Julian Gomes
Algosaibi Services Co.

UNIT IGC1: Management of International Health & Safety

Element 5: Risk Assessment
Five Steps to Risk Assessment Process
1. Look for hazards
2. Decide who might be harmed and how 3. Evaluate the risks and decide if enough is being done 4. Record significant findings

5. Review and revision


limit visitors. look at things around and keep people away from accessing the hazard area.Employees VISIOTORS CONTRACTORS MEMBERS OF THE PUBLIC if you share your workplace. you will need to think about how your work affects Reduce collective risk. .  Employees DIRECTLY INVOLVED AFFECTED BY THE PROCESS  Non.STEP 2: Decide who might be harmed and how  Be clear about who might be harmed That doesn’t mean listing everyone by name. but rather identifying groups of people (eg ‘people working in the storeroom’ or ‘passers-by’).

new and young workers (unfamiliar and unaware of the risk) New and expectant mothers e. The oven was normally set to run at 260C. Harvestime Bakeries (May 1998): maintenance works were trapped inside a hot oven and eventually died from burns and heat exposure after being unable to escape.. For example.g. It had only been turned off for two hours and the centre was 100C when these two men went inside. limitation in interaction. breast milk may get contaminated from radiation or chemicals Sex Genders (females may be more prone to risk than male. .        Trainees. visitors. no assistance during emergencies) Cleaners.some workers have particular requirements. e. people working at home.g. e. Lone workers.  Groups at Particular Risk .g. travelling workers ( due to lack of supervision.defective equipment.male and female gamete) People with disabilities may be at particular risk. ) Part time temporary workers (who may not be in the workplace all the time. contractors. ‘shelf stackers may suffer back injury from repeated lifting of boxes’. Maintenance workers generally deals with problems . maintenance workers etc.Step 2: Decide who might be harmed and how  Identify how they might be harmed what type of injury or ill health might occur. isolation.

(unlikely to happen. major injury(treatment off site like in hospital). may happen. very likely to happen and certain) Severity = Death Minor injury(first aid on site). etc.STEP 3: Evaluating Risks Definition:  Hazard: something that has the potential to cause harm(loss). Hazard (physical) = Electricity  Risk: is the LIKELIHOOD of harm occurring and the SEVERITY of the outcome. E. over 3 days injury and death . E. Likelihood = frequency or probability of electricity causing harm may be obtained from previous accident records associated with that particular job. equipment.g.g. likely to happen.

 Suitability of existing controls (risk assessment before doing the long) and frequency(number of times how often) of exposure.  Availability of First Aid facility needs to be considered since if the treatment is delayed the victims condition will deteriorate. .  Competence of those who been exposed (proper training will reduce the frequency and therefore the risk may be low)  Condition of equipment ( a damage equipment will increase chance of failure)  Numbers of exposed (collective risk – three mile island)  Nature and intensity of hazard (physical. ergonomic & psychological). chemical. biological.Factors affecting risk  Duration(time.

Likelihood of slip & trip in busy kitchen is high.Calculating the risk Risk = Likelihood X Severity Risk of Slip & trip and Burn from deep fat oil is high in a busy kitchen. . Severity is high serious burn.

Risk Rating Matrix Certain (5) Death (5) Major Injury (4) Over 3 days Injury (3) Minor Injury – treatment off site (2) Minor Injury – First Aid on site (1) 25 20 15 10 5 Very (4) 20 16 12 8 4 Likely (3) 15 12 9 6 3 May Happen (2) 10 8 6 4 2 Unlikely (1) 5 4 3 2 1 Risk Priority Matrix Score 1 -4 5-10 12-25 Priority Low Medium High Action Low risk –control measures must be maintained Medium risk – soon control required. . Further resources may be needed. High risk – urgently action required to control.

Using cordless power tool educe at source: try a less risky option (e.Hierarchy of Risk Control liminate/Avoid: e. engineering controls: prevent access to the hazard (eg by guarding). solate (barriers. systems of work: eg.I. SOP ersonal protection isplay/ discipline . distance.g.g switch to using a less hazardous chemical). ontrol (admin procedures. G. cleaning window using extended glass wiper and water hose pipe.

buying car with special safety features or not.e.Implement Control Measures • Reduce as far as is reasonably practical ( balance between Benefit and cost.  Prioritization of risk: risk control measures will depend on the risk rating (Low . medium or high) . Tolerability: driving in Saudi Arabia because we have some benefits so tolerating the risk.) • Acceptability of risk vs Tolerability Acceptability: degree of acceptance which is reasonably practical.g.

and the remaining risk is low. for example ‘Tripping over rubbish: bins provided..fewer than five employees you do not have to write anything down. or ‘Fume from welding: local exhaust ventilation used and regularly checked’. weekly housekeeping checks’.reference to documents like material safety data sheet. .significant hazards: people who may be affected: people who could be involved. keep it simple. past history (if any) • . When writing down your results. The following things needs to be included . staff instructed. .any further action is necessary or not .risk and adequacy of existing control measure: the precautions are reasonable.STEP 4 – Record your Findings • • Significant findings to be recorded .

it is necessary to review what you are doing on an ongoing basis. understanding and experience to conduct risk assessment). substances and procedures that could lead to new hazards.STEP 5. .Review & revise • Significant change in the tasks. Every year or so formally review where you are. skill. • Significant changes in the Health & Safety legislation. processes and equipment – Plan to introduce new technology. or at least not sliding back. Therefore. will bring in new equipment. • Review in case of accidents or ill-health Who can carry out the risk Competent person ( having sufficient knowledge. to make sure you are still improving.

