You are on page 1of 71

WELCOM

TO OUR E PRESENTATION
2/3/13 1 11

TOPIC

COURSE
2/3/13

Human & Organizational Behavior 1 22

PRESENTED TO

MD. ABU BAKOR SIDDIQUE Business Department of
Administration

THE UNIVERSITY OF ASIA PACIFIC
2/3/13 1 33

2/3/13

P R E S E N T E D

Mahfuza Akter ID : 10206038 Olibunnahar ID : 10206006 H.M.Hafizur Rahman ID : 10206031 MIRON Hossain ID : 10106033 Devabrota Moytra ID : 10106023 Hamidu zzaman ID : 08206040

1

44

Change for change’s sake is bad. But some change can be good. The Bio­ cul­tural Sci­ ence & Man­ age­ment blog has pub­lished this great graphic on resis­tance to change.
2/3/13 1 55

What is the meaning of this story?
Resistance You have to stop being a caterpillar in order to become a butterfly. Change is not always a conscious decision. Change will occur, inevitably. We can choose to be active participants in change. Or not, maybe. Metamorphosis is an uncontrollable process with an unclear result. "In the change from being a caterpillar to becoming a butterfly, you're nothing more than a yellow, gooey sticky mess." It is dangerous to think you know the answer 2/3/13 1

You’ll never get me up on one of those butterfly things!

66

People fear the uncertainties of change. The slightest suggestion that things won’t stay the same can cause panic…but the real problem isn’t the change…it’s people’s reaction to that change.” -Dr. Alan Zimmerman

2/3/13 1

Change is hard because people overestimate the value of what they have —and underestimate the value of what they may gain by giving that up.” -James Belasco and Ralph Stayer “Flight of the Buffalo”
77 Click to edit Master subtitle style

2/3/13

Change
To Make Different in Some Particular: ALTER To Make Radically Different: TRANSFORM To Give a Different Position, Course or Direction -- Webster’s Collegiate Dictionary
88 Click to edit Master subtitle style

1

2/3/13

q

Why change ?
1

99

Change is necessary in life to keep us… Moving Growing Interested “…Imagine life without Click tochange. It would be edit Master subtitle style static...boring...dull.”

2/3/13

1

1010

WHY CHANGE IS NECESSARY

2/3/13

1

1111

2/3/13

1

1212

2/3/13

1

1313

2/3/13

q

How prevalent is Resistance to Change at WORK ?
1

– It is generally acknowledged that in an

average organization, when the intention for change is announced:

Ø15% of the workforce is eager to accept it Ø15% of the workforce is dead set against it Ø70% is sitting on the fence, waiting to
see what happens
14 14

2/3/13

HOW PEOPLE RESPOND TO CHANGES THEY LIKE AT WORK ?
q

Three-stage process
1

Unrealistic optimism ØReality shock ØConstructive direction qHOW PEOPLE RESPOND TO CHANGES THEY FEAR AND DISLIKE AT WORK ?
Ø

Getting off on the wrong track ØLaughing it off ØGrowing self-doubt ØDestructive direction
Ø

15 15

2/3/13

Change At work = Motivation X Vision X Next Steps
 

1

Motivation – Some Good Reason to Give up the Status Quo Vision – A Clear and Practical Vision of the Desired Future State Next Steps – an Understanding of the Next Steps Required to Progress Toward the Vision If One Is Missing, Little Change Will Take Place
16 16

Typical human reactions to change can be illustrated by means of the following diagram, which resembles the 10. ACHIEVEMENT steps of a ladder or a Steady 9. CONTROL staircase: It starts with step 1 Improveof utter surprise and goes up ment 8. HASTE I want it now all the way through the steps up to step 10, where It is going to work 7. achievement is possible and COMMITMEN Lets 6. ACCEPTANCE give it a try people start to say "let's T it". do The stages of gradual I told 5. REJECTION ONCE AGAIN it wouldn’t work acceptance are: I dint 4. GRUDGING ACCEPTANCE like it, but
2/3/13 1

We've tried it before 3. CYNICISM 2. REJECTION don’t I believe it

17 17

All of us are different. Some are extroverts, others introverts. Some are quick starts, others factfinders. Some are liberals, others conservatives. All of us, says Winters, have natural ways in which we respond to conflict— natural ways in which we each respond to change. Understanding the natural way of how people handle change can therefore be important for top leaders in managing change sensitively. Winter’s formulation of the six “types” of employee reactions to the changing workplace is a useful tool to enable this understanding. 2/3/13 1 1818

