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the MERCADO – RIZAL family
FRANCISCO MERCADO (1818-1898) TEODORA ALONSO (1827-1913)

1. SATURNINA RIZAL (1850-1913) 2. PACIANO RIZAL (1851-1930) 3. NARCISA RIZAL (1852-1939) 4. OLYMPIA RIZAL (1855-1887) 5. LUCIA RIZAL (1857-1919) 6. MARIA RIZAL (1859-1945) 7. JOSE RIZAL (1861-1896) 8. CONCEPCION RIZAL (1862-1865) 9. JOSEFA RIZAL (1865-1945) 10. TRINIDAD RIZAL (1868-1951) 11. SOLEDAD RIZAL (1870-1929)

the MERCADO – RIZAL family

• 28 September 1862 .JOSE RIZAL. . the eight child in the Rizal family. Rizal learned the alphabet from his • 1865 .When he was four years old. including the book in which Rizal’s baptismal records were entered.He was baptized JOSE RIZAL MERCADO at the Catholic of Calamba by the parish priest Rev. It was on this occasion that Rizal remembered having shed real tears for the first time. was born in Calamba.birth and early age • 19 June 1861 . canonical books.Barely three years old. the seventh child of Francisco Mercado Rizal and Teodora Alonso y Quintos. were burned.The parochial church of Calamba and the • 1864 . Rufino Collantes with Rev. mother. his sister Conception. died at the age of three. Laguna. Pedro Casañas as the sponsor. • 22 June 1861 .

The poem was written in tagalog and had for its theme .concerned himself with the physical development of Jose.With his father.“ • 6 June 1868 . He advised Rizal: "Work hard and perform every task very carefully. be independent in thinking and make visual pictures of everything. Rizal made a pilgrimage to Antipolo to fulfill the vow made by his mother to take the child to the Shrine of the Virgin of Antipolo should she and her child survive the ordeal of delivery which nearly caused his mother’s life.taught Rizal the rudiments of Latin.His mother taught him how to read and write.At the age of eight (8). Leon Monroy . Uncle Manuel Alberto . Rizal wrote his first poem entitled "Sa "Love of One’s Language.birth and early age •1865 – 1867 .instilled into the mind of the boy love for education. and developed in him a great admiration for the beauty of nature Uncle Gregorio ." Aking Mga Kabata”. •1869 . learn to be swift as well as thorough.

For the first time.) . His parents planned to transfer him to Manila where he could continue his studies. Jose Burgos and Jacinto Zamora were garroted at Bagumbayan Field on February 17.Having finished his studies in Biñan. 1872. (It must be remembered that • 17 December 1870 . Cruz. Laguna for • 1872 . Fathers Mariano Gomez. 1872.His brother Paciano brought Rizal to Biñan.Early Education + experiences (Binan. Rizal returned to Calamba on board the motorboat TALIM. a rich property owner of Biñan and brother of Manuel and Gregorio. which his father forbid the members of his family to utter. allegedly poisoning the wife of her cousin Jose Alberto. Rizal heard of the word filibustero because of the Cavite Mutiny on January 20. He was placed under the tutelage of Justiniano Aquino Cruz. In this town he also learned the art of painting under the tutorship of an old painter by the name of Juancho Carrera. • 1871 -His mother was imprisoned in Sta. Laguna. studying Latin and Spanish. Laguna) • 1870 . including such names as Cavite and Burgos.

. and Standard-Bearer. at the age of 16.the ATENISTA @ THOMASIAN • in Ateneo:  classes were divided into groups of interns and externs: the first constituted the Roman Empire and the second. but he was soon promoted and kept on being promoted so that at the end of one month he had attained to the rank of Emperor. Tribune. Centurion. he obtained marks of excellent in all the subjects and in the examinations. In each empire there were five dignitaries: Emperor.  As a newcomer. the Carthaginian Empire. he obtained his Bachelor of Arts degree with an average of "excellent“.  In 1877. At the end of school years. These dignities were won by means of individual competitions in which it was necessary to catch one’s adversary in error three times. Jose was at first put at the tail of the class. Decurion.

in 1878. 1877 and passed the Surveyor’s examination on May 21. 1878. 1881. while at the same time took courses leading to the degree of surveyor and expert assessor at the Ateneo. he enrolled in medicine at the University of Santo Tomas but had to stop in his studies when he felt that the Filipino students were being discriminated upon by their Dominican tutors. . He finished the latter course on March 21. 17. he enrolled in Philosophy and Letters at the University of Santo Tomas.in the same year (1877). he was not granted license to practice the profession until December 30. but because of his age.the ATENISTA @ THOMASIAN • in UST: . .

he finished his course in Philosophy and Letters with a grade of "excellent.1885 .Universidad Central de Madrid • May 3. he was conferred the degree of Licentiate in Medicine continued his studies at the Universidad Central de Madrid.at the age of 23." .he sailed for Spain where he • June 21. 1884 .at the age of 24. • June 19. 1882 .

nationalist. poet. French. businessman. Catalan. propagandist. Latin. • He was an expert swordsman and a good shot. and other native dialects. artists. Hebrew. scientist. linguist. scientific farmer. Russian. and theologian. historian. English. educator. Portuguese.travels • Having traveled extensively in Europe. Sanskrit. naturalist. Greek. he was an architect. economist. . Italian. mythologist. America and Asia. sociologist. sculptor. inventor. Tagalog. musician. Spanish. novelist. • A versatile genius. German. cartoonists. These include Arabic. psychologist. Japanese. Malayan. ethnologist. Chinese. he mastered 22 languages. ophthalmic surgeon. journalist.

