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Orwellian and Huxleyan vision
Utopia vs Dystopia
• Coined by Sir Thomas More in 1516 by resorting to two Greek words: ‗ouk‘<meaning ‗not‘/ reduced to ‗u‘> and ‗topos‘<place> + the suffix ‗ia‘<indicative of a place> Etymologically, utopia is thus a place which is a non-place, simultaneously constituted by a movement of affirmation and denial. Function: More created the word ‗utopia‘ because he needed to designate something new, which included the narrative scheme he invented in his ‗‘UTOPIA‘‘.
Derivation neologism,dating back to 1868, in a parliamentary speech in which John Stuart Mill tried to find a name for a perspective which was opposite to that of utopia: if utopia was commonly seen as ‗too good to be practicable‘, then dystopia was ‗too bad to be practicable‘. Etymollogically, dystopia comes from the Greek ‗dus‘< bad, abnormal, diseased> and ‗topos‘<place>. Function: the word dystopia came into usage not only to refer to imaginary places that were worse than real places, but also to works describing places such as these.
• Utopia as a matter of attitude- as a kind of reaction to an undesirable present and an aspiration to overcome all difficulties by the imagination of possible alternatives. Utopia as a literary genre - More established the basis for the steady development of a literary tradition which flourished particularly in England, Italy, France and the United States and which relies on a more or less rigid narrative structure.
Dystopia as a matter of attitude- to make man realize that, since it is impossible for him to build an ideal society, then he must be committed to the construction of a better one. Dystopia as a literary genre -same narrative devices & principles of utopia(i.e., imagining what the same place – the place where the utopist lives – will be like in another time –the future), but predicts that things will turn out badly; thus essentially pessimistic in its presentation of projective images. A sub-genre with a didactic and moralistic aim : It shows the worst human society imaginable, in an effort to convince readers to avoid any path that might lead toward such societal degradation.
downbeat Regime (totalitarianism) Propaganda Rich and poor people. harmonic families Dystopia Classes. unlucky people Legislation Atmosphere . equal distribution of goods Fair system of punishment Happy. caste system Pessimistic. upbeat Democracy Equal and advancing education No money. no middle class Unfair and excessive punishment Unfortunate.Utopia Society View on future Form of government Education Economy Equality of all people Optimistic.
• Anthony Burgess.Examples of dystopian novels • • • • • H. ―Fahrenheit 451‖ (1953) a future American society where books are outlawed and firemen burn any house that contains them. G. ―The Time Machine‖ (1895) the concept of time travel Aldous Huxley. ‗‘Animal Farm‘‘ (1945) events leading up to and during the Stalin era before the Second World War George Orwell. ‗‘Brave New World‘‘(1932) George Orwell. ―A Clockwork Orange‖ (1962) future and dystopian Western society . ‗‘1984‘‘ (1949) Ray Bradbury. Wells.
This. Orwell‘s vision of a post-atomic dictatorship in which every individual would be monitored ceaselessly by means of the telescreen seemed terrifyingly possible. if you were able to manipulate their genetic background .F. Lewis) • He came from a distinguished family of scientists and writers. pen name George Orwell born on 25th June 1903. in India but educated at prestigious boarding schools in England died 21 January 1950 in London because of Tuberculosis • Eric Blair described his family as "lowerupper-middle class― • Written work after: living among the very poor in London as he wished – he bought ragged clothes from second-hand shops (beg. at the dawn of the nuclear age and before the television had become a fixture in the family home. was the message of the book—This is possible: for heaven’s sake be careful about it.. I take it. of the XXth c. in Surrey England died of tongue cancer in November 22nd 1963 (the same day as J. and to take every possible precaution to see they shall not be achieved. • A cautionary not a prophetic book( in a 1962 interview): • ‗‘[Technology could] iron [humans] into a kind of uniformity. if you had a government unscrupulous enough you could do these things without any doubt . when Europe and American were still recovering from WWI.Kennedy and C. witnessing firsthand the nightmarish atrocities committed by fascist political regimes in the Spanish Civil War (1936) the Two World Wars experiences • In 1949.’’ Aldous Huxley ‘’Brave New World’’ (1932) George Orwell “Nineteen-Eighty-Four” (1949) • Eric Arthur Blair. We are getting more and more into a position where these things can be achieved..S. • Composed in 1931. . And it‘s extremely important to realize this...).• Aldous Leonard Huxley: born on the 6th July 1894.