So R
• • • • • • • • •

Ignorance Mistrust Disbelief “Power-Cut” Loss Inadequacy Anxiety Comparison Demolition

es ur is ce Ch tan s o an ce f ge to

Resistance

to

2/3/13

1

change is the action taken by individuals and groups when they perceive that a change that is occurring as a threat to them. Key words here are 'perceive' and 'threat'. The threat need not be real or large for resistance to occur.  In its usual description it refers to change within organizations, although it also is found elsewhere in other forms. Resistance is the equivalent of objections in sales and disagreement in general discussions. Resistance may take many forms, including active or passive, overt or covert, individual or 1919 organized, aggressive or timid.

Don’t Resist Resistance

Resistance Is

Inevitable A Natural Function of Change Manageable

Resistance Is Not

Necessarily Logical A Sign of Disloyalty To Be Taken Personally A Sign That the Change Project Is
1 2020

2/3/13of Control Out

Deal With the Four “F’s of Loss and Change”

Letting Go of Familiar Past (Perhaps a Romanticized View) Confronting Feelings About an Uncertain Future Dealing With Loss of Face Redesigning a Focus on New Realities Working on These in Public, Facilitated Forums Allows People to Constructively Express Their Anxiety and Anger and Helps to Reduce Passive-Aggressive Inertia and Sabotage
2/3/13 1 2121

Sometimes people who resist change have discovered weaknesses in the process of organizational change. This type of resistance is beneficial because these weaknesses can be eliminated before we start with the process of change. Some important thing when we talk about resistance to changes is the level of resistance. The level of resistance can be:

As you can see from the picture if the level of resistance  is small there is a probability that the change process will not give the desired level of success. This situation can have two cases:

2/3/13

1

2222

WHY DO EMPLOYEES RESIST TO CHANGE?
q

2/3/13

Surprise ØInertia ØMisunderstanding and lack of skills ØPoor Timing ØLack of Trust ØFear of Failure ØPersonality Conflicts ØThreat to Job Status/Security ØBreakup of Work Group –Education ØCompeting Commitments
Ø

and communication –Participation and involvement –Facilitation and support –Negotiation and agreement23 23 –Manipulation and cooptation

1

Fr og Pr in ce
You

have to kiss many frogs before you find the Frog Prince
1

Triggered by fear Don’t take it personally Listen to the message Struggle = Engagement

2/3/13

24

2/3/13

What is Organizational Change Management?
Definition The organized, systematic application of knowledge, tools, and resources of change that provide organizations with a key process to achieve their business strategy Goal Provide the structure & guidance necessary to effectively prepare Click toorganizationssubtitle successful edit Master for the style acceptance of cultural change

1

25 25

2/3/13

Anticipatory changes qReactive changes qIncremental changes •External qStrategic change Forces –Market Place –Govt Laws and Regulations –Technology –Labor market –Economic Change
q

•Internal Forces –Changes in Organisational 26 26 Strategies –Workforce change

1

2/3/13

1

2727

PRIMC IPLES OF CHAN GE MANA GEME NR
2/3/13 1 2828

Organizational Change Management Tools
Organizational & Project Attributes Assessment qProject Readiness Assessment qStakeholder Analysis qSponsor Roadmap qDTI Readiness Methodology Ø Communication Standards Ø Reporting/tracking standards Ø Control Book Measures of Success/Lessons Learned
q

2/3/13 1

29 29

Click to edit Master subtitle style

2/3/13

1

3030

Managing the Dynamic of Change
An organization, like a mobile, is a web of interconnections.
Ø Ø Ø

A change in one area throws a different part off balance.

Managing these ripple effects is what makes managing change a dynamic proposition with unexpected challenges.

2/3/13

1

3131

Managing Change
Structure Technology
2/3/13 Work specialization, Departmentalization, Chain of Command Span of Control, Formalization, Job Redesign Work Process, Methods and Equipments

Attitude, Expectations, Perception and Behavior

People
1 3232

2/3/13

Change Management Standards
q

Manage the strategy
Ø Ø Ø

Develop and manage the plan

1

Track/report readiness Develop training strategy

q

Reinforce/Support
Ø Ø

Celebrate success Analyze feedback and prepare to manage resistance

q

Prepare with the project team
Ø Ø

Assess change/culture Develop/educate team

33 33

2/3/13

1

3434

2/3/13

Implementing a successful change in organization is tough. Even setting up of a state of the art technology along with providing all the necessary training and equipments, does not guarantee a successful change. The right way to manage change begins with a simple model but involves a process that can be complex and delicate. It entails careful planning, detailed design, and thorough implementation.

