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Dimensional Analysis And
Similitude & Model Analysis
Dimensional Analysis
Introduction: Dimensional analysis is a mathematical
technique making use of study of dimensions.
This mathematical technique is used in research work for
design and for conducting model tests.
It deals with the dimensions of physical quantities
involved in the phenomenon. All physical quantities are
measured by comparison, which is made with respect to
an arbitrary fixed value.
In dimensional analysis one first predicts the physical
parameters that will influence the flow, and then by,
grouping these parameters in dimensionless
combinations a better understanding of the flow
phenomenon is made possible.
It is particularly helpful in experimental work because it
provides a guide to those things that significantly
influence the phenomena; thus it indicates the direction
in which the experimental work should go.
Types of Dimensions
There are two types of dimensions
Fundamental Dimensions or Fundamental Quantities
Secondary Dimensions or Derived Quantities
Fundamental Dimensions or Fundamental
Quantities: These are basic quantities. For Example;
Time, T
Distance, L
Mass, M
Types of Dimensions
Secondary Dimensions or Derived Quantities
The are those quantities which possess more than one
fundamental dimension.
For example;
Velocity is denoted by distance per unit time L/T
Acceleration is denoted by distance per unit time square L/T
2
Density is denoted by mass per unit volume M/L
3
Since velocity, density and acceleration involve more
than one fundamental quantities so these are called
derived quantities.
Methodology of Dimensional Analysis
The Basic principle is Dimensional Homogeneity, which
means the dimensions of each terms in an equation on
both sides are equal.
So such an equation, in which dimensions of each term
on both sides of equation are same, is known as
Dimensionally Homogeneous equation. Such equations
are independent of system of units. For example;
Lets consider the equation V=(2gH)
1/2
Dimensions of LHS=V=L/T=LT
1
Dimensions of RHS=(2gH)
1/2
=(L/T
2
xL)
1/2
=LT
1
Dimensions of LHS= Dimensions of RHS
So the equation V=(2gH)
1/2
is dimensionally
homogeneous equation.
Methods of Dimensional Analysis
If the number of variables involved in a physical phenomenon are
known, then the relation among the variables can be determined by
the following two methods;
Rayleigh’s Method
Buckingham’s πTheorem
Rayleigh’s Method:
It is used for determining expression for a variable (dependent)
which depends upon maximum three to four variables (Independent)
only.
If the number of independent variables are more than 4 then it is
very difficult to obtain expression for dependent variable.
Let X is a dependent variable which depends upon X
1
, X
2
, and X
3
as
independent variables. Then according to Rayleigh’s Method
X=f(X
1
, X
2
, X
3
) which can be written as
X=K X
1
a
, X
2
b
, X
3
c
Where K is a constant and a, b, c are arbitrary powers which are obtained
by comparing the powers of fundamental dimensions.
Rayleigh’s Method
Q. The resisting force R of a supersonic plane during flight can be considered
as dependent upon the length of the aircraft l, velocity V, air viscosity μ, air
density ρ, and bulk modulus of air k. Express the functional relationship
between the variables and the resisting force.
2 1 1 1 3 1 2
( , , , , ) , , , , (1)
Where: A = Non dimensional constant
Substituting the powers on both sides of the equation
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
Equating the powers of MLT on both
a b c d e
a b c d e
R f l V K R Al V K
MLT AL LT ML T ML ML T
µ µ µ µ
÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷
= ¬ =
=
sides
Power of M 1
Power of L 1   3 
Power of T 2    2
c d e
a b c d e
b c e
¬ = + +
¬ = +
¬ ÷ =
Solution:
Rayleigh’s Method
Since the unkown(5) are more than number of equations(3). So expressing
a, b & c in terms of d & e
1 
2  2
1 3 1 (2  2 ) 3(1  )
1 2 2 3 3  3 2
Substituting the values
d c e
b c e
a b c d e c e c c e e
c e c c e e c
=
=
= + + + = + + +
= + + + + + =
2 2 2 1 2 2 2
2 2
2
2 2
2
in (1), we get
( )( )
c c e c c e e c c c c e e e
c e
R Al V K Al V l V V K
K
R A l V
Vl V
K
R A l V
Vl V
µ µ µ µ µ µ
µ
µ
µ µ
µ
µ 
µ µ
÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷
= =
(
   
