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Organisations – for education, employment, health, travel, recreation etc. Organisations are not physical structures but made up of people who individually and collectively form an organisation to produce necessary goods and services.
“ The organisation is above all social. It is people.” Peter Drucker
“ People are the key” – Sam Walton, the founder of Wal-Mart and the richest person in the world when he died .
Why organisations exist?
Organisations provide us necessary goods and services and so are very useful in society. Further on to increase specialisation and division of labour. To make use of large scale technology. To manage external environment. To economise on transaction costs. To exert power and control for efficiency.
The organisational icebergFigure
What sinks a ship isn‟t always what sailors can see, but what they can‟t see.
permission of South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning: www.thomsonrights.com. Fax 800 730 2215.
Source: Don Hellriegel, John W. Slocum, Jr and Richard W. Woodman, Organizational Behavior, Eighth edition, South-Western Publishing © (1998), p.6. Reprinted with the
. And this human behaviour is an important element in the functioning of an organisation. running organisations with satisfied workforce is quite difficult because they are influenced by human behaviour.WHY OB HAS COME INTO PICTURE Today. Behaviour is anything that one does.
conflicts. values. anxiety etc. habits. beliefs. understanding. attitudes. learning process etc. This behaviour comes from / is made up of perceptions. The characteristics of human behaviour are : – it is caused – goal oriented motivated – can be disrupted by certain problems (frustration.) – observable – measurable – cause and effect relationship . culture. motives.
social and psychological variables.complex. . . That‟s how and why OB has come into the picture. systematic/random. . This knowledge of human behaviour needs to be studied and understood by people managing organisations to run them effectively. may be orderly/arbitrary. environmental.differs due to physiological.
The goal of OB is to explain and predict actions and how they will affect performance.Organisational Behaviour Organisational Behaviour (OB) The study of actions that affect performance in the workplace. group. and organisational. OB focuses on three levels: individual. Win-win Situation . A situation in which both parties get what they want.
Elements of OB People Structure Environment –internal & external Technology Appannaiah & Reddy .
” (Robbins: 1998.ORGANISATIONAL BEHAVIOUR “Organisational Behaviour is concerned with the study of what people do in an organisation and how that behaviour affects the performance of the organisation.9) .
ORGANISATIONAL BEHAVIOUR The study of Organisational Behaviour involves: consideration of the interaction among the formal structure (organisational context in which the process of management takes place) the tasks to be undertaken the technology employed and the methods of carrying out work the behaviour of people the process of management the external environment .
working environment should satisfy individual needs as well as attainment of organisational goals. and patterns of management.technological and scientific development.formal and informal. The Environment . economic activity. . on behaviour. The Organisation . governmental actions. The Group . Understanding of groups complements a knowledge of individual behaviour.impact of organisation structure and design.ORGANISATIONAL BEHAVIOUR Interrelated dimensions influencing behaviour: The Individual .
prediction and control of human behaviour in an organisation. FRED LUTHANS “OB is directly concerned with the understanding.DEFINITIONS KEITH DAVIS & NEWSTROM “OB is the study of application of knowledge of how people act or behave within an organisation”. .
OB is……… the study of human behaviour. group and organisational levels and application of that knowledge in improving organisational effectiveness. In short. . the study of human behaviour at individual. the study of human behaviour in organisations.
. Oriented towards Organisational objectives. An applied science and not a pure science. Normative and value centred.NATURE OF OB A field of study and not a discipline. A total systems approach. Interdisciplinary approach. Humanistic and optimistic.
OB. as a distinct study came into existence because of some key variables mentioned below:- .FOUNDATIONS OF OB The subject of OB is based on a few fundamental concepts which revolve around the nature of people and organisation.
a) that there are individual differences b) that a whole person needs to be studied c) that behaviour of an individual is caused d) that every individual has dignity of his own e) that organizations are social systems f) that there exists a mutuality of interests among organisational members g) that people have their own perceptions. values etc. attitudes. h) that there exists a holistic approach towards OB .
anthropology. Social Psychology. Ethics. Sociology. Mathematics and even Statistics. Political Science and other discipline and other disciplines such as economics.Scope of OB OB uses an applied behavioural science approach and is based on views and contribution from various behavioural disciplines such as Psychology. .
social behaviour. society. . team communication. It specifically studies social groups. group dynamics.Sociology Sociology is concerned with the study of people as part of the social system. etc. organisational culture/ climate.
