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GROUP MEMBERS

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Afshan Ameen (GN 06003) Erum Ali (GN 06004) Hussain Maqbool (GN 06025) Sahreen Siraj (GN 0603 Salima Kerai (GN 06019) Riaz Shaheen (GN 06033)

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OBJECTIVES
• Discuss brief history of Baluchistan. • Portray strategic importance of Baluchistan. • List down a few conflicts of Baluchistan with the federal Government. • Categorize and discuss the conflicts in terms of economic, political and social conflicts. • Discuss about the present demands of Baluchistan Nationalists. • Ponder over the possible solution. • Summarize the content.
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HISTORY
• • • • • World’s first civilized nation Separation through “Durand line”, 1893 Sovereignty of Baluchistan at the time of Independence. Attack on Baluchistan in 1948 to forcefully join Pakistan. Baluchistan is a province straddling Pakistan, Iran and Afghanistan inhabited by twelve million Baloch people.

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National flag- BERAK
• Considered as national and international flag of Baluchistan – National – Baluchistan province – International – Iran, Afghanistan, Turkmenistan and Pakistan • Five dimension of star represents balochi – Language – Secularism – Culture – Heroic history • Three different colors represents: – Red- martyrs of heroes – Blue- marine and celestial frontiers – Green- spring of freedom – White- heroism, manliness and generosity 2/4/2013

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STRATEGIC IMPORTANCE
• The Baloch country is strategically situated at the trijunction of South Asia, South West Asia and Central Asia. • Balochistan the largest administrative province of Pakistan (43% landmass of Pakistan) shares a 1,173 km border with the Iranian province of Balochistan (Sistan-Baluchistan) and shares an 832 km border with Afghanistan the west.

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GEOPOLITICS of BALOCHISTAN
• Establishment of military garrisons in Baluchistan. • The province has been a source of constant conflict and instability for decades because of its geo-political position and natural wealth. • Balochistan will be the future passageway to the emerging energy-hungry India, China, and Asian Pacific markets. • Politically its geographical location with neighboring Iran has enhanced its importance for the US. Its vast border with Afghanistan makes Balochistan a key player in “War on Terrorism”.
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BALOCHISTAN CONFLICT
Economical
Unfair allocation of resources Unfair NFC award

Political
Army Actions by Dictators as well as Democrats

Social & Cultural
Loss of Cultural Identity Lack of Adequate Health Services Lack of Satisfactory Educational Services Unjust Selling of Baloch property Land Occupation by Foreigners
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Target Killings
Imprisonment of Baloch Leaders

Fake Provincial Autonomy
Baluchistan Package
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ECONOMICAL
• UNFAIR DISTRIBUTION OF RESOURCES
– Baloch people not allowed to avail the resources that are produced by themselves. – The ownership over resources and investment is not handed to Baloch people. (Unjust involvement of Federal Government)

• UNFAIR NFC AWARD
– Nationalists conflict of resources allocated on the basis of population. – Unjust distribution of land (sons of the land are not the land owners)
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SUPERPOWER CONFLICT

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Country’s principal energy source

50 percent of Pakistan’s total energy production.

 

Exploited by the central government without adequate compensation to the province. Baluchistan produces 36-45% but consumes only 17% of it. Transit site for gas pipelines

threat of Baloch militant attacks to disrupt gas supplies.
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Tough feet, with sandals to match, propel an elderly Baluchi named Jumaa as he collects branches to use and sell for firewood in the backcountry of Balochistan. The poorest and least developed region in Pakistan, Balochistan also holds vast reserves of natural gas, a potential source of income—and conflict 11

GAWADAR
• Gawadar is transport corridor
– link Pakistan by road, rail, air, and, to some extent, pipeline with both China’s Xinjiang province and, via Afghanistan, with the energyrich Central Asian Republics (CARs).

• Port and corridor without consultation with, involvement of, or benefit to the Baloch.

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POLITICAL

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ARMY ACTIONS ON BALOCHISTAN
First conflict 1948
led by Prince Abdul Karim Khan.  started guerrilla warfare against the Pakistan army  Mir Ahmed Yaar signed an agreement for Kalat.

