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Samir A. Sheikh
E.E-7th sem 28/07/2012
CONTENTs:•Power system stability overview
•Definition •Need of stability •Power system stability classification
• Rotor angle stability • Voltage stability •Frequency stability
•Voltage angle stability Vs. Voltage stability
Power system stability overview:• Power system is define as a network of one or more generating unit, loads and power transmission lines including the associate equipment connected to it. • The stability of power system is its ability is to develop the restoring forces equal to or greater than the disturbing forces to maintain the state of equilibrium. • Power system stability get more pronounced in case of interconnection of large power networks.
Definition:• Power system stability is a ability of an electrical power system, for a given initial operating condition to regain a condition of equilibrium after being subjected to a physical disturbance, with most system variables bounded so that practically the entire system remains intact.
Need of stability :• The power system industry is a field where there are constant changes. • Power industries are restructured to cater to more user at lower prices & better power efficiency. • Power systems are becomes more complex as they become inter-connected. • Load demands also increases linearly with the increases in users.
• Since stability phenomena limits the transfer capability of the system , there is need to ensure stability & reliability of the power system due to economic reason.
Power system stability classification:• Rotor angle stability
• Small disturbance angle stability • Transient stability.
• Voltage stability
• Small voltage disturbance stability • Large voltage disturbance stability
• Frequency stability
• Short term frequency stability • Long term frequency stability.
Rotor angle stability
Rotor angle stability refer to the ability of synchronous machines of an interconnected power system remain in synchronism after being subjected to a disturbance. Rotor angle stability occurs due to angular swings of some generators leading to their loss of synchronism with other generators.
Depends on the ability to maintain or restore equilibrium between electromagnetic torque & mechanical torque of each synchronism At equilibrium input mechanical torque equal output mechanical torque of each generator. In case of any disturbance the above equality does not leading to acceleration/deceleration of machines.
Rotor angle stability classification: Small disturbance rotor angle stability
• It is the ability of power system to maintain synchronism into small disturbances. • Disturbances are consider to be sufficiently small such that the linearization of system equations is permissible for purposes of analysis. • The time frame of interest in small disturbance stability studies is of the order of 10 to 20 sec. following the disturbance.
•Large disturbance rotor angle stability :• It is the ability of power system to maintain synchronism under a sever disturbance ,such as a short circuit on a transmission line. • Disturbance are large so linearization of system equations is not permissible for purpose of analysis. • The time frame of interest in large disturbance stability studies is of the order of 3 to 5 sec. following the disturbance
• Voltage stability refers to the ability of power system to maintain steady voltages at all buses in the system after being subjected to a disturbance from a given initial operating conditions. • A system voltage is instable if for atleast one bus in the system, the voltage magnitude is decreases as reactive power injection is increased. • Voltage instability result in progressive fall or rise of voltages of some buses.
• Large scale effect of voltage instability leads to voltage collapse. It is the process by which the sequence of events accompanying voltage instability leads to a abnormally low voltages in a significant part of power system.
• Voltage stability problems is also experienced at terminals of HVDC links connected to weak AC system. • Driving force for voltage instability is usually the loads.
Voltage stability classification:• Small disturbance voltage stability
• Small disturbance voltage stability refers to the system’s ability to maintain steady voltages when subjected to small disturbances such as incremental change in loads. • A combination of both linear and non-linear techniques are used for analysis .
•Large disturbance voltage stability:• Large disturbance voltage stability refers to the system ability to maintain the steady voltages following large disturbances such as system faults, loss of generation or circuit contingencies. • The study period of interest may extend from a few seconds to tens of minute
Rotor angle stability Vs. Voltage stability
• Rotor angle stability basically a generator stability while load stability means load stability. • Rotor angle stability is mainly interlinked to real power transfer where as voltage stability is mainly related to reactive transfer.
• Frequency stability refers to the ability of power system to maintain steady frequency following a severe system upset resulting in a significant balance between generation and loads. • Frequency instability leads to tripping of generating units or loads. • Frequency stability may be short-term phenomenon or a long term phenomenon.