As a science. personality.Psychology Psychology is concerned with the study and understanding of human personality and behaviour. . values. and motives of individuals. explain and at times even modify the behaviour of human beings. attitudes. beliefs. characteristics. psychology tries to measure. perceptions. the traits.
and change of attitudes. Social Psychologists are interested in areas related to measuring understanding. .Social Psychology This is a combination of both Psychology and Sociology. building healthy communication network and group decision making.
group coalition. and people manipulate power in their self interest. Political scientists study the behaviours of individuals and groups within a political environment. Poly-ticks . It helps to understand conflict resolution.Political Science This discipline is mainly concerned with the building and structuring of powerful groups. allocation of power.
It is related to the study of larger groups (societies). ideas and values and the wider process of socialisation. customs. . It helps us to study global beliefs. nations and cultures.Anthropology It is the study of human race and its culture.
productivity measurement. product designs etc. integrity. value. Economics – optimum utilisation physical and human resources.establishments of standards of honesty. respect etc. . esteem. work flow analysis. Mathematics/statistics – involves the use of acts and figures and arriving at logical and demonstrable conclusions from bodies of knowledge and research. of Ethics . Engineering .helps in work measurement.
communicate effectively. form effective work teams etc. make better decisions. manage conflicts.IMPORTANCE OF OB OB provides a road organizational lives. map to our The field of OB uses scientific research to help us understand and predict organizational life. . It helps us influence organizational events viz.
It is useful for industrial relations. maintaining cordial It is useful also in the field of marketing. It helps managers to get things done through delegation – understand motivation and what to be done to motivate subordinates. It helps an individual understand himself /herself and others better. .
citizenship and satisfaction.OBJECTIVES OF OB To maximise productivity. To minimise turnover. absenteeism and .
profitability. . It is useful for pursuing a career in management to learn how to predict behaviour and apply it in meaningful way to make organisations more effective. It leads to higher productivity. growth and stability of business.
HR Approach 5.Productivity Approach 3.Contingency Approach 4. Systems Approach k. Ashwathappa .APPROACHES TO OB 1.Interactionalism Approach OB 2.
They should be developed to higher levels of competency.HUMAN RESOURCE APPROACH People are central resource to any organisation. creativity and fulfillment. Managers role is to provide active support to their growth and performance. .
Events/ situations/ outcomes are said to be contingents influenced by other variables. It suggests that several other variables affect the relationships and appropriate managerial action needs to be taken based on elements of that situation. . we assume that there is no „one best way‟ available in any organisation.CONTINGENCY APPROACH By this approach.
whole group and a social system. . as a whole person. It is an input – transformation –output system whereby managers need to work with people and allocate resources (materials/human/financial/informational) to carry out tasks within an environment of change. It suggests managers to look to organisations in totality.SYSTEMS APPROACH This approach views that organisations as united and purposeful system composed of interrelated parts.
- .PRODUCTIVITY APPROACH This approach focuses on optimising resource utilization and raising efficiency levels in work areas. Eg. OB can improve job satisfaction. It suggests that human/ social/ economic issues play an important role in organisational growth. Productivity is the ratio of output to input in economic terms but human and social inputs/ouputs are also important.
Interactionalism Suggests that individuals and situations interact continuously to determine individuals' behavior. interpret and change various situations. .INTERACTIONALISM This approach attempts to explain how people select. This shows that individual behaviour results from continuous and multidirectional interaction between characteristics of a person and the situation.
CULTURE. TEAMS. STRESS. COMMUNICATION & CONFLICTS GROUP BEHAVIOUR ORGANISATIONAL EFFECTIVENESS ORG. PERCEPTION. LEADERSHIP. LEARNING. CHANGE & O D ORGANISATIONA L BEHAVIOUR . POWER & POLITICS. ORG. H R POLICIES. ATTRIBUTES & MOTIVATION INDIVIDUAL BEHAVIOUR GROUP DYNAMICS.OB MODEL PERSONALITY. ATTITUDE.
