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The Cardiovascular System

:
Blood

The CV System
• cardiovascular system
– consists of three interrelated components:
• Blood • Heart • Blood vessels.

and hormones to and from your body’s cells.Blood • Hematology – The study of blood. and the disorders associated with them • Blood contributes to homeostasis by: – Transporting respiratory gasses. – Providing protection through its clotting mechanisms and immune defenses. nutrients. blood forming tissues. . – Helping to regulate body pH and temperature.

• Has a temperature of 38 deg C – 1 deg C higher than oral or rectal body temp • Slightly alkaline – pH ranging from 7.Characteristics of Blood • Blood is more dense and viscous (thicker) than water.35 – 7.5 gal) – Females = 4 to 5 liters (~1.2 gal) – Difference mainly due to body size .45 • Changes from dark to bright red depending on oxygen content • Plasma volume constitutes roughly 25% of extracellular fluid (ECF) – Other 75% of ECF is interstitial fluid (ISF) • Average blood volume in: – Males = 5 to 6 liters (~1.

Blood • Blood is a type of connective tissue – Composed of: • Plasma • Formed elements • Interstitial fluid (ISF) – Fluid that bathes body tissues – Constantly renewed by blood • Discussed in more detail during blood vessels and hemodynamics lecture .

nutrients. regulatory substances. – ~91.Components of Blood • Plasma – A watery liquid extracellular matrix that contains dissolved substances. and waste products .5% solutes • The majority of the solutes in plasma are protiens – Specific proteins confined blood are called plasma proteins » Most of the plasma proteins are produce by the liver » These proteins have many functions but a very important one is a contribution to the maintenance of proper blood osmotic pressure • Other solututes include electrolytes.5% water and 8. gasses.

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Components of Blood • Formed Elements – 3 principal components • Red Blood Cells (RBCs) • White Blood Cells (WBCs) • Platelets .

and progenitor cells give rise to precurser cells (blasts) which then differentiate into the blood cells . red bone marrow is the primary site of hemopoiesis • All Blood cells arise from pluripotent stem cells found within the red marrow – The pluripotent stem cells give rise to 2 types of stem cells: Myeliod and lymphoid stem cells » Lymphoid cells are named so due to their beginning development in the red bone marrow and ending in the lymphoid tissue – Some of the myeloid stem cells give rise to progenator cells – The other myeloid stem cells.Formed Elements • Hemopoiesis (hematopoiesis) – Process by which the formed elements of blood develop – From late fetal development to death. lymphatic stem cells.

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leukocytes.Regulation of Hemopoiesis • Hemopoietic growth factors – Hormones that regulate the differentiation and proliferation of particular progenator cells • Erythropoietin (EPO) – increases the # of RBC precursers – EPO is primarily produced cells in the kidneys – Renal failure leads to RBC defficiency – Exogenous or synthetic EPO is also a banned substance in most professional sports • Thrombopoetin (TPO) – stimulates formation of platelets from megakaryocytes – TPO is produced by the liver • Cytokines – small glycoproteins that regulate the development of different blood cells – Typically produced by cells such as red bone marrow cells. and endothelial cells – Laboratory made hemopoietic growth factors have shown great promise in helping reduce some of the side effects of chemotherapy as well as treatment of particular disieases and genetic defficiencies . macrophages. fibroblasts.

Formed Elements • Red Blood Cells (RBCs) – Also called erythrocytes – make up the bulk of the blood cells • Hematocrit = the % of RBCs per unit blood volume – Normal Hct is around 45% – bi-concave discs • Allows for high surface area which is optimal for gas exchange • Also allows RBCs to deform without rupturing – Very important in capillary circulation – Amongst many other membrane proteins. the RBC membrane contains glycolipid surface markers that designate ABO Rh blood type .

Red Blood Cells (RBCs) – Developing RBCs lose their nucleus and many other organelles as they mature • When a maturing RBC loses it’s nucleus. the majority of their internal space is available for oxygen transport • Cytosol of mature RBCs contain a high amount of hemoglobin – ~33% of the cells weight • Each RBC contains about 280 million hemoglobin molecules • Hemoglobin (Hgb) is a protein molecule adapted to carry O2 (and CO2 as well) – A Hgb molecule consists of 4 large globin proteins (2 alpha and 2 beta chains). each embedding an iron-containing heme center » The iron binds oxygen . it becomes a reticulocyte – The mature form is highly specialized for oxygen transport • Due to the lack of most organelles.

mature RBCs are not really cells.Red Blood Cells (RBCs) – Lack mitochondria • Generate ATP anaerobically so they do not use up the oxygen being transported – As previously stated. but remnants of cells with a very specific purpose – to carry O2 to the tissues of the body . mature RBCs lack a nucleus or any protein making machinery • This means they cannot synthesize new components to repair damaged ones – Thus they are destined to die » Average RBC life is about 120 days. » ~1% of RBCs must be destroyed and replaced every day • 250 billion cells per day! • Old RBCs a subject to bursting when passing through the narrow channels in the spleen – Ruptured RBCs are removed from circulation and destroyed by fixed phagocytotic macrophages in the spleen and liver – Some of the breakdown products are recycled and others are excreted as shown in the following slide – In a sense.

RBC Life Cycle Circulation for about 120 days 3 Amino acids Reused for protein synthesis Fe3+ Fe3+ Transferrin 7 Globin 4 2 Heme Transferrin 5 6 Ferritin Fe3+ + Globin + Vitamin B12 + Erythropoietin 9 1 Red blood cell death and phagocytosis Kidney Biliverdin Bilirubin Bilirubin 10 Bilirubin 11 Liver Small intestine 13 Macrophage in spleen. liver. or red bone marrow Urine Urobilin 8 Erythropoiesis in red bone marrow 12 Urobilinogen Stercobilin Feces Bacteria Key: in blood in bile Large 14 intestine .

or lack of production in the bone marrow – a condition of excess number of RBCs per unit volume – It occurs in response to: • Hypoxia • “Blood doping” .Abnormalities of Erythropoiesis • Anemia – A condition of insufficient RBC’s or hemoglobin (quality or quantity) – It is most often the result of low iron intake. blood loss. hemolysis. autoimmune disease.receiving a transfusion of RBCs right before a sporting event to increase the bloods oxygen carrying capacity • shots of EPO (illegal “doping”) • smoking (COPD) • dehydration – Natural “blood doping” is training at high altitude – Condition in which the body or a region of the body is deprived of an adequate oxygen supply • Polycythemia .

and RBC count .Anemias • Iron deficiency anemia is the most common anemia in the U. Hgb content. 20% of all women of childbearing age have iron deficiency anemia. and results in an equal decrease in Hct.. compared with only 2% of adult men • Hemorrhagic anemia is the result of precipitous blood loss. and affects primarily menstruating women – In the United States.S.

wikipedia. and RBCs that take on a rigid. – May confer an advantage in malaria prone envoronments • People who inherit one copy of the mutated sickle-cell gene show increased resistance to infection and effects of the plasmodium parisite http://en.org/wiki/File:Sickle_cell_ 01. • A genetic defect in the primary DNA sequence leads to production of a faulty Hgb β chain.jpg .Anemias • Sickle-cell disease (SCD) – also called sickle-cell anemia – An autosomal recessive disorder. sickle-shape • People who only have one sickle-cell gene may experience mild symtoms • People who have two copies of the sickle-cell gene may experience severe symptoms • • • • • Decreased oxygen carrying capacity Easily ruptured RBCs Increased risk of stroke life expectancy is shortened Many others – Sickling decreases the cells' flexibility and results in a variety of complications.

Next Lecture Lecture 1 part 2: Blood .