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Franz Joseph Haydn & Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart
Harmony is simple. No basso continuo (walking or Alberti Bass). . logical and clear (few dissonances).General Characteristics of Classical Music It is meant to be easy on the ear. accessibility. Direct reaction to the complexity of Baroque music. clarity. Balance. Melody with accompaniment (homophony). Melodies are tuneful and catchy (2-4 measure phrases).
Simple harmony. Light accompaniment. .Three Main Qualities Melody is most important part. Tuneful and balanced.
real characters. Performed in palace and public opera houses. amusing plot. .Classical Opera Opera buffa – comic opera. Reaction to problems with Baroque Opera. Mythology/historical Not real people or situations Music too heavy and complex. Simple music.
Slow.Symphony Most important instrumental genre. . Three movements (Fast. Began as sinfonia (overture to opera). Fast) Begins to look like the modern symphony.
Crescendo . Mannheim Steamroller . conductor Expanded sinfonia to four movements Mvt 1 – Fast and serious (sonata form) Mvt 2 – Slow and lyrical (aria form) Mvt 3 – Graceful and moderate (dance form) Mvt 4 – Fast and lively (Rondo form) Structure of the orchestra expanded Full strings. Johann Stamitz. trumpets and drums. Germany Center of symphonic composition and performance. woodwinds (flute/oboe. horn).Mannheim. later added bassoons and clarinets.
cello Ideal balance to match SATB voice types.Chamber Music Music for the Middle Class to play at home. Composers wrote and improvised from the keyboard (often performing their own music). 1775 – pianoforte replaces harpsichord. Solo keyboard or keyboard + solo instrument. Followed the symphonic patterns. String Quartet – Violin I & II. viola. Sonatas .
second in dominant). 1 . etc. Coda – optional ending Used for the most serious musical ideas. ABA form Triple meter Contrasting keys with new material.Strict Conventions and Forms Mvt. Recapitulation – replay the two themes. Development – develop the themes by changing keys. Less serious than Sonata Form .Sonata Form Exposition – state the two themes (firs in tonic. both in the tonic key. Mvt. 2 – Aria Form Lyrical and songlike.
New music always returns to a main theme. . ABACADA……. Mvt. 3 – Minuet and Trio Form Minuet – Dance in Binary form (AABB usually in ¾ time) Trio – Different music in binary form (CCDD) Return to original Minuet (AB) Makes for an overall ternary form (ABA). 4 – Rondo form Simplest of all forms (most accessible).) Mvt.Forms (cont.
Franz Joseph Haydn (1732-1809) Began musical career as choir boy in Vienna (learned to play harpsichord and violin). 1761 – hired as assistant music director to Prince Esterhazy 1762 – Palace Esterhaza built 2 large music rooms and 2 opera theatres. 1766 – promoted to Music Director .
70 string quartets. extra concerts for important visitors. .Haydn’s Musical Duties As music director he was expected to write. direct or perform 2 operas and 2 concerts each week. and numerous choral and solo voice pieces. Last 12 symphonies written in London. As a result he wrote over 100 symphonies. dinner music and chamber music for the Prince’s rooms. 50+ keyboard sonatas.
Symphonies – Wrote well over 100.Haydn’s Music Operas – Wrote many. Expanded the size by emphasizing brass. but few are still performed today. Added crescendos and accents. clarinets and percussion. First to develop the genre Father of the String Quartet Masses Oratorios – The Creation & The Seasons Musical Jokes Credited with inventing the false recapitulation Surprise/Farewell Symphonies .
Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart 1756-1791 .
composer. Sacrificed his own career to further his son’s. .Leopold Mozart Mozart’s father was a performer. Wrote one of the most important contributions to music theory. author and music theorist. Domineering personality who took Mozart on tour at a young age.
Age 10 – First Symphony Age 14 – First Opera Age 17 – Hired by Archbishop of Salzburg . Age 6 – wrote his first compositions and started touring (10yrs).The Child Prodigy Age 4 – Learned to play harpsichord and violin.
also was musically gifted. 1782 Married Constanze Weber . Sister.Mozart’s Family Mother died while he was very young. Nanerl.
Moved to Vienna 1782 – First major opera. Made a living by performing his piano concertos.Mozart’s Early Music Released by the Archbishop for disorderly conduct and began freelance composing. Considered too young and overqualified for most jobs. The Abduction from the Seraglio Wrote string quartets to emulate Haydn. .
Late works are the most impressive. 40.Mozart’s Late Music Losing fame and poorly managed money. Symphonies 37. 41 Operas 1786 – Marriage of Figaro 1787 – Don Giovanni 1791 – Magic Flute (Die Zauberflote) Requiem .
Wrote more than 800 compositions in 35 years. Master of melody. Mastered all Classical genres. Instilled a sense of drama in all of his music. . tuneful and catchy.Mozart’s Characteristics Accessible and highly refined.