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Music in the Classical Period

Franz Joseph Haydn & Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart

logical and clear (few dissonances). Melodies are tuneful and catchy (2-4 measure phrases). accessibility. Harmony is simple. . No basso continuo (walking or Alberti Bass).General Characteristics of Classical Music        It is meant to be easy on the ear. Direct reaction to the complexity of Baroque music. Balance. clarity. Melody with accompaniment (homophony).

Three Main Qualities    Melody is most important part. . Simple harmony. Light accompaniment.  Tuneful and balanced.

real characters. amusing plot.Classical Opera  Opera buffa – comic opera.   Performed in palace and public opera houses. . Reaction to problems with Baroque Opera.    Mythology/historical Not real people or situations Music too heavy and complex.  Simple music.

. Slow. Fast) Begins to look like the modern symphony. Three movements (Fast.Symphony     Most important instrumental genre. Began as sinfonia (overture to opera).

Johann Stamitz.Crescendo . Mannheim Steamroller . trumpets and drums.Mannheim. later added bassoons and clarinets. horn). conductor Expanded sinfonia to four movements  Mvt 1 – Fast and serious (sonata form)  Mvt 2 – Slow and lyrical (aria form)  Mvt 3 – Graceful and moderate (dance form)  Mvt 4 – Fast and lively (Rondo form) Structure of the orchestra expanded  Full strings. woodwinds (flute/oboe. Germany      Center of symphonic composition and performance.

cello   Ideal balance to match SATB voice types.  Sonatas    .Chamber Music   Music for the Middle Class to play at home. String Quartet – Violin I & II. Solo keyboard or keyboard + solo instrument. Followed the symphonic patterns. 1775 – pianoforte replaces harpsichord. Composers wrote and improvised from the keyboard (often performing their own music). viola.

Strict Conventions and Forms       Mvt.Sonata Form Exposition – state the two themes (firs in tonic. 2 – Aria Form Lyrical and songlike. 1 . etc. Development – develop the themes by changing keys. Coda – optional ending Used for the most serious musical ideas. ABA form   Triple meter Contrasting keys with new material. second in dominant).    Mvt. Recapitulation – replay the two themes.  Less serious than Sonata Form . both in the tonic key.

ABACADA…….)      Mvt.     Mvt. New music always returns to a main theme.Forms (cont. 3 – Minuet and Trio Form Minuet – Dance in Binary form (AABB usually in ¾ time) Trio – Different music in binary form (CCDD) Return to original Minuet (AB) Makes for an overall ternary form (ABA). . 4 – Rondo form Simplest of all forms (most accessible).

 1766 – promoted to Music Director . 1761 – hired as assistant music director to Prince Esterhazy 1762 – Palace Esterhaza built  2 large music rooms and 2 opera theatres.Franz Joseph Haydn (1732-1809)    Began musical career as choir boy in Vienna (learned to play harpsichord and violin).

Haydn’s Musical Duties    As music director he was expected to write. direct or perform 2 operas and 2 concerts each week. 70 string quartets. extra concerts for important visitors. . and numerous choral and solo voice pieces. dinner music and chamber music for the Prince’s rooms. As a result he wrote over 100 symphonies. Last 12 symphonies written in London. 50+ keyboard sonatas.

First to develop the genre   Father of the String Quartet    Masses Oratorios – The Creation & The Seasons Musical Jokes   Credited with inventing the false recapitulation Surprise/Farewell Symphonies .Haydn’s Music   Operas – Wrote many. but few are still performed today.   Expanded the size by emphasizing brass. Added crescendos and accents. clarinets and percussion. Symphonies – Wrote well over 100.

Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart 1756-1791 .

. Domineering personality who took Mozart on tour at a young age. author and music theorist. Sacrificed his own career to further his son’s.Leopold Mozart     Mozart’s father was a performer. composer. Wrote one of the most important contributions to music theory.

Age 10 – First Symphony Age 14 – First Opera Age 17 – Hired by Archbishop of Salzburg . Age 6 – wrote his first compositions and started touring (10yrs).The Child Prodigy      Age 4 – Learned to play harpsichord and violin.

Sister. also was musically gifted. Nanerl.Mozart’s Family    Mother died while he was very young. 1782 Married Constanze Weber .

. The Abduction from the Seraglio Wrote string quartets to emulate Haydn. Considered too young and overqualified for most jobs.Mozart’s Early Music       Released by the Archbishop for disorderly conduct and began freelance composing. Made a living by performing his piano concertos. Moved to Vienna 1782 – First major opera.

Mozart’s Late Music     Losing fame and poorly managed money. 41 Operas    1786 – Marriage of Figaro 1787 – Don Giovanni 1791 – Magic Flute (Die Zauberflote)  Requiem . Symphonies 37. 40. Late works are the most impressive.

 .  Instilled a sense of drama in all of his music.  Master of melody.  Wrote more than 800 compositions in 35 years. tuneful and catchy.  Mastered all Classical genres.Mozart’s Characteristics Accessible and highly refined.