Huxley explores the fears of both Soviet communism and American capitalism. religion. where the head of government is the all-knowing Big Brother.Dystopia and Totalitarianism Totalitarianism: A centralized government that does not tolerate parties of differing opinion and that exercises dictatorial control over many aspects of life Brave New World At first. – Mass production made cars. art. – The Industrial Revolution had brought massive changes to the world. the secret police of the Nazis – The Use of Propaganda – similar tactics were used in the totalitarian regimes of Hitler and Stalin • • 1984 serves as a cautionary tale against totalitarianism The regime in the book could represent a futuristic England or United States. and radios cheap and widely available. – The effects of World War I and totalitarian regimes were still being felt. Warfare and poverty have been eliminated. telephones. and everyone is permanently happy. home. and technologically advanced. all of these things have been achieved by eliminating family. Worse. he suggests that the price of universal happiness will be the sacrifice of everything important in world culture: motherhood. literature. since Orwell was worried about their increasing power during his lifetime • • • • • Huxley used his book to express the fear of loosing individual identity in the fast-paced world of the future In Brave New World. He is arrested by the ―Thought Police‖ who torture the hero to ―reeducate him‖ and force him to love Big Brother. the world it describes sounds like a utopia: humanity is carefree. Relation to the real world: the issues raised in the book were influenced by the issues of Huxley‘s time. cultural diversity. Relation to the real world: there are direct parallels between the book and the society at that time: – Leader worship – similar to Big Brother. and philosophy. . community. healthy. family. The hero‘s longing for truth and decency leads him to secretly rebel against the government. and love. science. • • 1984 The setting is the future world of 1984.a reference to Jewish concentration camps – Thought police – a reference to the Gestapo. However. dictators Joseph Stalin and Adolf Hitler were revered and followed absolutely – Joycamps .
. • They emphasize the danger of absolute political authority in an age of advanced technology. • They are a piercing analysis of the psychology of power and the ways that manipulations of language and history can be used as mechanisms of control. The governments use similar tactics of manipulation. with the purpose of keeping the majority in ignorance and submission. total control of society.―<Simone Weil> • This concept can be clearly seen in both ―Brave New World‖ and ―1984‖. even though the structure of their societies are different. • The goal of their respective governments is the same.BNW and 1984 • ‗‘Oppression that cannot be overcome does not give rise to revolt but to submission.
secret police. in contrast. who had never existed in the present. and when once the act of forgery was forgotten. but instead manages to convince its citizens to love their slavery.” • 1984 presents the rather more conventional vision of a totalitarian state. information control. and upon the same evidence. and torture. argues that the most powerful totalitarian state would be one that doesn‘t overwhelm and frighten its citizens. . in which the government maintains power through surveillance. and torture. he would exist just as authentically. 1984 • In 1984 people are controlled by constant government surveillance.BNW • In Brave New World humans are controlled by technological interventions that start before birth and last until death and actually change what people want. Comrade Ogilvy. • Brave New World. now existed in the past. • No alteration before life but control of life itself as people can be ―vaporised‖ or ―created‖: ―It struck him as curious that you could create dead men but not living ones.