6. 8. Avoiding risks: stop doing the task if you thing risk associated with that particular task. working conditions. Combating the risk at source: slippery floors are treated or replaced rather than just putting up a sign. Adapting to technical process by introducing new equipment with special safety features. Evaluating risks: risk assessment to be carried out. social relationships and the influence of factors relating to working environment. . Giving appropriate instruction . training and supervision to employees. 4.Element 6: Principles of Control General principles of prevention 1. Replacing the dangerous by non-dangerous or less dangerous: substituting to water base paints. 3. 5. Developing a coherent overall prevention policy technology. 7. Giving collective protective measures priority over individual protective measures: removing hazardous dust by exhaust ventilation rather than providing a filtering respirator to an individual worker. 2. organisation of work.

. and should implement measures to ensure its use and maintained. which include admin control  Where residual hazards/risk cannot be controlled by collective measures. through the use of engineering controls or organisational measures  Minimize the hazards/risk by the design of safe work systems. at no cost.Principles of Hazard Prevention and control ILO-OSH 2001  Eliminate the hazard/risk  Control the hazard/risk at source. including clothing. the employer should provide for appropriate personal protective equipment.

• Limitations of PPE: it does not eliminate or reduce the hazard. cleaning/sterilization facility. relies on worker use. etc. it may uncomfortable and therefore worker may not use for long duration.Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) • Ensure that it is suitable – different body structure. safety harness system. • Adequate training/instruction provided regarding handling and usage • Regular monitoring and supervision required • Suitable storage facility. etc. it only protects the wearer. • Types: aprons. eye protection. life-jackets. . safety footwear. may introduce new hazard.

• • • . gives them ownership. A Safe System of Work may relate to one very specific task (for example. encourages them to use the system and confirms management commitment. understanding and experiences. lists risk control/management necessary and provides instruction to staff working on the task. written agreement between line management and staff defining how to perform a task safely. use of a chain saw) or to a wide area of work where hazards and risks are common to many tasks.Safe system of work • Safe system of work is a formal. Employer responsible to provide safe system Developed by people with sufficient skills. The Safe System of Work relates to specific staff working on specific tasks and is in operation for an agreed length of time. must be recorded. tasks and time period until revision. staff. The Safe System of Work states identified risks (from the risk assessment step). Encourage workers participation in development process since they have practical working knowledge. knowledge.

insurance claim • May be a requirement of organization Quality Assurance purpose.Importance and relevance or written procedures • Serves as written documentation of the organization’s commitment to its employees’ safety and health. • May contain complex information • May be used in defense against legal action. .

Development of Safe System of Work • • • • • • Select the task Record the steps Examine the components parts Develop the safe system Implement the safe system Monitor/maintain the system .

• Key elements of system  Issue by the authorised issuing department within the organisation.  Method of working  Emergency action to be taken  Date and time of permit validity  Information regarding any work which needs isolation  Signature of the issuer and receiver . The permit to work procedure is a specialized type of safe system of work for ensuring that potentially very dangerous work (hot work like wielding.Permits to work • This Technical Measure Document refers to permit to work systems required to control work such as maintenance activities on chemical plant and so prevent a major accident. work with high voltage 1000V )is done safe.  Receipt by an authorised person on behalf of those who are to carry out the work  Clearance of permit at the end of the work  If the permit overruns close that permit and open another one  Shall specify the work and the work area.

. decide whether there is a need for electrical and mechanical isolation. method of communication. due to one or more of the following factors:its design. 3) and is not designed or configured for continuous occupancy 4) Can represent a risk for the for the health and safety of anyone who enters. or the • mechanical. suitability and adequacy of personal protective equipment. only competent employees must do the job. process and safety hazards present Prevention Prevent the need for entry at very first place if reasonably practicable If entry cannot be avoided: supervision is required. location or atmosphere • the materials or substances in it • work activities being carried out in it. construction. need for atmospheric testing/monitoring. 2) is large enough for a person to enter to perform tasks. availability. need to be cleaned before entry.Work in Confine Spaces A confined space is any space: 1) that has limited or restricted means of entry or exit. is the entrance big enough.

• Employer must inform employees about the first aid arrangement • Self-employed must ensure adequate and suitable provision is made. facilities and people so your employees can be given immediate help if they are injured or taken ill at work. . 1:150 in low risk areas).First Aid Requirements • The Health and Safety (First-Aid) Regulations 1981 require you to provide adequate and appropriate first-aid equipment. Role of the first aiders • Give immediate assistance to casualties • Summon an ambulance or other professional help • Number of first aiders based on risk are and number of persons( 1:50 in high risk areas.

Thank You .