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CHAPTER 1

MICROORGANISM?

Micro and Makro?

Micro mean.

small, very small, cant see by naked eyes.


Makro mean

big,can see by naked eyes

How to see the tiny particle such as microorganism..

It can be seen by using electron microscope..

The classification of microorganism.

The characteristic of microorganism include their


1. Appearance ---- keadaan luaran
2. Shape.. Bentuk 3. Size saiz 4. Method of reproduction..cara

membiak 5. Nutrition . Nutrisi 6. Habitat.. Tempat tinggal

Viruses

APPEARANCE OF VIRUSES
Is the smallest

microorganism The structure is simple Viruses consist (mengandungi) of strands of nucleic acid (DNA) which protected(dilindungi) by a protein coat

SIZE OF VIRUSES
THE SIZE ARE TOO

SMALL SMALLER THAN BACTERIA

SHAPE OF VIRUSES
HELICAL POLYHEDRAL

CHARACTERISTIC OF VIRUS
Viruses do not make their own food

They obtain (mendapatkan) food from animals,plants

and some bacteria.


So they are PARASITES
(mendapat makanan dr individu lain sehingga membawa keburukan kepada individu tersebut)

The cell where the viruses are attached (melekat) are

called as host cells This cell become the habitat of the viruses

Viruses and host cell

Viruses are parasites


They can infect
Human Animal Plant Bacteria

Viruses Infected on human

Viruses Infected on animal

Viruses infected on plant

Method of reproduction
It only reproduce when it is contact with living cell.

BACTERIA
Can be found everywhere They are the simplest single celled organism

Appearance

Appearance of bacteria
Surrounded with tough cell wall

cell wall support and maintain the shape of the cell

Have hundred of hairlike called PILLI pilli enable(membolehkan) bacteria to stick (melekat) to certain surface (permukaan)
Also have a tail tail.. Help them to move

Size
The size is bigger than viruses..

Shape of bacteria
Shape of bacteria

Spherical (cocci)

Rod shaped

spiral

Long chain (streptococci)

Bunches of grape (staphylococci)

bacili

Nutrition
Carry out photosynthesis
Some live as parasites Some are SAPROTROPHS

saprotrophsabsorb (serap) nutrient from dead organism

Method of reproduction
By binary fission

Habitat

PROTOZOA

PROTOZOA
Are unicellular microscopic organism 2. They have complex internal structures such as nuclei containing genetic material
1.

Size of protozoa
Ranges from 5 to 250 m

So they are easily seen under low magnification

microscope.

Example of protozoa

HABITAT
AMOEBA Soil Fresh water Ocean Other organism as parasites PARAMESIUM Fresh water

Shape of AMOEBA
Does not have fix shape Its shapes change when

it moves Use PSEUDOPODIA which help them to move And use PSEUDOPODIA to capture and engulf(telan) makanan.

SHAPE OF PARAMESIUM
Shape like a slipper Has a tiny hair called

CILIA CILIA was used to move and draw food into its body.

METHOD OF REPRODUCTION
AMOEBA PARAMESIUM

Binary fission

Binary fission

ALGAE

Characteristic of algae
Simple organism that make food

through photosynthesis. They have chlorophyll but it is not a plant. Did algae have roots, stems and leaves? They didnt have roots, stems and leaves.. So, can we classified it as a plant?

Algae
Can be UNICELLULAR such as euglena

Or MULTICELLULAR such as spirogyra

Method of reproduction
They reproduce asexually through BINARY FISSION
SPIRIGYRA reproduce SEXUALLY

through CONJUGATION

CONJUGATION
1. TWO individual united by a tube

formed by outgrowths from one or both of the cells.


2. Genetic materials are passed

through the tube into the other cell.

CONJUGATION

and finally it will form 4 daughter cells

HABITAT

Fungi

Fungi
Are simple, plant like organism
Do not contain the chlorophyll

Feed (mendapat makanan) on

the dead matter

Size
The size ranges from

10 to 100m
Example of fungi

Mould Yeast

Habitat of fungi