Eurasia and Eastasia . No notion of individuality is eliminated=No revolt against the World State • 1984 Dictatorship of terror.Political Government Brave New World • Benevolent dictatorship.‖ The individual has the instinct of revolt. Dictatorship: children are subject to direct manipulation and indoctrination during ‗‘Elementary Class Consciousness‘‘ Benevolent: despite the hierarchal boundaries between social strata within these there is equality due to the fact that men are physicochemically equal. exercised from the inside out.―It follows that the three super-states not only cannot conquer one another. the telescreen faced you. but would gain no advantage by doing so. Whichever way you turned. forcedly imposed by constant surveillance of telescreens and the presence of Big Brother: ―It was like trying to make a move at chess when you were already mated. of repulsion towards the present situation due to stored in the unconscious memory before the regime which was actually at its beginnings so needed to improve its power and dominition • • • • • • .‖ The control was exercised from the outside (Physical) to inside (Psychological) The World is governed by 3 great powers that are in constant war: Airstrip One.
green Delta. I‘m really awfuly glad I‘m a Beta. They all wear green.Society structuring Brave New World • 1. which concerned itself with news. 2. and until after they have rebelled they cannot become conscious. which maintained law and order. in Newspeak: Minitrue. mulberry Gamma. 4. They work much harder than we do. 3. 5. Gammas are stupid.” . And the Ministry of Plenty. and Delta children wear khaki. black ‗‘Alpha children wear grey. The Ministry of Peace. Miniluv. and the fine arts. And Epsilons are still worse. and Miniplenty. Their names. which was responsible for economic affairs. each class defined by a specific colour: Alpha. They‘re too stupid to be able .‖ • 1984 Everywhere there is the same pyramidal structure. • Until they become conscious they will never rebel. Oh no. • Society is composed of 5 social classes. which concerned itself with war. And then we are much better than the Gammas and Deltas. because they‘re so frightfully clever. I don‘t want to play with Delta children. gray Beta . The Ministry of Truth. They were the homes of the four Ministries between which the entire apparatus of government was divided. the same economy existing by and for continuous warfare. khaki Epsilons. The Ministry of Love. because I don‘t work so hard. the same worship of semi-divine leader. entertainment. Minipax. • The ruling system: “from the roof of Victory Mansions you could see all four of them simultaneously. education.
Subjects of manipulation • History and the past: control & rewriting / reinterpretation • Language: Linguistic devices of domination • The human body. mentality & sexuality: role & function of the human body .
And not the child‘s mind only. d. routine programs and events: Hate Week. At any moment the tension inside you was liable to translate itself into some visible symptom. was your own nervous system. and the sum of the suggestions is the child‘s mind. Community Centre b.made up of these suggestions.‘‘ ‗‘ But every one belongs to every one else.‖ • Slogans. and. The mind that judges and desires and decides. Physical Jerks. The most deadly danger of all was talking in your sleep. Spies.‘‘ • • 1984 Scientific that reflects on the ideologic Inflicts the worst means of terror: the fight with oneself ―Your worst enemy. There was no way of guarding against that.Forms of manipulation Brave New World • a. Hate Song • Education Leagues: Junior Anti-Sex League. he reflected. IDENTITY. The adult‘s mind too-all his life long. • • • • . so far as he could see. the World State‘s motto. Sports Committee. Youth League. Even at the best of times it was seldom working.‖ • The scientific technology is used only to control the subjects as concerning their living conditions it is fallible at all times: ―Winston made for the stairs. SCIENTIFIC: Overt manipulation into conformed thinking and preconditioning of behavioral patterns of citizens by means of hypnopaedia< laws & rules of society> and bioengineering Indoctrination Brainwashing SOMA IDEOLOGIC: BNW as an ideology of Happiness and Collectivism ‗‘ CENTRAL LONDON HATCHERY AND CONDITIONING CENTRE. Two Minutes Hate. in a shield.‖ ―And what was frightening was that the action was quite possibly unconscious. COMMUNITY. It was no use trying the lift. c.‘‘ ‗‘ Till at last the child‘s mind is these suggestions. STABILITY. and at present the electric current was cut off during daylight hours.
