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rashes. upper layers of the skin. scratching. • Dermatitis (eczema) is inflammation of the • The term eczema is sometimes used for dermatitis.).g. an irritating substance. • dermatitis is always the skin's way of reacting to severe dryness. or an allergen. etc.Dermatitis • Dermatitis is a term meaning any "inflammation of the skin " (e. .

symptoms • Commn symptoms are itching. and scaling. blisters. . swelling. scabbing. and often oozing. redness.

• Cosmetics: hair dyes. causing anything from a mild rash to a blistering • 2.MAIN CAUSES • • • Plants: 1. sunscreens. perfumes. Its sap can cause phytophotodermatitis (severe skin inflammations) when the skin is exposed to sunlight or to UV-rays. nail polish remover. Metal compound (in jewelry): Nickel . The juices of all parts contain a phototoxin that can act on contact with skin and exposure to ultraviolet light.Giant Hogweed :Giant Hogweed is a phototoxic plant. moisturizers. deodorants.Cow Parsnip. aftershave lotions. nail polish.

shoes. • Chemicals used in clothing manufacturing: Tanning agents in shoes.• OTHER PLANTS: Poison ivy. promethazine). • Drugs in skin creams: Antibiotics (sulfonamides. anesthetics (benzocaine). . ragweed. neomycin). stabilizers. poison oak. poison sumac. antiseptics (thimerosal). antihistamines (diphenhydramine. rubber accelerators and antioxidants in gloves.

Itching can be relieved with a number of topical drugs small areas of dermatitis can be soothed by applying pieces of gauze or thin cloth dipped in cool water or aluminum acetate. Prevention and Treatment: Contact dermatitis can be prevented by avoiding contact with the causative substance. 1. Barrier creams are also available that can block certain substances.TYPES OF DERMATITIS • • • • • dermatitis is skin inflammation caused by direct contact with a particular substance causing the appearance of rashes.CONTACT DERMATITIS: Contact .

oozing. • In older children and adults. . or legs. arms. scalp. hands. the rash often occurs (and recurs) in only one or a few spots. • Symptoms:Infants may develop red. Atopic Dermatitis :Atopic dermatitis is chronic. diaper area. crusted rashes on the face. feet.• 2. itchy inflammation of the upper layers of the skin that often develops in people who have hay fever or asthma and in people who have family members with these conditions.

• Diagnosis and Treatment: A doctor makes the diagnosis based on the typical pattern of the rash and often on whether other family members have allergies. . • Specific treatments include applying a corticosteroid ointment or cream.

salicylic acid and sulfur. sometimes with itching but without hair loss.• Seborrheic Dermatitis :Seborrheic dermatitis is chronic inflammation that causes yellow. greasy scales to form on the scalp and face and occasionally on other areas. • an antifungal drug. • Treatment: The scalp can be treated with a shampoo containing pyrithione zinc. • Seborrheic dermatitis occurs most often in infants. • Symptoms:Seborrheic dermatitis usually begins gradually. . causing dry or greasy scaling of the scalp (dandruff). selenium sulfide .

. • to occur in people who have varicose (dilated. It usually occurs on the ankles but may spread upward to the knees.• STASIS DERMATITIS: Stasis dermatitis is inflammation on the lower legs from pooling of blood and fluid. • Treatment: Long-term treatment is aimed at keeping blood from pooling in the veins around the ankles. • Skin break down and form an open sore (ulcer) typically near the ankle. twisted) veins and swelling (edema).

. • Symptoms:characterized by raised red skin wheals (welts). including the face. and ears. commonly caused by an allergic reaction. tongue. throat. or an immune response to food or some other allergen. • generally caused by direct contact with an allergenic substance. • Wheals from urticaria can appear anywhere on the body. lips.Urticaria • Urticaria (or hives) is a skin condition.

disease thought to be caused by the release of histamine and other mediators of inflammation (cytokines) from cells in the skin. and resulting in an edema. nuts. There are no visual differences between acute and chronic urticaria. • • Chronic urticaria refers to hives that persists for 6 weeks or more. Some of the more severe chronic cases have lasted more than 20 years.• Pathophysiology:The skin lesions of urticarial disease are caused by an inflammatory reaction in the skin. fish. • Types: • Acute urticaria usually show up a few minutes after contact with the allergen and can last a few hours to several weeks. eggs. . acid derivatives. causing leakage of capillaries in the dermis. • common causes of reaction include consumption of shellfish.

e.g diphenhydramine. • Doctors prescribe anti-histamines for immediate relief of symptoms. .• Treatment :The best treatment for urticaria is to identify and avoid the cause and any aggravating factor.