EL FILIBUSTERISMO. his second novel and a sequel to the NOLI and more revolutionary and tragic than the latter. 1891 .he reprinted in Paris Morga’s SUCCESSOS DE LAS ISLAS FILIPINAS with his annotations to prove that the Filipinos had a civilization worthy to be proud of even long before the Spaniards set foot on Philippine soil.his daring book. .  1890 . he published several works with highly nationalistic and revolutionary tendencies like:  March 1887 . was published in Berlin.  September 18. NOLI ME TANGERE.travels • While in Europe. was printed in Ghent. a satirical novel exposing the arrogance and despotism of the Spanish clergy.

Rizal provoked the animosity of those in power. DAPITAN . the authorities were not only finding faults but even fabricating charges to pin him down. • this led himself. 1892 to July 15. were shadowed. his relatives and countrymen into trouble with the Spanish officials of the country. • he was imprisoned in Fort Santiago from July 6.exile • due to his fearless exposures of the injustices committed by the civil and clerical officials. • he and those who had contacts with him. 1892 on a charge that anti-friar pamphlets were found in the luggage of his sister Lucia who arrive with him from Hong Kong.

taught his pupils the English and Spanish languages. he maintained and operated a hospital. the sciences. fishing and • • business. sculpturing. and with the help of his pupils.both considered remarkable engineering feats.exile • he engaged in agriculture. he entered into correspondence with renowned men of letters and sciences abroad. and painting. the arts. he contracted water dam and a relief map of Mindanao. as well as the art of self defense. • • • . vocational courses including agriculture. he conducted classes. surveying. he did some researches and collected specimens.

his good manners and warm personality were found irresistible by women of all races with whom he had personal contacts. • • . his intelligence and humility gained for him the respect and admiration of prominent men of other nations. while his undaunted courage and determination to uplift the welfare of his people were feared by his enemies.exile • his sincerity and friendliness won • for him the trust and confidence of even those assigned to guard him.

his enemies lost no time in pressing him down. to the date of his execution. execution . 1896. They were able to enlist witnesses that linked him with the revolt and these were never allowed to be confronted by him. sedition and of forming illegal association.  After a mock trial. he was again committed to Fort Santiago.• When the Philippine Revolution started on August 26.  from November 3. now known as "Ultimo Adios" which is considered a masterpiece and a living document expressing not only the hero’s great love of country but also that of all Filipinos. he was convicted of rebellion. 1986. he wrote an untitled poem.  in his prison cell.

Andrade and chief of Artillery came to visit Rizal who thanked each of them.  6:00 – 7:00 a.• LAST HOURS  Dec. Dominguez read death sentence to Rizal. -Rizal was transferred to his death cell. 8:00 –10:00 a. Saderra talked briefly with Rizal. Viza presented statue of the Sacred hearth of Jesus and medal of Mary. . execution . Rosell.m. -Rizal shared his milk and coffee with Fr.m. -Capt.Fr. 1896. 7:00 – 8:00 a. 10:00 – 11:00 a. Lt.m. Faura persuaded Rizal to put down his rancours and ordered to marry Josephine canonically.m. Fr. 29. Fr.

12:00 – 4:00 a. asked guards for paper and pen.m. Rizal slept restfully because his confidence in the goodness of God and the justness of his cause gave him astounding serenity and unusual calmness . It has to be done during night rather than during daytime because he was watched very carefully.•LAST HOURS  Dec. 1896.-Rizal raked supper. Faura.Fr. 11:00 – 12:00 midnight .m. 9:00 – 11:00 p. -Rizal manifested strange reaction. 8:00 – 9:00 p.Rizal took time to hide his poem inside the alcohol burner. Rizal was emotion-filled and. He then wrote his last letter to brother Paciano. confessed to Fr. after remaining some moments in silence.m. 7:00 – 8:00 p.m. . Faura returned to console Rizal and persuaded him once more to trust him and the other professors at the Ateneo. 29.

His last word. attended to his personal needs.•LAST HOURS  December 30.m. March and Fr. 7:00 – 7:03 a. Rizal picked up Imitation of Christ. said in a loud voice: "It is finished” / “Consummatum Est!” .m. Rizal vacillated. took breakfast. reads. meditated. Vilaclara with whom he conversed. turned halfway around. Rizal washed up. 4:00 – 5:00 a. Sounds of guns. Rizal walked to the place of execution between Fr. kept looking around as if seeking or expecting to see someone.m. 5:00 – 6:15 a. Read Bible and meditated. Wrote a letter to his parents. Shouts of “vivas!!!” for Spain.  6:15 – 7:00 a.m. 1896. fell down backwards and lied on the ground facing the sun. Silence.

