver, the orthogonal characteristic of the STBCs
results in a decoding scheme that is a function of only one
transmitted symbol.

Therefore, the decoding complexity is linearly dependent
on the constellation size.

The decision metrics M
G2
(c
1
,p
k
) and M
G2
(c
2
,p
k
) , of G
2
, M
G3
(c
1
,p
k
) of G
3
, and
M
G4
(c
1
,p
k
) of G
4
are shown below.

..1

..2


..3


4


Need of the new algorithm?
Power dissipation is the major concern of VLSI
system designers due to battery-operated devices.
Therefore, during the design process low power
techniques need to be considered at every level.


Although a significant amount of research effort
has been placed on the power reduction schemes
at the circuit level, a major portion of the power
savings can be obtained at the algorithm level.
Proposed Algorithm:
In order to develop an efficient method, it is desirable to obtain a general representation,
which is common to all decision metrics.

An inspection of the metrics reveals that all decision metrics consist of two distinct
parts. The first part is always a function of r
t
j
and o
ij
, whereas the second part is only a
function of o
i,j
.

In the first part of the decision metrics, after all multiply and add operations, a complex
number is obtained, which we represent as a + jb. The second part is only a constant real
number, and we define it as a
^
.




The expressions for a + jb and a are shown below for M
G3
(c
1
,p
k
).

a+jb = E (r
1
j
o
1
,j-
+ r
2
j
o
3
,j- + r
3
j
o
3
,
j-
+ ( r
5
j
)
-
o
1
,j
+ (r
6
j
)*o
2
,j
+( r
7
j
)
-
o
3
,j
)

|=|-1+2|o
ij
|
2
]

A general representation for all decision metrics is obtained as in (1).

M= ((a+j b) -p
k
(
2
+||p
k
|
2
.(1)


In order to search for a computationally efficient decoder, some mathematical
manipulations can be applied to (1).

If we let p
k
= p
x
+jp
y
, and substitute into (1) we obtain:

M (p
k
) = ((a+jb)- (p
x
+jp
y
) (
2
+ |(p
x
2
+p
y
2
)

M (p
k
)=a
2
+b
2
+p
x
2
+p
y
2
2(ap
x
+bp
y
) + |(p
x
2
+p
y
2
) . (2)

The decoder minimizes the decision metric to detect the transmitted signal over
all possible values of p
k
= p
x
+jp
y
, in the signal set.

During minimization of (2), some useful simplifications can be realized as
follows.

1. a
2
+ b
2
is common for all p
k
and it is not needed to include them in the
comparisons. Therefore, we get
M (p
k
) = p
x
2
+ p
y
2
2 (a p
x
+b p
y
) + |(p
x
2
+ p
y
2
) (3)

2. If the energies of the constellation signals are the same such as in BPSK, QPSK,
and 8-PSK, then p
x
2
+ p
y
2
+ |(p
x
2
+ p
y
2
) is also a common term for all
comparisons.
y= min (M (p
k
)) = min (-2 (a p
x
+b p
y
))
or equivalently y= max (a p
x
+b p
y
) .(4)







In eq.(4), the term, ap
x
+bp
y
, is maximized if and only if both, ap
x
and, bp
y
are
positive numbers.

Maximum occurs when a has the same sign as p
x
, and b carries the same sign
as p
y.

Therefore, the signs of a and b determine the signs of the constellation signal
that maximizes (4).

This observation leads us to a very simple solution. The quadrant of the
transmitted signal is found only by observing the sign bits of a and b.

In BPSK and QPSK, after calculating the estimate a + jb, the decoder does not
perform any further calculations.

Decoder makes a decision by observing the sign bits of a and b.

This observation might also be utilized by the other constellations such as 8-
PSK and 16-QAM to narrow down the possibilities in searching for the
transmitted signal.




1. BPSK


If (sign (a) = positive)
y = p
0

If (sign (a) = negative)
y = p
1










Fig. Signal space representation for
BPSK
2. QPSK
Fig. Signal space representation
for QPSK
The quadrant of the transmitted signal
is found simply by using the sign of a
and b. Therefore, the calculation of a
and b are the only necessary operations
for a decision.

If (Sign (a) = positive & Sign (b) =
positive)
y=p
0
,

If (Sign (a) = negative & Sign (b)
=positive)
y=p
1
,

If (Sign (a) = negative & Sign (b) =
negative)
y =p
2
,

If (Sign (a) = positive & Sign(b) =
negative)
y=p
3
.


3. 8-PSK
The determination of the quadrant of
the received signal reduces the
number of candidate constellation
points from 8 to 3.

The quadrant is determined by using
the signs of a and b.

Equation (4) is applied to the three
possible signals within the selected
quadrant.

Assuming that the first quadrant is
selected, p
0
, p
1
and p
2
are substituted
into (4) to obtain the three estimates
for comparisons.

For p
0
, p
x
, =l, and p
y
=0














Fig. Signal space
representation for 8-PSK.
For p
2
, p
y
=l, and p
x
=0 then

y(p
0
) = a and y(p
2
) = b ( no operation)

For p
1

y( p
1
) = sin (H/4)(a+ b) ( 1 addition and I multiplication)

Among the three estimates, the maximum estimate is found by 2
comparison operations as follows.
If (a>b) & (a> sin (H/4)(a+ b)) y=p
0

If (|sin (H/4)(a+ b)|>a) & (|sin (H/4)(a+ b)| > b) y=p
1

If (b>a) & (b> |sin (H/4)(a+ b)|) y=p
2
















16-QAM

The points in a 16-QAM
constellation, have unequal energies
and consequently the |
|
p
k|
2
components of the decision metrics
cannot be ignored.
After reduction of the possibilities
from 16 to 4 by selecting a quadrant
this equation
M (p
k
) = p
x
2
+ p
y
2
2 (a p
x
+b p
y
) +
|(p
x
2
+ p
y
2
)
needs to be used for the final
decision.



Comparison of the Two Algorithms
Applications

Use full at Base stations in communication.

Mobile communication Networks.

Conclusion

The new algorithm reduces the total
number of operations for decoding the
symbols for one code from 25% to
79%.




[1] V. Tarokh, N. Seshadri, and A. R. Calderbank, Space-time block coding
for wireless communications: Performance results, IEEE J. Select. Areas
Commun., vol. 17, pp. 45 1-460, Mar. 1998.
[2] S. M. Alamouti, A simple transmitter diversity scheme for wireless
IEEEJ. Select. Areas Commun., vol. 16, pp. 1451-1458, Oct.
1998.
[3] E. Cavus and B. Daneshrad, A computationally efficient algorithm for
spacetime block decoding, in Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. Communications,
vol. 4, Jun. 2001, pp. 11571162.




THANQ!