= (
 
\ . \ . (
¸ ¸
(
  
=
(  
\ .\ .
¸ ¸
Buckingham’s πTheorem:
Buckingham’s πTheorem: Since Rayleigh’s Method
becomes laborious if variables are more than fundamental
dimensions (MLT), so the difficulty is overcome by Buckingham’s π
Theorem which states that
“If there are n variables (Independent and Dependent) in a physical
phenomenon and if these variables contain m fundamental
dimensions then the variables are arranged into (nm)
dimensionless terms which are called πterms.”
Let X1, X2, X3,…,X4, Xn are the variables involved in a physical
problem. Let X1 be the dependent variable and X2, X3, X4,…,Xn
are the independent variables on which X1 depends. Mathematically
it can be written as
X
1
=f(X
2
,X
3
,X
4
,X
n
) which can be rewritten as
f
1
(X
1
,X2 X
3
X
4
X
n
)=0
Above equation is dimensionally homogenous. It contain n variables
and if there are m fundamental dimensions then it can be written in
terms of dimensions groups called πterms which are equal to (nm)
Hence f
1
(π
1
π
2
π
3
,… π
nm
)=0
Buckingham’s πTheorem:
Properties of πterms:
Each πterm is dimensionless and is independent of system of
units.
Division or multiplication by a constant does not change the
character of the πterms.
Each πterm contains m+1 variables, where m is the number of
fundamental dimensions and also called repeating variable.
Let in the above case X
2
,
X
3
,
X
4
are repeating variables and if
fundamental dimensions m=3 then each πterm is written as
Π
1
=X
2
a1
.
X
3
b1
.
X
4
a1
.X
1
Π
2
=X
2
a2
.
X
3
b2
.
X
4
a2
.X
5
.
.
Π
nm
=X
2
a(nm)
.
X
3
b(nm)
.
X
4
a(nm)
.X
n
Each equation is solved by principle of dimensionless homogeneity and
values of a
1
, b
1
& c
1
etc are obtained. Final result is in the form of
Π
1
=(Π
2
, Π
3
, Π
4
,…, Π
(nm)
)
Π
2
=(Π
1
, Π
3
, Π
4
,…, Π
(nm)
)
Methods of Selecting Repeating Variables
The number of repeating variables are equal to number
of fundamental dimensions of the problem. The choice of
repeating variables is governed by following
considerations;
As far as possible, dependent variable should’t be selected as repeating
variable
The repeating variables should be chosen in such a way that one
variable contains geometric property, other contains flow property and
third contains fluid property.
The repeating variables selected should form a dimensionless group
The repeating variables together must have the same number of
fundamental dimension.
No two repeating variables should have the same dimensions.
Note: In most of fluid mechanics problems, the choice of repeating
variables may be (i) d,v ρ, (ii) l,v,ρ or (iii) d, v, μ.
Buckingham’s πTheorem:
Q. The resisting force R of a supersonic plane during flight can be
considered as dependent upon the length of the aircraft l, velocity V,
air viscosity μ, air density ρ, and bulk modulus of air k. Express the
functional relationship between the variables and the resisting force.
1 2 3
( , , , , ) ( , , , , , ) 0
Total number of variables, n= 6
No. of fundamental dimension, m=3
No. of dimensionless terms, nm=3
Thus: ( , , ) 0
No. Repeating variables =m=3
Repeating variables = ,
R f l V K f R l V K
f
l
µ µ µ µ
t
t t t
= ¬ =
=
1 1 1
1
2 2 2
2
3 3 3
3
,
πterms are written as
a b c
a b c
a b c
V
Thus
l V R
l V
l V K
µ
t µ
t µ µ
t µ
=
=
=
Buckingham’s πTheorem:
Now each Piterm is solved by the principle of dimensional
homogeneity
1 1 1 3 1 2
1
1 1
1 1 1 1
1 1
( ) ( )
Equating the powers of MLT on both sides, we get
Power of M: 0=c +1 c =1
Power of L: 0=a +b 3c +1 2
Power of T: 0=b 2 b =2
o o o a b c
term M L T L LT ML MLT
a
t
÷ ÷ ÷
÷ ¬ =
¬
¬ = ÷
¬
2 2 2
1 1
2 2
2 1 2 3 2 1 1
2
2 2
2 2 2 2
( ) ( )
Equating the powers of MLT on both sides, we get
Power of M: 0 1 1
Power of L: 0  3 1 1
Pow
o o o a b c
R
l V R
LV
term M L T L LT ML ML T
c c
a b c a
t µ t
µ
t
÷ ÷ ÷ ÷
= ¬ =
÷ ¬ =
= + ¬ =
= + ¬ = ÷
2 2
1 1 1
2 2
er of T: 0  1 1
b b
l V
lV
µ
t µ µ t
µ
= ¬ =
= ¬ =
Buckingham’s πTheorem:
3 1 3 3 3 1 2
3
3 3
3 3 3 3
3 3
( ) ( )
Equating the powers of MLT on both sides, we get
Power of M: 0 1 1
Power of L: 0  3 1 0
Power of T: 0   2 2
o o o a b c
term M L T L LT ML ML T
c c
a b c a
b b
t
÷ ÷ ÷ ÷
÷ ¬ =
= + ¬ =
= + ¬ = ÷
= ¬ =
0 2 1
3 2
2
1 2 3
2 2 2
2 2
2 2 2 2
( ) , , 0
, ,
K
l V K
V
Hence
R K
f f or
l V lV V
R K K
R l V
l V lV V lV V
t µ t
µ
µ
t t t
µ µ µ
µ µ
 µ 
µ µ µ µ µ
= ¬ =
 