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• There were at least nine women linked with Rizal. namely:  Segunda Katigbak  Leonor Valenzuela  Leonor Rivera  Consuelo Ortiga  O-Sei San  Gertrude Beckette  Nelly Boustead  Suzanne Jacoby  Josephine Bracken These women might have been beguiled by his intelligence. charm and wit. .

. After his admiration for a short girl in the person of Segunda. then came……. his first love was engaged to be married to a town mate. Unfortunately.Segunda Katigbak was her puppy love.Manuel Luz..

that could only be deciphered over the warmth of the lamp or candle. then came Leonor Valenzuela. Rizal send her love notes written in invisible ink. a tall girl from Pagsanjan. He visited her on the eve of his departure to Spain and bade her a last goodbye.• After his admiration for a short girl in the person of Segunda. .

Leonor believing that Rizal had already forgotten her.. her mother’s choice. sadly consented her to marry the Englishman Henry Kipping. Unfortunately. who was then a known filibustero. .…. She hid from Leonor all letters sent to her sweetheart.his sweetheart for 11 years played the greatest influence in keeping him from falling in love with other women during his travel. Leonor’s mother disapproved of her daughter’s relationship with Rizal.

He dedicated to her A la Senorita C.O. The Ortiga's residence in Madrid was frequented by Rizal and his compatriots. fell in love with him. He probably fell in love with her and Consuelo apparently asked him for romantic verses. the prettier of Don Pablo Ortiga’s daughters.. .• Consuelo Ortiga y Rey. which became one of his best poems. y R. He suddenly backed out before the relationship turned into a serious romance. because he wanted to remain loyal to Leonor Rivera and he did not want to destroy his friendship with Eduardo de Lete who was madly in love with Consuelo.

a Japanese samurai’s daughter taught Rizal the Japanese art of painting known as su-mie. .O Sei San. If Rizal was a man without a patriotic mission. he would have married this lovely and intelligent woman and lived a stable and happy life with her in Japan because Spanish legation there offered him a lucrative job. She also helped Rizal improve his knowledge of Japanese language.

She fell in love with Rizal. within walking distance of the British Museum. He gave the group carving to Gertrude as a sign of their brief relationship. who was seriously in love with him. he boarded in the house of the Beckett family. a blue-eyed and buxom girl was the oldest of the three Beckett daughters. But Rizal suddenly left London for Paris to avoid Gertrude. Tottie helped him in his painting and sculpture. .While Rizal was in London annotating the Sucesos de las Islas Filipinas. he was able to finish the group carving of the Beckett sisters. Before leaving London. Gertrude.

courted Nellie but she was deeply infatuated with Rizal. This prompted Rizal to challenge Luna into a duel. he had befriended the two pretty daughters of his host. however. Rizal used to fence with the sisters at the studio of Juan Luna. parted as good friends when Rizal left Europe. While a guest of the Boustead family at their residence in the resort city of Biarritz. It failed because Rizal refused to be converted to the Protestant faith. Antonio Luna. Juan’s brother and also a frequent visitor of the Bousteads.Rizal having lost Leonor Rivera. a drunken Antonio Luna uttered unsavory remarks against Nellie Boustead. entertained the thought of courting other ladies. Fortunately. thus averting tragedy for the compatriots. . as Nellie demanded and Nellie’s mother did not like a physician without enough paying clientele to be a son-in-law. Luna apologized to Rizal. The lovers. Eduardo Boustead. Their love affair unfortunately did not end in marriage. In a party held by Filipinos in Madrid.

Rizal moved to Brussels because of the high cost of living in Paris. they fell deeply in love with each other. he lived in the boarding house of the two Jacoby sisters.In 1890. . In Brussels. Suzanne cried when Rizal left Brussels and wrote him when he was in Madrid. In time.

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She was Josephine Bracken. with bold blue eyes. Upon her return to Dapitan. Rizal was physically attracted to her. which might have shocked or frightened her. he left for Hon Kong on March 1895. But the Rizal sisters suspected Josephine as an agent of the friars and they considered her as a threat to Rizal’s security. who came to Dapitan to seek Rizal for eye treatment. • Rizal asked Josephine to marry him.• In the last days of February 1895. Rizal tried to arrange with Father Antonio Obach for their marriage. the adopted daughter of George Taufer from Hong Kong. His loneliness and boredom must have taken the measure of him and what could be a better diversion that to fall in love again. Rizal upon the advice of his family and friends and with Josephine’s consent took her as his wife even without the Church blessings. a result of some incidence. Since Taufer’s blindness was untreatable. while still in Dapitan. the priest wanted a retraction as a precondition before marrying them. However. Rizal met an 18- year old petite Irish girl. Josephine later give birth prematurely to a stillborn baby. but she was not yet ready to make a . brown hair and a happy disposition. Josephine stayed with Rizal’s family in Manila. decision due to her responsibility to the blind Taufer.