Geothermal Energy: An Overview

Kenneth M. Klemow, Ph.D. Wilkes University

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© 2000 Geothermal Education Office

Points to be covered
     The deep earth as a thermal source Direct uses of geothermal energy Types of geothermal electrical generation Benefits of geothermal power generation Current levels of electrical generation capacity worldwide  Issues regarding geothermal  The WebQuest

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Temperature and depth  Average gradient:  2.5 .25oC / 100m  So if assuming average.3.0oC / 100m  Variation:  1. temps at depth will be: 0m 2000 m 4000 m 15oC 70oC 120oC .0 .

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com .energywhiz.coloradodirectory. www. QuickTime™ an d a TIFF (Uncompressed) decompresso are need ed to see this p icture .com/cottonwoodhotsprings/ www.Geothermal energy is used in two ways Direct Electrical generation QuickTime™ and a TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor are need ed to see this picture.

QuickTime™ an d a TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor are need ed to see this p icture.marin.geothermal-biz.gov geothermal.org www.hickerphoto. www1.com www.edu .eere.Direct uses of geothermal energy QuickTime™ an d a TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor are need ed to see this p icture .energy.strose. www.com QuickTime™ an d a TIFF ( Uncompres sed) decompr essor ar e need ed to s ee this p icture . QuickTime™ and a TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor are need ed to see this picture. QuickTime™ an d a TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor are need ed to see this picture .

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Types of geothermal electrical generation  Dry steam  Flash steam  Binary cycle .

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Geysers dry steam field in northern California QuickTime™ and a TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor are need ed to see this picture. © 2000 Geothermal Education Office .

QuickTime™ and a TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor are need ed to see this picture. © 2000 Geothermal Education Office .

© 2000 Geothermal Education Office .Flash steam plant in Japan QuickTime™ and a TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor are need ed to see this picture.

QuickTime™ and a TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor are need ed to see this picture. © 2000 Geothermal Education Office .

© 2000 Geothermal Education Office .QuickTime™ and a TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor are need ed to see this picture.

© 2000 Geothermal Education Office .Binary plant in Nevada QuickTime™ and a TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor are need ed to see this picture.

Benefits of geothermal power  Provides safe and reliable power with little land consumption  Renewable and sustainable  Provides constant baseload power  Conserves fossil fuels  Benefits local economies  Can be implemented remotely  Can prevent pollution caused by fossil fuels © 2000 Geothermal Education Office .

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marin.848 769 743 590 530 345 140 120 105 geothermal.org .Geothermal electrical power Producing Country mW in 1999 output Total 8217 United States Philippines Italy Mexico Indonesia Japan New Zealand Iceland Costa Rica El Salvador 2.850 1.

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000.What is potential for geothermal energy development?  Geothermal power could serve 100% of the electrical needs of 39 countries (over 620.htm link) . Central/ South America and the Pacific. (Source:www.geotherm.org/PotentialReport.000 people) in Africa.

gas and uranium combined. geothermal.org/ .  Further research and experience will improve geothermal resource base.marin. inventory can become larger. oil.What is potential for geothermal energy development?  Using current technology. geothermal energy from already-identified reservoirs can contribute 10% of U. energy supply.  With more exploration.S.  Entire world resource base of geothermal energy calculated to be larger than those of coal.

org/ . geothermal resources could supply over 30.What is potential for geothermal energy development?  According to Geothermal Energy Association (GEA). electricity needs. and equal to 100% of the electricity generated in California. Nevada and Idaho.marin.000 MW of power by 2025  Equivalent to 6 percent of today's total U.S. geothermal.

com/Public/images/geothermal-jobs.greenjobs.Employment in geothermal? QuickTime™ and a TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor are need ed to see this picture.gif . http://www.

org . www.nwcommunityenergy.Location of geothermal potential in US QuickTime™ and a TIFF (Un compressed) decompressor are neede d to se e this picture.

© 2000 Geothermal Education Office .Geothermal heat pumps QuickTime™ and a TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor are need ed to see this picture. QuickTime™ and a TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor are need ed to see this picture.

Yield: 1500 thermal mW of heating and cooling . no emissions from burning fuels Deployment: 400.Benefits of geothermal heat pumps  Can be used almost anywhere worldwide  Are energy and cost efficient  Conserve fossil fuel resources  Provide clean heating and cooling.S.000 units in U.

Any environmental problems? Impact Air quality pollution Surface water pollution Underground pollution Land subsidence High noise levels Well blow-outs Conflicts with cultural and archaeological features Social-economic problems Chemical or thermal pollution Solid waste disposal Probability of occurring Severity of consequences L M L L H L L-M L L M M M M L-M L-M L-M M-H L M-H M-H http://iga.php .it/geo/geoenergy.igg.cnr.

.One clear environmental benefit QuickTime™ and a TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor are need ed to see this picture.

So. is geothermal the answer to our energy concerns? You tell me! .

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