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Presented By: Nitin K Nandan GET Operations

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Types and working Pressure Terminology

Back Pressure Valve Sizing

What is a Safety Valve

Device designed to protect a pressurized vessel or system during an overpressure event An overpressure event refers to any condition which would cause pressure in a vessel or system to increase beyond the specified design pressure. Should be capable of operating at all times, power failure , system controls are nonfunctional. Since reliability is related to the complexity of the device, it is important that the design of the pressure relief valve be as simple as possible.

Types of Safety Valves

Spring Loaded

Pilot Operated
Vacuum Safety Rupture Disc Thermal Safety

Spring Loaded Type

It consists of a valve inlet or nozzle mounted on the pressurized system Disc held against the nozzle to prevent flow under normal system operating conditions

Spring to hold the disc closed, and a body/bonnet to contain the operating elements. The spring load is adjustable to vary the pressure at which the valve will open

Valve Closed
In a direct spring loaded safety valve the closing force or spring force is applied by a helical spring which is compressed by an adjusting screw.

The spring force is transferred via the spindle onto the disc
The disc seals against the nozzle as long as the spring force is larger than the force created by the pressure at the inlet of the valve.

Valve Closed (p < pset) F p < Fs Fs = Spring force Fp = p*As = Force by pressure As = Seat area affected by pressure (p)

Valve Opening
In an emergency situation a safety valve will open at a predetermined set pressure. The spring force Fs is acting in closing direction and Fp, the force created by the pressure at the inlet of the safety valve, is acting in opening direction. At set pressure the forces Fs and Fp are balanced. There is no resulting force to keep the disc down on the seat. The safety valve will visibly or audibly start to leak called simmering.
Valve at Set Pressure (p pset) Fp = Fs Fs = Spring Force Fp = p*As = Force by pressure where As = seat area affected by pressure p

The pressure below the valve must increase above the set pressure before the safety valve reaches a noticeable lift. As a result of the restriction of flow between the disc and the adjusting ring, pressure builds up in the so called huddling chamber. The pressure now acts on an enlarged disc area. This increases the force Fp so that the additional spring force required to further compress the spring is overcome. The valve will open rapidly with a "pop", in most cases to its full lift. Valve Flowing (p > pset) Fp > Fs due to enlarged disc area Overpressure is the pressure increase above the set pressure necessary for the safety valve to achieve full lift and capacity.

Pressure Relief Valve

Standard safety valves are generally fitted with an easing lever, Lever enables the valve to be lifted manually in order to ensure that it is operational at pressures in excess of 75% of set pressure. This is usually done as part of routine safety checks, or during maintenance to prevent seizing. The fitting of a lever is usually a requirement of national standards and insurance companies for steam and hot water applications.

Pilot Operated Safety Valve

This type of safety valve uses the flowing medium itself, through a pilot valve, to apply the closing force on the safety valve disc. The pilot valve is itself a small safety valve There are two basic types of pilot operated safety valve, namely, the diaphragm and piston type. The piston type valve consists of a main valve, which uses a piston shaped closing device (or obturator), and an external pilot valve

If the inlet pressure were to rise, the net closing force on the piston also increases, ensuring that a tight shut-off is continually maintained. when the inlet pressure reaches the set pressure, the pilot valve will pop open to release the fluid pressure above the piston . With much less fluid pressure acting on the upper surface of the piston, the inlet pressure generates a net upwards force and the piston will leave its seat. This causes the main valve to pop open, allowing the process fluid to be discharged. When the inlet pressure has been sufficiently reduced, the pilot valve will reclose, preventing the further release of fluid from the top of the piston, thereby reestablishing the net downward force, and causing the piston to reseat.

Pilot operated safety valves offer good overpressure and blowdown performance (a blowdown of 2% is attainable).

Vacuum Safety Valve

Direct acting vacuum relief valves (also known as breather valves, conservation vents, or safety vents) are special types of relief valves which are specifically designed for tank protection. The valve prevents the build up of excessive vacuum (negative pressure) which can unbalance the system or damage the storage vessel The inlet relief port is fitted with a mesh cover to prevent the ingress of foreign matter. The valve has a cast body which is flanged for connection to the storage tank.

Piped-in versions and spring-loaded valves are also available throughout the range.