= =

\ .
( (
= ¬ =
( (
¸ ¸ ¸ ¸
Similitude and Model Analysis
Similitude is a concept used in testing of Engineering
Models.
Usually, it is impossible to obtain a pure theoretical
solution of hydraulic phenomenon.
Therefore experimental investigations are often
performed on small scale models, called model analysis.
A few examples, where models may be used are ships in
towing basins, air planes in wind tunnel, hydraulic
turbines, centrifugal pumps, spillways of dams, river
channels etc and to study such phenomenon as the
action of waves and tides on beaches, soil erosion, and
transportation of sediment etc.
Model Analysis
Model: is a small scale replica of the actual structure.
Prototype: the actual structure or machine.
Note: It is not necessary that the models should be
smaller that the prototype, they may be larger than
prototype.
Prototype Model
L
p3
L
p1
L
p2
F
p1
F
p3
F
p2
L
m3
L
m1
L
m2
F
m1
F
m3
F
m2
Model Analysis
Model Analysis is actually an experimental method of
finding solutions of complex flow problems.
The followings are the advantages of the model analysis
The performance of the hydraulic structure can be predicted in
advance from its model.
Using dimensional analysis, a relationship between the variables
influencing a flow problem is obtained which help in conducting
tests.
The merits of alternative design can be predicted with the help of
model analysis to adopt most economical, and safe design.
Note: Test performed on models can be utilized for
obtaining, in advance, useful information about the
performance of the prototype only if a complete similarity
exits between the model and the prototype.
SimilitudeType of Similarities
Similitude: is defined as similarity between the model
and prototype in every respect, which mean model and
prototype have similar properties or model and prototype
are completely similar.
Three types of similarities must exist between model and
prototype.
Geometric Similarity
Kinematic Similarity
Dynamic Similarity
SimilitudeType of Similarities
Geometric Similarity: is the similarity of shape. It is said to exist
between model and prototype if ratio of all the corresponding linear
dimensions in the model and prototype are equal. E.g.
p p p
r
m m m
L B D
L
L B D
= = =
Where: L
p
, B
p
and D
p
are Length, Breadth, and diameter of prototype
and L
m
, B
m
, D
m
are Length, Breadth, and diameter of model.
Lr= Scale ratio
Note: Models are generally prepared with same scale ratios in every
direction. Such a model is called true model. However, sometimes it
is not possible to do so and different convenient scales are used in
different directions. Such a models is call distorted model
SimilitudeType of Similarities
Kinematic Similarity: is the similarity of motion. It is said to exist
between model and prototype if ratio of velocities and acceleration at
the corresponding points in the model and prototype are equal. E.g.
1 2 1 2
1 2 1 2
;
p p p p
r r
m m m m
V V a a
V a
V V a a
= = = =
Where: V
p1
& V
p2
and a
p1
& a
p2
are velocity and accelerations at point
1 & 2 in prototype and V
m1
& V
m2
and a
m1
& a
m2
are velocity and
accelerations at point 1 & 2 in model.
V
r
and a
r
are the velocity ratio and acceleration ratio
Note: Since velocity and acceleration are vector quantities, hence
not only the ratio of magnitude of velocity and acceleration at the
corresponding points in model and prototype should be same; but
the direction of velocity and acceleration at the corresponding points
in model and prototype should also be parallel.
SimilitudeType of Similarities
Dynamic Similarity: is the similarity of forces. It is said to exist
between model and prototype if ratio of forces at the corresponding
points in the model and prototype are equal. E.g.
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
g
i v
p p p
r
i v
g
m m
m
F
F F
F
F F
F
= = =
Where: (F
i
)
p
, (F
v
)
p
and (F
g
)
p
are inertia, viscous and gravitational
forces in prototype and (F
i
)
m
, (F
v
)
m
and (F
g
)
m
are inertia, viscous and
gravitational forces in model.
F
r
is the Force ratio
Note: The direction of forces at the corresponding points in model
and prototype should also be parallel.
Types of forces encountered in fluid Phenomenon