the World State provides soma which gives individuals ‗‘ a holiday from reality‘‘ 178 A. Victory over old age: bioengineering . 2086)-official date of mass production of the drug soma having ―all the advantages of Christianity and alcohol but none of their defects. (A.‖ Its constant supply insures stability.‖ and ―immortality‖.F. suppression of all books written bf 150 A.‘‘ God is replaced by Ford/ Freud Celebrations of God are replaced by Ford‘s Days ―Heaven.History and the past • • • • • • • • • • • • • „‟History is BUNK‘‘< ‗‘saying of our Ford‘‘> Attempts of the government to change the social fabric by violence FAILED British Museum Massacre NINE YEARS‟ WAR – 141A.‖ ―the soul.) Resorting to slower but more efficient means: Pavlovian conditioning and hypnopaedia Campaign against the past: closing of museums.(2058) Introduction of Henry Ford‟s T-model automobile(1908)= opening date of the New Era ‗‘All crosses had their tops cut off and became T‘s.(2049A.F.D.D.F. destruction of historical monuments.
owing to unfavourable climatic or geological conditions.” . emotionality and ultimately humankind. has not been worth the expense of civilizing‟‟ Banished from / lost by civilization. History understood as emotion has no place in the New World. or poverty of natural resources. Therefore. „‟The savage reservation is a place which. one which is devoid of feeling. ‟‟ How many goodly creatures are there here!” The singing words mocked him derisively. History retreated itself in the ‗wild‘ along with the last reminiscences of affectivity. “How beauteous mankind is! O brave new world .History and the past HISTORY is Not Totally Abolished but is continually subjected to downgrading.
„‟ • How is this stability achieved? . The primal and the ultimate need.History and the past • „‟Most historical facts are unpleasant‘‘< Director of Hatchery> • History is easily erasable. • History had to be sacrificed for the sake of ‘‘ stability. • History is grotesque and notions of family relations are nauseating .
.The place of history • History is crucially important in ―1984‖ because it is a reference to past which offers stability to the subjects and that hinders the individual to be easily manipulated. Knowing the past would give the individuals standards with which to compare the present situation to another and would not take for granted what they are given.
'controls the future: who controls the present controls the past. the claim of the Party to have improved the conditions of human life had got to be accepted.‗‖ • ―And when memory failed and written records were falsified—when that happened.‖ • Condition of war: having a common enemy keeps the people of Oceania united . any standard against which it could be tested. The past was erased.‖ • ―Everything faded into mist.History and the past 1984 • Hisory rewriting • ―The past not only changed. but changed continuously.' ran the Party slogan. the lie became truth. because there did not exist. and never again could exist. the erasure was forgotten.‖ • ―'Who controls the past.
in order to confirm their power • The way the change is supposed to organize the whole society • The idea of the final judgment and of nobody getting away of it: ―"Here comes a candle to light you to bed. real or not. the need of them. as well as to the totalitarian regimes that affirmed themselves during the WWII .History and the past 1984 • God is replaced with Big Brother • The same idea of orthodoxy that there is always the supreme creator that is watching you • The same idea of the opposing leader of Goldenstein and Lucifer. the conscience generates the guilt that will torture psychologically the individual as he fears the consequences and runs from them • Allusions to the Protectorate of Cromwell. here comes a chopper to chop off your head!― • The terror inflicted on the great majority of the sin.
surely.that. or even when one saw a scrap of waste paper lying about. it never happened -. cartoons. pamphlets. sound-tracks.‖ ―This process of continuous alteration was applied not only to newspapers. but to books. • • • . films.History and the past 1984 • • How history was controlled ―All history was a palimpsest. periodicals. it was an automatic function to lift the flap of the nearest memory hole and drop it in. scraped clean and reinscribed exactly as often as was necessary. Day by day and almost minute by minute the past was brought up to date. hereupon it would be whirled away on a current of warm air to the enormous furnaces which were hidden somewhere in the recesses of the building. was more terrifying than mere torture and death?‖ ―For how could you establish even the most obvious fact when there existed no record outside your own memory?‖ When one knew that any document was due for destruction.‖ ―If the Party could thrust its hand into the past and say of this or that event. leaflets. photographs--to every kind of literature or documentation which might conceivably hold any political or ideological significance. posters.
