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By R.

Kargen Pgia/11/8700

Heat and Temperature

Often make the mistake of interchangeably using the terms heat and temperature Heat - energy in transit Temperature - measure of the amount of energy possessed by the molecules of a substance Temperature is an intensive property, while heat is an extensive property Is really temperature a measure of heat?

Heat exchanger principle

Heat transfer from one medium to another Start with the determination of the overall heat transfer coefficient Heat transfer depends on
Type of materials Thickness Surface area Type of fluid Flow rate of fluids Etc.

How to calculate?

Wall heat exchange

Inclusion of surface fouling and fin (extended surface) effects, the overall heat transfer coefficient change as

Approximate values for overall heat transfer coefficient

Physical situation Brick exterior wall, plaster interior, uninsulated Frame exterior wall, plaster interior: Uninsulated With rock-wool insulation Plate-glass window Double plate-glass window Steam condenser Feedwater heater Freon-l2 condenser with water coolant Water-to-water heat exchanger Finned-tube heat exchanger, water in tubes, air across tubes Water-to-oil heat exchanger Steam to light fuel oil Steam to heavy fuel oil Steam to kerosone or gasoline Finned-tube heat exchanger, steam in tubes, air over tubes Ammonia condenser, water in tubes Alcohol condenser, water in tubes Gas-to-gas heat exchanger Btu/h ft2 F 0.45 W/m2 C 2.55

0.25 0.07 1.10 0.40 200-1000 200-1500 50-150 150-300 5-10 20-60 30-60 10-30 50-200 5-50 150-250 45-120 2-8

1.42 0.4 6.2 2.3 1100-5600 1100-8500 280-850 850-1700 25-55 110-350 170-340 56-170 280-1140 28-280 850-1400 255-680 10-40

Fouling factor
Due to various deposits, corrosion Represents an additional resistance to the heat flow Decreased performance Overall effect is usually represented by fouling

Normal fouling factors

What is a heat exchanger?

A piece of equipment built for efficient heat transfer from one medium to another May be separated by a solid wall, so that they never mix, or they may be in direct contact Used in space heating, refrigeration, air conditioning, power plants, chemical plants, petrochemical plants, petroleum refineries, natural gas processing, and sewage treatment

Heat exchanger analysis

Log mean temperature difference
Relate the total heat transfer rate to quantities such as the inlet and outlet fluid temperatures, , the overall heat transfer coefficient, and the total surface area for heat transfer Applying overall energy balances

i -fluid enthalpy subscripts h and c refer to the hot and cold fluids i and o - fluid inlet and outlet conditions

If the fluids are not undergoing a phase change and constant specific heats are assumed

Parallel-Flow Heat Exchanger

The heat exchanger is insulated from its surroundings, in which case the only heat exchange is between the hot and cold fluids. Axial conduction along the tubes is negligible. Potential and kinetic energy changes are negligible. The fluid specific heats are constant. The overall heat transfer coefficient is constant.

Counter flow Heat Exchanger

Provides for heat transfer between the hotter portions of the two fluids at one end, as well as between the colder portions at the other

The Effectiveness-NTU Method

Depends on maximum possible heat transfer rate and many more Use when only inlet temperatures are known

Compact Heat Exchangers

Used when a large heat transfer surface area per unit volume is desired and at least one of the fluids is a gas Heat transfer correlated in terms of the Colburn j factor jH = St Prm and the Reynolds number, where both the Stanton (St = h/Gcp) and Reynolds (Re = GDh/u) numbers are based on the maximum mass velocity

Types of heat exchangers

1. Shell and tube heat exchanger
consist of a series of tubes One set contains the fluid that must be either heated or cooled second fluid runs over the tubes typically used for high-pressure applications

2. Plate heat exchanger

composed of multiple, thin, slightly-separated plates with very large surface areas fluid flow passages for heat transfer stacked-plate arrangement can be more effective

3. Plate fin heat exchanger

"sandwiched" passages containing fins to increase the effectiveness of the unit include crossflow and counterflow coupled with various fin configurations used for low temperature services such as natural gas, helium and oxygen liquefaction plants, air separation plants and transport industries such as motor and aircraft engines

4. Phase-change heat exchangers

heat a liquid to evaporate (or boil) it or used as condensers to cool a vapor and condense it to a liquid

5. Spiral heat exchangers

pair of flat surfaces that are coiled to form the two channels in a counter-flow arrangement highly efficient use of space

6. Screw heat exchanger

High/ Low pressure limits Thermal Performance Temperature ranges Product Mix (liquid/liquid, particulates or highsolids liquid) Pressure Drops across the exchanger Fluid flow capacity Cleanability, maintenance and repair Materials required for construction Ability and ease of future expansion