Inertia Force, Fi: It is equal to product of mass and acceleration in
the flowing fluid.
Viscous Force, Fv: It is equal to the product of shear stress due to
viscosity and surface area of flow.
Gravity Force, Fg: It is equal to product of mass and acceleration
due to gravity.
Pressure Force, Fp: it is equal to product of pressure intensity and
crosssectional area of flowing fluid.
Surface Tension Force, Fs: It is equal to product of surface tension
and length of surface of flowing fluid.
Elastic Force, Fe: It is equal to product of elastic stress and area of
flowing fluid.
Dimensionless Numbers
These are numbers which are obtained by dividing the
inertia force by viscous force or gravity force or pressure
force or surface tension force or elastic force.
As this is ratio of once force to other, it will be a
dimensionless number. These are also called non
dimensional parameters.
The following are most important dimensionless
numbers.
Reynold’s Number
Froude’s Number
Euler’s Number
Weber’s Number
Mach’s Number
Dimensionless Numbers
Reynold’s Number, Re: It is the ratio of inertia force to the viscous force of
flowing fluid.
. .
Re
. .
. . .
.
. .
Velocity Volume
Mass Velocity
Fi
Time Time
Fv Shear Stress Area Shear Stress Area
QV AV V AV V VL VL
du V
A
A A
dy L
µ
µ µ µ µ
t µ u
µ µ
= = =
= = = = =
2
. .
. .
. .
. .
Velocity Volume
Mass Velocity
Fi
Time Time
Fe
Fg Mass Gavitational Acceleraion Mass Gavitational Acceleraion
QV AV V V V
Volume g AL g gL
gL
µ
µ µ
µ µ
= = =
= = = =
Froude’s Number, Re: It is the ratio of inertia force to the gravity force
of flowing fluid.
Dimensionless Numbers
Eulers’s Number, Re: It is the ratio of inertia force to the pressure force of
flowing fluid.
2
. .
Pr . Pr .
. .
. . /
/
u
Velocity Volume
Mass Velocity
Fi
Time Time
E
Fp essure Area essure Area
QV AV V V V
P A P A P
P
µ
µ µ
µ
µ
= = =
= = = =
2 2
. .
. .
. .
. . .
Velocity Volume
Mass Velocity
Fi
Time Time
We
Fg Surface Tensionper Length Surface Tensionper Length
QV AV V LV V
L L L
L
µ
µ µ µ
o o o
o
µ
= = =
= = = =
Weber’s Number, Re: It is the ratio of inertia force to the surface
tension force of flowing fluid.
Dimensionless Numbers
Mach’s Number, Re: It is the ratio of inertia force to the elastic force of
flowing fluid.
2 2
2
. .
. .
. .
. .
/
: /
Velocity Volume
Mass Velocity
Fi
Time Time
M
Fe Elastic Stress Area Elastic Stress Area
QV AV V LV V V
K A K A KL C
K
Where C K
µ
µ µ µ
µ
µ
= = =
= = = = =
=
Lecture # 13
Model Laws or similarity Laws
We have already read that for dynamic similarity ratio of corresponding
forces acting on prototype and model should be equal. i.e
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
g p
v s e I
p p p p p p
v s e I
g p
m m m m
m m
F F
F F F F
F F F F
F F
= = = = =
( ) ( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
Thus dynamic similarity require that
v g p s e I
v g p s e
I
p p
I
v g p s e
m
m
F F F F F F
F F F F F
F
F
F F F F F
+ + + + =
+ + + +
=
+ + + +
Force of inertial comes in play when sum of all other forces is not
equal to zero which mean
In case all the forces are equally important, the above two equations
cannot be satisfied for model analysis
Model Laws or similarity Laws
However, for practical problems it is seen that one force
is most significant compared to other and is called
predominant force or most significant force.
Thus for practical problem only the most significant force
is considered for dynamic similarity. Hence, models are
designed on the basis of ratio of force, which is
dominating in the phenomenon.
Finally the laws on which models are designed for
dynamic similarity are called models laws or laws of
similarity. The followings are these laws
Reynold’s Model Law
Froude’s Model Law
Euler’s Model Law
Weber’s Model Law
mach’s Model Law
Reynold’s Model Law
It is based on Reynold’s number and states that
Reynold’s number for model must be equal to the
Reynolds number for prototype.
Reynolds Model Law is used in problems where viscous
forces are dominant. These problems include:
Pipe Flow
Resistance experienced by submarines, airplanes, fully immersed
bodies etc.
( ) ( )
Re Re
1
: , ,
m m P P
P m
P m
P P r r
r
P
m m
m
P P P
r r r
m m m
V L V L
or
V L V L
V L
V L
where V L
V L
u u
u
u
u
u
u
u
= =
= =
 