” “Like French and German‟‟ Devices of language control.Language • „‟Words are like X-rays if you use them properly.they‟ll go through anything.. I suppose?” “A dead language.” • „‟You know what Polish is. You read and you‟re pierced.5groups .
B. Rewritten proverbs: ‗‘Ford help those who help themselves‘‘// ‗‘What man has joined nature is powerless to put assunder‘‘// ‗‘ Never put off till to-morrow the fun you can have to-day‘‘ .‘‘ // ‗‘Orgy-Porgy‘‘ 3. Jingles( tailored for easy remembrance): ‗‘Ending is better than mending.‘‘// ‘‘ A gramme is better than a damn‘‘ // ‗‘Cleanliness is close to fordlinesss‘‘ 2.C .Language 1. to see a fine bathroom andW.C. Rewritten nursery rhymes( stress the social infantilism / satiric purpose): ‗‘A. Vitamin D‘‘// ‗‘Streptocock-Gee to Banbury-T.
New proverbs: ‗‘One cubic centimetre (of soma) cures ten gloomy sentiments‘‘// ‗‘Take a holiday from reality whenever you like and come back without so much as a headache or a mythology‘‘ Pseudostatements( within a fictional universe. there are void of semantic or logical content. they‘re meaningless while serving a psychological purpose as consolidators of happiness and security) : ‗‘Progress is lovely‘‘//‗‘Everybody is happy now‘‘// ‗‘ Everybody works for everyone else 5.Language 4. . All these are types of discourse designed for parroting and ensuring the governmental control and are also part of the preconditioning process.
Suppression of affectivity . Constant reinforcement of World State truths by means of 5.Language • Other means of reinforcement of the established truth of the World State: 1. Hypnopaedia:‘‘ the greatest moralizing and socializing force of all time‟‘ 4. Preconditioning< All conditioning aims at that: making people like their unescapable social destiny’’> 2. Bokanovsifikation<Bokanovsky’s Process is one of the major instruments of social stability!”> 3.
unsuited to live in either of the two worlds. Thus. civilized world‘‘. A half-breed// an outcast Regarded as the son of the ‗‘she-dog‘‘ in the reservation. John is driven to suicide. Born in the wild. he is fascinated by the descriptions provided by Linda about the ‗‘brave new. he is denied the right to participate in the ceremony of the rites of passage and thus into that primitive society. as a savage. . So. Crucially influenced by Shakespearean readings and language.Language The strange case of John the Savage John the Savage -a particular case of preconditioning. he is ‗‘manually‘‘ preconditioned by Linda.
because there will be no words in which to express it. Do you know that Newspeak is the only language in the world whose vocabulary gets smaller every year?‖ ―Don't you see that the whole aim of Newspeak is to narrow the range of thought? In the end we shall make thoughtcrime literally impossible. the mutability of the past. Newspeak is Ingsoc and Ingsoc is Newspeak.' he added with a sort of mystical satisfaction. and the denial of objective reality The grammar of Newspeak had two outstanding peculiarities. The first of these was an almost complete interchangeability between different parts of speech The Revolution will be complete when the language is perfect.‖ Whenever he began to talk of the principles of Ingsoc. doublethink.‖ ―Newspeak is Ingsoc and Ingsoc is Newspeak. doublethink.‖ ―You don't grasp the beauty of the destruction of words. Newspeak is not centralized in any way • • • • • • .Language 1984 • • • • Newspeak was the official language of Oceania. Parallel to the phenomena of dropping the saxon endings of the language ―Newspeak. the mutability of the past.