Group level variables 3. Individual level variables 2.. Organisational level variables .LEVELS OF OB OB focuses in three levels behaviour in an organisation viz. of 1.
objects or events) . 3) Values and attitudes –( basic convictions and evaluative statements/ judgements concerning people. gender. 2) Personality and emotions – (sum total of behaviour and intense feelings). tenure etc. marital status.INDIVIDUAL LEVEL VARIABLES 1) Biological characteristics – age.
5) Perception – is what one thinks or interprets to an environment. in 7) Individual decision making – A process influenced by all other factors. 4) Ability – capacity to perform in various tasks. direction and persistence of effort towards attaining goal. . 6) Motivation – the process that accounts for an individual‟s intensity. 6) Learning – permanent change behavior as a result of experience.
Group level variables Group decision making Leadership and trust Communication Group structures Work teams Conflicts Power and politics .
ORGANISATIONAL LEVEL VARIABLES HR policies and practices Organisational culture Organisational structure and designs Work design and technology .
innovation and change.CHALLENGES AND OPPORTUNITIES FOR OB Responding to globalisation Managing workforce diversity Improving quality and productivity Improving people‟s skills Empowering people Stimulating creativity. Improving ethical behaviour. .
The role of management as an integrating activity .
OB MODELS AUTOCRATIC MODEL CUSTODIAL MODEL SUPPORTIVE MODEL COLLEGIAL MODEL L.M. Prasad/appannaiah & Reddy .
AUTOCRATIC MODEL Basis of model Power Managerial orientation Employee orientation Employee psychological result Employee needs met Performance result Authority Obedience Dependence on boss Subsistence Minimum .
CUSTODIAL MODEL Basis of model Economic resources Managerial orientation Employee orientation Employee psychological result Employee needs met Performance result Money Security and benefits Dependence on organisation Security Passive co-operation .
SUPPORTIVE MODEL Basis of model Managerial orientation Employee orientation Employee psychological result Employee needs met Performance result Status & Recognition Leadership Support Job performance Participation Awakened drives .
COLLEGIAL MODEL Basis of model Managerial orientation Employee orientation Partnership Teamwork Responsible behaviour Employee psychological result Employee needs met Performance result Self-discipline Self-actualisation Moderate enthusiasm .
There is a high mobility of labour. The work culture is changing in every organisation. . Job and Work patterns are changing. The concepts of job security and steady income are losing. Drucker said that „organisational structures are becoming increasingly short lived and unstable‟.Emerging trends in organisations Peter F. Outsourcing of employees is increasing. Hierarchy levels are reduced.
Emerging trends in organisations There is impact of globalisation – organisations are restructuring. Organisations of tomorrow look for – INTELLIGENCE. Organisations are becoming learning organisations. Organisations look for reducing costs and enhancing productivity. There is emphasis on changing technology and developing entrepreneurship. INFORMATION AND IDEAS. Emergence of virtual organisations. .
– Figurehead. DECISIONAL ROLE – Entrepreneur. . Resource allocator. Disturbance handler. – Monitor. Negotiator. INFORMATIONAL ROLE Disseminator and spokesperson.MANAGERIAL ROLES & SKILLS INTERPERSONAL ROLE Leadership and Liaison.
techniques and equipments necessary to perform a skilled job or task –acquired through training . Human Skill . understand and motivate others – calls for interpersonal relations at various levels to communicate. A manager requires three managerial skills as under: Technical Skill. education and experience on the job. SKILLS OF A MANAGER . motivate and delegate responsibility. methods.ability to judge and work with. Conceptual skills – mental ability and attitude to analyse and handle complex situations – calls for goal setting and decision making that affect organisational functioning.ability to apply knowledge.
Skills needed T E C H N I C A L ex C O N C E P T U A L EXECUTIVE MANAGERIAL SUPERVISORY NON-SUPERVISORY .
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