35 35

1

2/3/13

1

3636

2/3/13

1

3737

Two Approaches to Organization Change Organization Development (OD) ØFormal top-down approach
q

Grassroots Change ØAn unofficial and informal bottom-up approach
q

1

2/3/13

38

2/3/13 1

Planned change programs intended to help people and organizations function more effectively.
Ø

Applying behavioral science principles, methods, and theories to create and cope with change.
Ø

OD creates fundamental change in the organization, as opposed to fixing a problem or improving a procedure.
Ø

39 39

2/3/13

Deepen the sense of organizational purpose.
Ø Ø

1

Strengthen interpersonal trust.

Encourage problem solving rather than avoidance.
Ø Ø

Develop a satisfying work experience.
40 40

Supplement formal authority with knowledge and skill based authority.
Ø Ø

2/3/13

1

4141

2/3/13

Unfreezing, changing, and refreezing social systems
Ø

1

Unfreezing: neutralizing resistance by preparing people for change.
Ø

42 42

Changing: implementing the planned change
Ø

Refreezing: systematically following a change
Ø

2/3/13

1

4343

THE FOUR COMP ONEN TS OF ORGA NIZAT IONAL DEVEL OPME NT
2/3/13 1 4444

Assessing the Organization
110

Risk Determination Table
Small incremental Medium change to a change resistant organization Risk
Large Disruptive Change to a Change Resistant Organization

High Risk

Organization al Attributes

44
Small incremental change to a changeable organization

Low Risk

Large Disruptive Change to a Changeable Organization

Medium Risk

22 12 24 Change Characteristics 60

[1] Modified from Prosci.

2/3/13

1

4545

2/3/13

1

4646

2/3/13

Achieving Successful Organizational Change
Dedicate resources to Organizational Change Management 2. Secure visible executive sponsorship early in the project 3. Repeat key messages early and often 4. Involve employees in the change process 5. Click Create a transition strategy with to edit Master subtitle style achievable timeframes
1.

1

47 47

2/3/13

Greatest Success Factors
ØActive and visible sponsorship ØUse of organizational change management
processes & tools ØEffective communications ØEmployee involvement ØEffective project leadership and planning

1

48 48

Source: Prosci Click to edit Master subtitle style Benchmarking Report

2/3/13

Planning for Critical Success Factor Addressed Primarily by Organization Addressed al Primarily Change by Business Management Process Redesign

1

People

Addressed
Technology

Process
Type Type Type Type Type Type

Primarily by Package

People and process issues are sometimes overlooked in planning for this type of project. They need to be addressed for the project to be a success.

49 49

Organizational Change Phases and Communication
Ho w stay do I mot ivat ed?
r ! th s e ss th rsta on lysi cce i Aw r o n sit na Su n ar ug din r a A a te T r Comfor enes h g b s le Ce t h ug o
Un d

is ha t i ng ? W en a pp h

I o ? d e o w pa r H e pr
2/3/13

Unawar Insigh e t Denial Anxiet y
Knowledge by training do differently

y bilit A with ng i ach co

De sire th i mpa rough cts

Wh it at’s in for me ?

What1 will I

5050

Change Management Process is used as a basis for putting together a Change Management Plan or Change Management Project that is specific to your needs. Our five phase, structured Change Management Process has helped some of the world's largest and most successful companies deal with what has become a constant today---Change!

2/3/13

1

5151

2/3/13

1

5252

2/3/13

Understanding The Change Process
We need to be able to work with change at the very micro-level (persuading individuals within organizations to work in new or different ways) We also need need to be influencing the agenda at the macro-level – changing public Click to edit Master subtitle style opinions

1

53 53

2/3/13

Understand and Own the Past
 

The Past Bounds Future Success Identify Critical Success Factors From Previous Successful Changes in the Organization
  

1

Surveys Interviews Lessons Learned Sessions

Acknowledge Past Failures

Explicitly Plan on Countermeasures

54 54

2/3/13

Stimulating Innovation
1
q

CREATIVITY

The ability to combine ideas in a unique way or to make an unusual association.
ü

INNOVATION ü Turning the outcomes of the creation process into useful products, services, or work methods
q