which not only had in every case a political implication. The B words were in all cases compound words. The A vocabulary consisted of the words needed for the business of everyday life. • • • . since the same rules held good for all three categories. the B vocabulary (also called compound words). known as the A vocabulary. but the grammatical peculiarities of the language can be dealt with in the section devoted to the A vocabulary. The C vocabulary was supplementary to the others and consisted entirely of scientific and technical terms. It will be simpler to discuss each class separately. that is to say. and the C vocabulary. These resembled the scientific terms in use today.Language 1984 • Newspeak words were divided into three distinct classes. The B vocabulary consisted of words which had been deliberately constructed for political purposes: words. Without a full understanding of the principles of Ingsoc it was difficult to use these words correctly. but the usual care was taken to define them rigidly and strip them of undesirable meanings. and were constructed from the same roots. but were intended to impose a desirable mental attitude upon the person using them.
will be expressed by exactly one word. to apply the same process to the process itself. then to draw it back into memory again at the moment when it was needed.‖ • 'Don't you see that the whole aim of Newspeak is to narrow the range of thought? In the end we shall make thoughtcrime literally impossible. to forget whatever it was necessary to forget. with its meaning rigidly defined and all its subsidiary meanings rubbed out and forgotten. to become unconscious of the act of hypnosis you had just performed. and then. to hold simultaneously two opinions which cancelled out. to repudiate morality while laying claim to it.Language 1984 • ―His mind slid away into the labyrinthine world of doublethink. once again. . to use logic against logic. to believe that democracy was impossible and that the Party was the guardian of democracy. to be conscious of complete truthfulness while telling carefully constructed lies. because there will be no words in which to express it. To know and not to know. knowing them to be contradictory and believing in both of them. Every concept that can ever be needed. That was the ultimate subtlety: consciously to induce unconsciousness. Even to understand the word 'doublethink' involved the use of doublethink. and then promptly to forget it again: and above all.
Bokanovskyfication. the Bottling Room. BNW -a hedonistic society< quote> Elementary sex is compulsory from an early age. the Decanting Room. 6. 2. babies are subject to different procedures so that they correspond to the social requirements of their pre-assigned class: quotes . LOVE is an unorthodox concept in the world where everyone belongs to everyone.’’ During fetal development. Monogamy and romance are unorthodox words . Labellers. 3. Predestiantors. Matriculators. a circle for the females and for those who were destined to become freemartins a question mark. Children play rudimentary sex games. Liners. 5. Human beings are labelled according to a system: „‟T for the males.The human body and sexuality • 1. Human reproduction is represented as mass production: hatchery. 7. black on a white ground. 4.
―it‘s only about four months now since I‟ve been having Henry. Trust Henry Foster to be the perfect gentleman-always correct. Has there?‖ Lenina blushed scarlet. that‘s all. Have somebody else from time to time. ―There. ―Of course there‘s no need to give him up. ―there‘s been nobody else except Henry all that time. you see!‖ Fanny was triumphant.” .‘‘ • Men are perfect gentlemen.‖ Lenina was protesting. ―But after all. You know what a stickler.‖ Nodding. He has other girls.‖ said Lenina. pointing an accusing finger. And then there‘s the Director to think of. ―That shows what he stands for.‖ Fanny went on. ―He patted me on the behind this afternoon.” ―Only four months! I like that. doesn‘t he(Henry Foster)?‖ ―Of course he does. And what‘s more. The strictest conventionality.The human body and sexuality • Women are promiscuous.
decanted/unbottled children. VPS(violent passion substitute). Ford and fun. orgy. Kiss the girls and make them One. Malthusian belts.The human body and sexuality • Intercourse is seen as a recreational activity controlled by the World State: sexhormone chewing gum. ‗‘Orgy-porgy. freematins. Because of this norm. promiscuity/ libertinage is the law and emotional attachment is illegal. Controlling sexuality = mass control .” Thus. Orgy-porgy gives release. Sex is no longer used for procreation but rather for distraction and pacification. controlled environment.porgy incantations . treated casually and publicly rather than as a personal matter. no space of time ever passes between a desire and the consummation of that desire. Boys at one with girls at peace. The act has been dehumanized and made devoid of passion. Pregnancy Substitute. in this futuristic.
