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Chapter 2: Selecting Research Topic Resource Person: Muhammad Zaheer
Selecting A Research Topic (Pure Research)
Attributes of a good research topic- checklist
Does the topic fit the specifications and meet the standards of examining body of the institute? Is the topic some thing with which you are really fascinated? Does your topic contain issues that have a clear link to theory?
checklist Do you have. the necessary research skills to undertake the project? (language etc) Is the research topic achievable within available time and financial resources? Will you be able to gain access to data you are likely to require for this research topic? Will your research be able to provide fresh insights into this topic? Does your research topic relate clearly to the idea you have been given (applied research) . or can you develop within the project time frame.Attributes of a good research topic.
Attributes of a good research topic. impact of mobile on society) Does the research topic match your career goals? Are you able to state your research question(s) and objectives clearly? .checklist Are the findings for this research topic likely to be symmetrical? (eg.
Looking at past project titles. Discussion Searching the literature Articles (review articles) Reports books .Generating Research Ideas Two techniques for generating and refining research ideas: Rational thinking Examining your own strengths and weaknesses.
.Generating Research Ideas Creative thinking Keeping a note book of ideas Exploring personal preferences using past projects Relevance trees Brain storming One should use both techniques.
Refining Research Ideas Delphi Techniques The preliminary study (do some literature review and apply the checklist) Integrating Ideas (Narrowing down from general to specific) .
Clear. Research objectives are the deliverables of the research project. specific statements that identify what a researcher wishes to accomplish as a result of doing research. in a precise terminology as possible of “What information is needed to address this situation?” . A research objective is a statement.Research Objectives The goals to be achieved by conducting research.
Help to develop well-formulated.Research Question Express the research objectives in terms of questions that can be addressed by research. specific hypotheses that can be empirically tested Guide the decisions about research design . Guide the literature search.
Guide analysis of data. Guide writing up your data. Stop from going off in unnecessary directions .Research Questions Guide decisions about what data to collect.
Be neither too broad nor too narrow. Have potential for making contribution to research. Be linked with each other.Considerations when developing questions Research Questions should: Be Clear Be researchable Connect with established theory and research. .
How effective is the recruitment through internet as compared to traditional methods? (Research question) .Research Questions Avoid too easy(% of males & females is an area) or too difficult questions (why % is …) You may start from research idea that leads to a research objectives and research question. Job recruitment via internet (research idea) To measure the effectiveness of recruitment via internet (Research objective).
Steps in selecting research questions Research Area Aspect of Research Area Generate Research Questions Select Research Questions .
Example of Research Questions TQM Impact of TQM on work Does TQM have positive or negative impact on work? Does the effect of TQM on job satisfaction vary with the level? Does TQM disrupt traditional work methods? Do workers try to resist TQM? Does TQM lead to empowerment or disempowerment? Does the way TQM is introduced have an influence on the nature of its impact on job satisfaction? Does TQM have positive or negative impact on work? Does the way TQM is introduced have an influence on the nature of its impact on job satisfaction? Does the effect of TQM on job satisfaction vary with the level? .
lack of motivation etc .RESEARCH PROCESS Step-1 Broad Problem Area (Applied Research) OBSERVATION:. It is gut feeling. Sales decline. Eg. Managers take cues from verbal & non verbal signals. production interruptions. Problem is not defined yet.Broad problem area one sees / feels certain changes are occurring or new behaviors. attitudes and feelings are surfacing.
. Problem can be: Currently existing (harassment) Improvement required Conceptual or theoretical issue Empirical answers Broad problem area would be narrowed down to specific issues of investigation..Step-1 Broad Problem Area cont.
Talking to others and literature review. Nature of information needed to understand problem is: i.Step 2 PRELIMINARY DATA GATHERING (By Interview & Literature Survey) Seeking information to know more about what one observed. At the first stage interviews are conducted to know the nature of problem.Background information of the organization .
Step 2 PRELIMINARY DATA GATHERING (By Interview & Literature Survey) ii Management philosophy and structural factors Information gathered on these issues will be useful for researcher in talking with officials & interviewing them. Attitudes and behavioral responses . This information can be taken by asking direct questions iii-Perceptions.