The valve has a cast body which is flanged for connection to the storage

tank. The inlet relief port is fitted with a mesh cover to prevent the ingress of foreign matter. Piped-in versions and spring-loaded valves are also available throughout the range. This 'O' ring can be removed and the seat machined optically flat, producing a metal to metal seating arrangement if required The weight of the pallet pushes the diaphragm against the seat to keep it closed. When the vacuum increases, the pallet and diaphragm lifts and air/gas is allowed to flow.

Rupture Discs

A rupture disc is a thin diaphragm designed to rupture (or burst) at a designated pressure.
It is used as a weak element to protect vessels and piping against excessive pressure (positive or negative. They are often used as the primary pressure relief device. Very rapid pressure rise situations like runaway reactions. When pressure relief valve cannot respond quick enough.

Our standard rupture discs are made of thin metal foils which are domed. The general guidance for rupture discs is that their maximum operating pressure should not exceed 90% of their design burst pressure. This guidance was developed to protect these discs from the effects of repeated pressure pulsing. While no cycle life is guaranteed, at 90% of design, the service life might be more like 5,000 cycles. It should be noted that the burst tolerance of one of these discs is + 5%. So to take a disc to 90% of its design may in fact be taking it to 95% of its actual burst pressure.

Thermal Safety Valve

Thermal relief valve is being use to relieve the pressure, which is generated by increasing in the liquid volume caused by an increase in temperature. Thermal relief valve also used at Pipe Line, Pressure Vessel or Tanks to relief a pressure which generated by Thermal Expansion.

TSVs generally have very small inlet to allow the liquid to rise and push against the seat. When the liquid pushes the seat rises and the liquid is released. Following the release the pressure is reduced and the valve reseats.

Pressure Terminology

Relieving pressure shall not exceed MAWP (accumulation) by more than: 3% for fired and unfired steam boilers 10% for vessels equipped with a single pressure relief device

16% for vessels equipped with multiple pressure relief devices

21% for fire contingency

Back Pressure
Back Pressure is defined as the pressure in the Safety Valve outlet. PSV outlet can be either be to atmosphere or to some vessel.

Back Pressure is of 2 types:

Superimposed Back pressure Built up Back pressure

Superimposed Back Pressure

The pressure present in the downstream of the pressure relief valve. Superimposed Back pressure is considered when the PSV is in line but is dormant. In our plant most PSVs are discharge to flare line. Some of them are open to atmosphere and some are open to tank via the drain drum.

Hence considering the operating pressure the back pressure is negligible.

Built up Back pressure

Built up back pressure is the pressure in the downstream of a relief valve when its in action. It is a resultant of the friction losses due to flow of the fluid through the relief lines.

Built up Back pressure is dependant on the Diameter length elbows and silencers Present in the discharge line.
Total back pressure is the sum of Built up + Superimposed Back Pressure

Valve Sizing
Valve Sizing is an important part of process design. Valve size , seat dia and Discharge area are calculated considering many parameters. They are input to many systematic equations.

Valve sizing is affected by the following properties: Fluid Properties Operating Conditions Relieving Conditions.

Correction factors are included to account for the effects of back pressure, compressibility and subcritical flow conditions.

A = minimum required effective discharge area in square millimeters C= Coefficient determined from an expression of the ratio of specific heats of the gas or vapor at standard conditions. Kb = Capacity correction factor due to back pressure. For standard valves with superimposed K = Effective coefficient of discharge, K = 0.975 M = Molecular weight of the gas or vapor obtained from standard tables P1 = Relieving pressure in kpa. This is the set pressure (kpa) + overpressure (kpa) T = Absolute temperature of the fluid at the valve inlet, in kelvin W = Required relieving capacity, Kg/hr. Z = Compressibility factor

In case the tank PSVs: They are designed for the worst case ie. Roll Over

W =

W is the BOG formation rate in kg/hr V is the gross capacity of the tank P is the gas formation rate in wt% D is the density of LNG. The tank PSVs are designed for the worst case possible ie. Rollover, so that maximum vapour released. Now the vapour generation rate is around 94.7ton/hr in case of rollover for our tank.

Values corresponding to the tank conditions for methane are to be substituted In the equation

Parameter W T Z M C P Kb

Value 94700kg/hr(3.04wt%) 273-160= 113K 1 16 348 133.225kpa 0.89

On substitution we get that the area is around 103247mm2 Since actual orifice area is 54190mm2, the essential number of pressure relief valves be two according to the flow capacities. Third one is for spare value. All the calculation be it PSV or TSV the parameters are similar and the application of the operating conditions and relieving conditions will give the necessary area