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POLITICAL

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ARMY ACTIONS ON BALOCHISTAN
Second conflict 1958-59

led by Nawab Nowroz Khan  took up arms in resistance to the One Unit policy  started a guerilla war against Pakistan  were charged with treason and arrested
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POLITICAL

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ARMY ACTIONS ON BALOCHISTAN
Third conflict 196369

led by Sher Mohammad Bijarani Marri in response of second conflict Bijarani Marri start a guerrilla warfare by creating its own posts of insurgency

Sher Mohammad Bijarani Marri

The insurgents bombed railway tracks and ambushed convoys.
Yahya Khan
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This insurgency ended in 1969 when Yahya Khan abolished the "One Unit" policy

POLITICAL

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ARMY ACTIONS ON BALOCHISTAN
Fourth conflict 197377
 

led by Nawab Khair Baksh Marri. Demanded representation for the ethnic Baloch in the government. Citing treason, Bhutto dismissed the provincial government of Balochistan and imposed governor rule. In response Khair Bakhsh Marri formed the Balochistan People’s Liberation Front (BPLF) for war against

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BALOCHISTAN LIBERATION ARMY

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POLITICAL


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ARMY ACTIONS ON BALOCHISTAN
Fifth conflict 2004
lead by Akbar Bugti and Mir Balach Marri They presented a 15point agenda to the Pak government.
greater control of the province's resources.  protection for the Baloch minority.  halt to the building of military bases.  protection of tribal system.

detained by government security forces.
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POLITICAL

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ARMY ACTIONS ON BALOCHISTAN
Balochi leaders target killing
August 2006 Nawab Akbar Khan Bugti  April 2009 Baloch National Movement president Ghulam Mohammed Baloch and two other nationalist leaders (Lala Munir and Sher Muhammad)

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SOCIAL
• Baluchistan ranks highest in Pakistan for infant and maternal mortality rate. • Lack of health and educational institutions further endangers the lives of thousands of people in Balochistan. • As compared to the 75% in country only 25% population in province have access to electricity. • Contributes Rs 85 billion through gas revenues but receives only Rs 7 billion. • The highest unemployment is also recorded in the province due to lack of basic infrastructure. • Literacy Rate is below 1o% that contributes to further deterioration of social conditions.
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BALOCHISTAN’S PRESENT DEMANDS
The Baloch Nationalists Alliance presented their draft demands to a Pakistan Parliamentary Committee on Balochistan in November 2004. 1. Proposal of a serious and urgent resolution aimed at creating a confidence-building environment. 2. Equal well-head prices and a 30% royalty for Balochistan. 3. Agreement of the rights of the provinces on natural resources. 4. Equal representation in Federal services. 5. Development projects must be linked with local ownership and benefit. 6. Gwadar Port must be placed under the control of the provincial government, ending the practice of allocating coastal lands on Islamabad’s own choice 7. Maximum constitutional reforms need to be adopted to ensure provincial autonomy.
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BALOCHISTAN PACKAGE
(Aghaaz-e-Huqooq-e-Balochistan)
• Set of proposals for debate in and approval of the joint sitting of the parliament. • The proposals were presented in the parliament on Tuesday, November 24, 2009. • The document consists of a total of 39 clauses. • The proposals can be characterized as follows:
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Constitutional matters Political matters Administrative matters Economic matters Monitoring mechanism

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TOWARDS A PEACEFUL SETTLEMENT
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RECOMMENDATIONS

Islamabad has to take actions to restore the confidence of the traumatized people of Baluchistan. “TRUE DEMOCRACY” [For, By and From the PEOPLE]. Formation of a high-level judicial commission to enquire in all the incidences that have occurred in past with local people and nationalists. Islamabad should: end its reliance on military, withdraw all armed forces from province, and respect the provincial assembly resolution regarding construction of cantonments.

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TOWARDS A PEACEFUL SETTLEMENT
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RECOMMENDATIONS
• Acceptance of this issue as a major problem of present and future. • The Pakistan government must respect constitutional and democratic freedoms, allowing all political parties to function freely. • Law and Order situation should be identical for all. • Stop Military actions on the religious parties and bring an end to the war between establishment and local people.
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THE ROLE OF INTERNATIONAL

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BODIES

The international community must ensure that the Pakistan government abides by national and international law in relation to how it treats Baluchistan and the Baloch people.

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REFERENCES
• Hamid.S. (2009)The Aghaaz-e-Huquooq-eBaluchistan Package: An Analysis. Pakistan Institute of legislative Development and Transparency. • Wirsing, R. G. (2008). Baloch nationalism and the geopolitics of energy resources: The changing context of separatism in Pakistan. p. 1-55
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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
We would like to Thank  Miss Huma Ghaffar  All our classmates for their constant endless support and guidance through out our presentation

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POLL
Who do you think is responsible for creating a rift between the Baloch groups/ tribes?
1.
2. 3. 4.

Policies of the central government Mistrust to each other Egoism All of the above

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