actually immoral (no!): and had therefore been rigorously suppressed.‖ ―Nothing?‖ ‗‘In most cases.C.‖ the Director repeated. normal intercourse between man and wife. .‖ the D. and even for some generations afterwards. erotic play between children had been regarded as abnormal (there was a roar of laughter). LOVE is an unorthodox concept in the world where everyone belongs to everyone. till they were over twenty years old. ―I told you that you‘d find it incredible.The human body and sexuality 1984 Brave New World • BNW -a hedonistic society Elementary sex is compulsory from an early age. • ―What I‘m going to tell you now. ―may sound incredible.‖ He let out the amazing truth. for the sole purpose of begetting children. Children play rudimentary sex games. and without physical pleasure on the part of the woman: all else was SEXCRIME. when you‘re not accustomed to history. ―Twenty. In Newspeak it was seldom possible to follow a heretical thought further than the perception that it WAS heretical: beyond that point the necessary words were nonexistent. For a very long period before the time of Our Ford. A look of astonished incredulity appeared on the faces of his listeners.‖ he said.‖ He knew what was meant by GOODSEX--that is to say. But then. Monogamy and romance are unorthodox words . and not only abnormal. was saying.‖ ―Not possible!‖ ―Barring a little surreptitious auto-erotism and homosexualityabsolutely nothing. most facts about the past do sound incredible. Poor little kids not allowed to amuse themselves? They could not believe it. ―even adolescents like yourselves .H.‖ ‗‘Twenty years old?‖ echoed the students in a chorus of loud disbelief. ―Even adolescents.
The Party was trying to kill the sex instinct. if it could not be killed. the Party's efforts were largely successful. in contrast to Winston’s ideological motivation. Her rebellion against the Party is small and personal. And as far as the women were concerned. Julia is pragmatic and optimistic. He did not know why this was so.The human body and sexuality 1984 • Julia enjoys sex. but it seemed natural that it should be so. • . or. then to distort it and dirty it. for her own enjoyment. and claims to have had affairs with many Party members.
and even your breathing could be controlled. The sexual act. And what he wanted. more even than to be loved. even if it were only once in his whole life. as the Party intended that they should be.” • . They were all impregnable.” “He took his scribbling pad on his knee and pushed back his chair so as to get as far away from the telescreen as possible. and the telescreen was quite delicate enough to pick it up. but his heart did not believe it. To keep your face expressionless was not difficult.The human body and sexuality 1984 • “His reason told him that there must be exceptions. was rebellion. successfully performed. with an effort: but you could not control the beating of your heart. Desire was thoughtcrime. was to break down that wall of virtue.
He was glad that this was • happening.The human body and sexuality 1984 • But the truth was that he had no physical sensation. All he felt was incredulity and pride. but he had no physical desire. except that of mere • contact. .
we suffer from the future perfect tense.Conclusion • ‗‘It was Huxley's genius to present us to ourselves in all our ambiguity. Alone among the animals. though they can also question their own grandiose constructions. human beings can imagine such enhanced states for themselves. It's these double-sided imaginative abilities that produce masterpieces of speculation such as Brave New World. But thanks to our uniquely structured languages. Rover the Dog cannot imagine a future world of dogs in which all fleas will have been eliminated and doghood will finally have achieved its full glorious potential. • To quote The Tempest.‘‘ ." He might well have added: "and nightmares". source of Huxley's title: "We are such stuff / As dreams are made on.
Conclusion • 1984 is one of Orwell’s best-crafted novels. That Orwell postulated such a society a mere thirty-five years into the future compounded this fear. as seen in the fall of the Berlin Wall and the disintegration of the Soviet Union in the early 1990s. democracy ultimately won out in the Cold War. and it remains one of the most powerful warnings ever issued against the dangers of a totalitarian society. Rather than being overwhelmed by totalitarianism. Yet 1984 remains an important novel. • Of course. the world that Orwell envisioned in 1984 did not materialize. and if the mind itself is controllable what then?” . in part for the alarm it sounds against the abusive nature of authoritarian governments • “If both the past and the external world exist only in the mind.
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