\ .
= = =
Reynold’s Model Law
The Various Ratios for Reynolds’s Law are obtained as
r
r
r
P P P r
m m m r
P P
r
m m
2
r
r
sin /
Velocity Ratio: V =
L
T L /V L
Time Ratio: Tr=
T L /V V
V / Vr
Acceleration Ratio: a =
V / Tr
Discharge Ratio: Q
Force Ratio: F =
P m
m P P
m P m
P
m
P P
r r
m m
VL VL
ce and
L V
V L
a T
a T
A V
L V
A V
m
u µ µ
u u
u u
u
   
= =
 
\ . \ .
= =
= =
= =
= =
2 2 2
2 2 2 3
r r r
Power Ratio: P =F.V =
r r r r r r r r r r r r
r r r r r r r
a QV L VV L V
L V V L V
µ µ µ
µ µ
= = =
=
Reynold’s Model Law
Q. A pipe of diameter 1.5 m is required to transport an oil of specific
gravity 0.90 and viscosity 3x10
2
poise at the rate of 3000litre/sec.
Tests were conducted on a 15 cm diameter pipe using water at 20
o
C.
Find the velocity and rate of flow in the model.
p p p p p
m m m
m m
2
2
p 2
For pipe flow,
According to Reynolds' Model Law
V D D
V D
D
900 1.5 1 10
3.0
1000 0.15 3 10
3.0
Since V
/ 4(1.5)
1.697 /
3.0 5.091 /
5.
m m
m p p p
m
p
p
p
m p
m m m
V
V
V
V
Q
A
m s
V V m s
and Q V A
µ µ
µ µ
µ µ µ µ
t
÷
÷
= ¬ =
× ×
= =
× ×
= =
=
= =
= =
2
3
091 / 4(0.15)
0.0899 / m s
t ×
=
Solution:
Prototype Data:
Diameter, D
p
= 1.5m
Viscosity of fluid, μ
p
= 3x10
2
poise
Discharge, Q
p
=3000litre/sec
Sp. Gr., S
p
=0.9
Density of oil=ρ
p
=0.9x1000
=900kg/m
3
Model Data:
Diameter, Dm=15cm =0.15 m
Viscosity of water, μ
m
=1x10
2
poise
Density of water, ρ
m
=1000kg/m
3
n
Velocity of flow V
m
=?
Discharge Q
m
=?
Reynold’s Model Law
Q. A ship 300m long moves in sea water, whose density is 1030 kg/m3. A
1:100 model of this ship is to be tested in a wind tunnel. The velocity of air in
the wind tunnel around the model is 30m/s and the resistance of the model is
60N. Determine the velocity of ship in sea water and also the resistance of
ship in sea water. The density of air is given as 1.24kg/m3. Take the
kinematic viscosity of sea water and air as 0.012 stokes and 0.018 stokes
respectively.
Solution:
For Prototype
Length, L
p
= 300m
Fluid = sea water
Density of sea water, ρ
p
= 1030 kg/m
3
Kinematic Viscosity, ν
p
=0.018 stokes
=0.018x10
4
m
2
/s
Let Velocity of ship, V
p
Resistance, F
p
For Model
Scale ratio = L
p
/L
m
=100
Length, L
m
= L
p
/100 = 3m
Fluid = air
Density of air, ρ
m
= 1.24 kg/m
3
Kinematic Viscosity, ν
m
=0.012 stokes
=0.012x10
4
m
2
/s
Velocity of ship, V
m
=30 m/s
Resistance, F
m
= 60 N
Reynold’s Model Law
For dynamic similarity between model and prototype, the Reynolds
number for both of them should be equal.
( )
( )
4
4
2 2
2 2
2 2
2 2
0.012 10 3
30 0.2 /
0.018 10 300
Resistance= Mass Acceleration= L V
L V
1030 300 0.2
369.17
1.24 3 30
L V
369.17 60 22150.2
p
m
p m
p m m p
p p
m
m
p
L VL VL
V V
L
Vp m s
Since
F
Thus
F
F N
u
u u u
µ
µ
µ
÷
÷
   