Research Proposal A written statement of the research design that includes a statement explaining the purpose of the study. Detailed outline of procedures associated with a particular methodology .
Research Proposal A proposal is an individual’s or company’s offer to produce a product or render a service to a potential buyer or sponsor. prospectus. and statement of intent or draft plan. . treated and interpreted. To discuss the research efforts of others who have worked on related problem. A proposal is also called work plan. The purpose of proposal is: To present the problem to be researched and its importance. To suggest the data necessary for solving the problem and how that data will be gathered. A contract proposal must represent its plan services & credentials to win the proposal. outline.
Research Proposal A Proposal tells: What will be done ? Why it will be done ? How it will be done? Where it will be done? To whom it will be done? What is the benefit of doing it? .
design. . In corporate setting researcher is responsible to department or management of organization. it allows the sponsors to assess the sincerity of your purpose. A student researcher is responsible to class Instructor..Research Proposal SPONSOR USES Every research has a sponsor in one form or another. Govt or corporate – sponsored research use grant committee to evaluate work. Doctoral candidate is responsible to committee. Proposal is first step in evaluation process. background material and fitness of undertaking the prefect & compares with computers. University.
External contract starts from RFP (Request For Proposal ) .Research Proposal Proposal also provides a basis for sponsor to evaluate the result of a project by comparing it with find product.
Research Proposal Researcher Benefits. Proposal Complexity Depending on the type of project. different levels of complexity are required for proposals to be judged. assumption or even problems. . Prompts the researcher to assess previous approaches to the problem and revise the plan accordingly. Opportunity to spot flaws in the previous work i.e errors in logic. and the cost of project. Accepted proposal serves as guide to researcher throughout the project Forces time & budget estimates. the sponsoring individual or institution.
PROPOSAL COMPLEXITY Complexity Type Student Least Term paper Master’s thesis Doctoral thesis Most Internal Exploratory study Small Scale Large Scale Study Study Small Scale contract research External Exploratory contract research Large Scale Govt. Sponsored research .
improvement. Brief in nature To solve problem. schedule. letter of transmittal. External Proposal : Important section of external proposal includes objectives. make decision. qualification. . Executive survey essential Schedules & budgets.Types of Research Proposals Internal Proposal: Done for company by research department. design. budget executive survey.
Purpose of investigation. 2. . Problem Statement:. 3. Research Objectives:.Brief statement of problem. background consequences importance of problem. It can be stated as the research questions. Restriction areas of problems. what is being planned by research approach. Executive Summary:.State the problem. which will not be discussed. List the objectives either in order of importance or general terms first.Structure of Research Proposal 1. research objectives / research question & benefits of your approach.
Research Design • • Qualitative research Quantitative methods Questionnaires interviews . company data. industry reports. Importance / Benefits of Study 6.Structure of Research Proposal 4. Literature Review:. do a brief review not comprehensive.Examines the present or past research studies. 5.
. Budget:.Structure of Research Proposal 7. Don’t forget to include cost of proposal writing into your fee. Relevant business & technical societies to which researcher belongs can be mentioned.Provide it as required by the sponsor not more than two pages.Begin with principal investigator. experience of previous research done. Qualification Of Researchers: . 8. Also cost of publication & deleting of final report.
Gantt chart . 10.Structure of Research Proposal 9. critical path method (CPM) are used to schedule the activities to finish in time. Facilities & special resources:Some projects require special facilities or resources that should be described in detail e.g focus groups.Time table of major phases of project. Schedule:. CATI list all these. .
Show the sponsor that research team is organized & can do it efficiently. Examples of mgt & tech reports Research team relationship with sponsor Financial & legal responsibility Management competence . Include the following: Team’s Org.Structure of Research Proposal 11. Project Management:. Management procedure & control for Research Project.
13.Structure of Research Proposal 12. provide bibliography as required.Projects that require literature review. Appendices Glossary Measurement instrument Other . Bibliography :.