55 55

2/3/13 1

INPU T

TRANSFORMATION

OUTPUT S

Creative Individuals, Groups and Organizations

Creative Environment, Process and Situation

Innovative Products, Work Method
56 56

Structural Variables •Organic structure •Communication •Abundant resources •High interunit stimulate •Work and network support

HR Variables •High commitment to T & D •High job security •Creative people

Innovative Variables
Cultural variables •Acceptance of ambiguity •Positive feedback •Low external control •Tolerance of risks •Tolerance of conflicts •Focus on ends •Open system focus 2/3/13 1 5757

St ru Va c ria tur b l al es
•Adopt an organic structure •Make available plentiful resources •Engage in frequent inherent communication •Minimize extreme time pressures on creative activities •Provide explicit support for creativity

1

2/3/13

58

•Accept Ambiguity, have low external control •Tolerant impractical •Tolerant risk taking •Tolerate conflict •Focus on ends rather than means •Develop an open system focus •Provide positive feedback

Cu Va ltu ria ral bl es

1

2/3/13

59

Hu Re ma Va sou n ria rc b l es es
•Actively promote T & D to keep employee’s skills updated •Offer high job security to encourage risk taking •Encourage individual to be “Champion” to change
1 2/3/13 60

Prepare for “Implementation Dip”

Things Often Get Worse Before They Get Better Increase the Communication

Change the Medium and Words Focus on What Is Ahead Provide As Much Information As Possible

Allow Resistance to Surface and Manage It 1 2/3/13 6161

Warning: Need to Balance “Preparing For” and “Implementing”

There Is a Need to Develop a Comprehensive Plan for the Change There Is a Need to Get the Organization Ready for the Change But If It Takes Too Long, People Lose Interest and Motivation
2/3/13

So, Plan for 1 Short Projects That Will 6262

Say It Once, Say It Twice, and Say It Again

Keep It Simple – No Jargon Use Language of the People Use Storytelling Use Different Mediums

Memos Group Meetings Stories in Newsletters One-on-one Meetings (Have Different Levels of Impact) Where You Are in the Change
6363

Change Style of Communication Depending Upon
– – Who 2/3/13 You Are Communicating With 1

What to Watch Out for

Virtual Change Management… "Sure We Can Do That for You… What Exactly Did You Have in Mind?" Change Management Lite…Good Communication and Training to the Masses. You Can Sort Out These Pesky Role Changes Later on While You're Trying to Get Your Work Processes Adjusted Change management.Com…Web Enabled Change Management Through Your Company's Own Special Portal. "What We'll Put on That Web Site Will Have So Much Sizzle That Your Guys Are Really Gonna' Go for 2/3/13 the Change." 1 6464

SUMMAR Y–
    

become more business-like and to focus on changes in the business environment reposition ourselves rapidly in a dynamic global environment inform our SWOT analysis systematise planning, project management and improvement at all levels, using the ADRI model ensure we do not “leave things to chance”.

IATUL June 04

2/3/13

1

6565

 Enterprise Transformation is driven by an underlying

strategy that organizes and energizes People to understand, embrace and make full use of new Process and Technology

 Degree of success of this endeavor is measured by

the level and nature of the Business Impact achieved

2/3/13

1

6666

ü Organizational Change Management is “all

of the actions required for an organization to understand, prepare for, implement and take full advantage of significant change”. The successful design, implementation, measurement and maintenance of an organization’s change initiative Enhancement of their on-going capacity for managing change

ü The goals of Change Management are:

2/3/13

1

6767

CONCLUSION
    

improved clarity of goals and purpose active involvement and participation of staff in achieving the mission innovative services and programs increased client and stakeholder satisfaction with Library services a collective responsibility and passion for ongoing successful management of change

IATUL June 04

2/3/13

1

6868

Organizational Change Web Links
Ø

Employee Resistance to Organizational Change ©2002 by Albert F. Bolognese
ü http://www.newfoundations.com/OrgTheory/Bolog

nese721.html

Ø

Basic Context for Organizational Change Written by Carter McNamara, PhD | Applies to nonprofits and for-profits unless noted
ü http://www.mapnp.org/library/mgmnt/orgchnge.htm Teaching the Caterpillar to fly by by Scott J. Simmerman, Ph.D. ü http://www.squarewheels.com/content/teaching.htm l

Ø

Ø

Sample Organizational Change Management Plan ü http://www.hhs.gov/ufms/ufmscmpfinal.pdf

2/3/13

1

6969

THANK YOU
2/3/13 1 7070

2/3/13

Questio

?

1

7171