= ¬ =
 
\ . \ .
×
= =
×
×
   
= = =
 
\ . \ .
= × =
Froude’s Model Law
It is based on Froude’s number and states that Froude’s
number for model must be equal to the Froude’s number
for prototype.
Froude’s Model Law is used in problems where gravity
forces is only dominant to control flow in addition to inertia
force. These problems include:
Free surface flows such as flow over spillways, weirs, sluices,
channels etc.
Flow of jet from orifice or nozzle
Waves on surface of fluid
Motion of fluids with different viscosities over one another
( ) ( )
e e
/ 1; : ,
m m P P
P m
P P m m P m
P P P
r r r r
m m
P
m
m
V V V V
F F or or
g L g L L L
V V L
V L where V L
V L
L
V
L
= = =
= = = =
 

\ .
Froude’s Model Law
The Various Ratios for Reynolds’s Law are obtained as
r
P P P r
m m m
P P
r
m m
2 2 5/ 2
r
sin
Velocity Ratio: V
T L /V L
Time Ratio: Tr=
T L /V
V / Vr
Acceleration Ratio: a = 1
V / Tr
Discharge Ratio: Q
Force Ratio: Fr=
m P
P m
p
P
r
m m
r
r
r
P
m
r
P P
r r r r r
m m
r r
V V
ce
L L
L
V
L
V L
L
L
L
a T
a T
L
A V
L V L L L
A V
m a
=
= = =
= = =
= = = =
= = = =
=
( )
2 2 2 2 3
3
2 2 2 3 2 7/ 2
Power Ratio: Pr=Fr.Vr=
r r r r r r r r r r r r r r r
r r r r r r r r r r r r
QV L V V L V L L L
L V V L V L L L
µ µ µ µ µ
µ µ µ µ
= = = =
= = =
Froude’s Model Law
Q. In the model test of a spillway the discharge and velocity of flow
over the model were 2 m
3
/s and 1.5 m/s respectively. Calculate the
velocity and discharge over the prototype which is 36 times the model
size.
( ) ( )
( )
2.5 2.5
p
m
2.5
3
For Discharge
Q
36
Q
36 2 15552 / sec
r
p
L
Q m
= =
= × =
p
m
For Dynamic Similarity,
Froude Model Law is used
V
36 6
V
6 1.5 9 / sec
r
p
L
V m
= = =
= × =
Solution: Given that
For Model
Discharge over model, Q
m
=2 m
3
/sec
Velocity over model, V
m
= 1.5 m/sec
Linear Scale ratio, L
r
=36
For Prototype
Discharge over prototype, Q
p
=?
Velocity over prototype V
p
=?
Numerical Problem:
Q. The characteristics of the spillway are to be studied by means of a geometrically
similar model constructed to a scale of 1:10.
(i) If 28.3 cumecs, is the maximum rate of flow in prototype, what will be the
corresponding flow in model?
(i) If 2.4m/sec, 50mm and 3.5 Nm are values of velocity at a point on the spillway, height
of hydraulic jump and energy dissipated per second in model, what will be the
corresponding velocity height of hydraulic jump and energy dissipation per second in
prototype?
Solution: Given that
For Model
Discharge over model, Q
m
=?
Velocity over model, V
m
= 2.4 m/sec
Height of hydraulic jump, H
m
=50 mm
Energy dissipation per second, E
m
=3.5 Nm
Linear Scale ratio, L
r
=10
For Prototype
Discharge over model, Q
p
=28.3 m
3
/sec
Velocity over model, V
p
=?
Height of hydraulic jump, H
p
=?
Energy dissipation per second, E
p
=?
Froude’s Model Law
p 2.5 2.5
m
2.5 3
p
m
For Discharge:
Q
10
Q
28.3/10 0.0895 / sec
For Velocity:
V
10
V
2.4 10 7.589 / sec
r
m
r
p
L
Q m
L
V m
= =
= =
= =
= × =
p
m
p 3.5 3.5
m
3.5
For Hydraulic Jump:
H
10
H
50 10 500
For Energy Dissipation:
E
10
E
3.5 10 11067.9 / sec
r
p
r
p
L
H mm
L
E Nm
= =
= × =
= =
= × =
Classification of Models
Undistorted or True Models: are those which are
geometrically similar to prototype or in other words if the scale ratio
for linear dimensions of the model and its prototype is same, the
models is called undistorted model. The behavior of prototype can
be easily predicted from the results of undistorted or true model.
Undistorted Models: A model is said to be distorted if it is not
geometrically similar to its prototype. For distorted models different
scale ratios for linear dimension are used.
For example, if for the river, both horizontal and vertical scale ratio
are taken to be same, then depth of water in the model of river will
be very very small which may not be measured accurately.
The followings are the advantages of distorted models
The vertical dimension of the model can be accurately measured
The cost of the model can be reduced
Turbulent flow in the model can be maintained
Though there are some advantage of distorted models, however the
results of such models cannot be directly transferred to prototype.
Classification of Models
Scale Ratios for Distorted Models
( )
( )
( )
r
r
P
P
Let: L = Scale ratio for horizontal direction
L =Scale ratio for vertical direction
2
Scale Ratio for Velocity: Vr=V /
2
Scale Ratio for area of flow: Ar=A /
P P
H
m m
P
V
m
P
m r
V
m
P P
m
m m
L B
L B
h
h
gh
V L
gh
B h
A
B h
=
=
= =
= =
( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
3/ 2
P
Scale Ratio for discharge: Qr=Q /
V
r r
H V
P P
m r r r r r
H V V H
m m
L L
A V
Q L L L L L
A V
= = =
Distorted model
Q. The discharge through a weir is 1.5 m3/s. Find the discharge
through the model of weir if the horizontal dimensions of the
model=1/50 the horizontal dimension of prototype and vertical
dimension of model =1/10 the vertical dimension of prototype.
( )
( )
( ) ( )
3
p
r
r
3/ 2
P
3/ 2
Solution:
Discharge of River= Q =1.5m /s
Scale ratio for horizontal direction= L =50
Scale ratio for vertical direction= L =10
Since Scale Ratio for discharge: Qr=Q /
/ 50 10
V
P
H
m
P
V
m
m r r
H
p m
L
L
h
h
Q L L
Q Q
=
=
=
= ×
3
1581.14
1.5/1581.14 0.000948 /
m
Q m s
=
¬ = =
Distorted model
Q. A river model is to be constructed to a vertical scale of 1:50 and a
horizontal of 1:200. At the design flood discharge of 450m3/sec, the average
width and depth of flow are 60m and 4.2m respectively. Determine the
corresponding discharge in model and check the Reynolds’ Number of the
model flow.
( )
( )
( ) ( )
3
r
r
3/ 2
r P
3/ 2
arg 450 /
60 4.2
Horizontal scale ratio= L =200
Vertical scale ratio= L =50
Since Scale Ratio for discharge: Q =Q /
/ 200 50 7
V
p
p p
P
H
m
P
V
m
m r r
H
p m
Disch e of River Q m s
Width B m and Depth y m
B
B
y
y
Q L L
Q Q
= =
= = = =
=
=
=
= × =
3 3
0710.7
450/1581.14 6.365 10 /
m
Q m s
÷
¬ = = ×
Distorted model
( )
( )
m
VL
Reynolds Number, Re =
4
/ 60/ 200 0.3
/ 4.2/ 50 0.084
0.3 0.084 0.0252
2 0.3 2 0.084 0.468
0.0252
0.05385
0.468
Kinematic Viscosity of w
m
m m
m p r
H
m p r
V
m m m
m m m
m
m
L R
Width B B L m
Depth y y L m
A B y m
P B y m
A
R
P
u
 

\ .
=
= = = =
= = = =
= = × =
= + = + × =
= = =
6 2
6
ater = =1 10 / sec
4 4 0.253 0.05385
Re 54492.31
1 10
>2000
Flow is in turbulent range
m
m
VR
u
u
÷
÷
×
× ×
   
= = =
 
×
\ . \ .
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