Chapter 4

Provincial America and the Struggle for a Continent

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Expansion versus Anglicization
• 18th Century British colonies sought to emulate homeland: housing, fashion, import British goods • Colonies’ population grew rapidly and demand for skilled and unskilled laborers, clergy, professionals outgrew supply
– Northern colonies train their population for these roles – Southern colonies rely on immigrants

• Constant expansion of British meant constant retreat for Indians

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Threats to Householder Autonomy
Political • Some families acquired more prestige than others • Elected office dominated by Colonial “gentleman” • Population grows much faster than elected offices Economic • Increase in entail inspires new settlement • Tenancy and other forms of debt emerge

Anglicizing the Role of Women
• Women worked harder to maintain family status • Some trends of inheritance (widows) reversed • European double standards of sexual behavior prevailed

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Expansion, Immigration, and Regional Differentiation
• Post-1715: era of peace for settlements • During expansion, settlers fit into their distinct regions • New Englanders had sense of regional identity before independence

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Emergence of the Old South
• 90% of slaves imported go to South • Plantation owners dominate politics • Slave life
– – – – – Slave gangs, but diverse tasks in tobacco country Malaria and sickle cell anemia Task system in rice country Gullah Violence against slaves

• Indigo and Eliza Lucas Pinckney
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The Mid-Atlantic Colonies: The “Best Poor Man’s Country”
• Pennsylvania most attractive for immigrants
– Scots-Irish (Ulsterites) – Germans (‘redemptioniers) – Philadelphia largest city in British North America by 1770s

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The Backcountry
• Scots-Irish and Germans pushed west into interior of Virginia and Carolinas • Area develops its own distinct culture, not as Anglicized • Settlers of the backcountry considered clannish and violent

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New England: A Faltering Economy and Paper Money
• 18th century growth rate lower
– More emigration than immigration – Disease and war lower life expectancy – “wheat blast” and food importation

• New England 18th century economy
– – – – Shipbuilding Rum industry and Molasses Act (1733) “Fiat” paper money and depreciation Anglicized currency: Thomas Hutchinson and repudiation of paper money

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Anglicizing Provincial America
• Diversity of exports, commonality of imports • Georgia: Enlightenment by-product • Great Awakening • Mixed and balanced colonial constitutions

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The World of Print
• English Enlightenment works spread through printing • 17th century printing limited to Boston • John Peter Zenger and freedom of the press
– New York Weekly Journal

• Benjamin Franklin
– Pennsylvania Gazette – Junto (American Philosophical Society) – Public citizen work: fire company, library, hospital, and College of Philadelphia – Inventor and scientist
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The Enlightenment in America
• Man can improve his condition, God not vengeful • Low Church vs. High Church • Sir Isaac Newton, laws of motion • John Locke, philosopher • Enlightenment spirit dominates Harvard • Yale College (1701) founded as reaction against Enlightenment
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Lawyers and Doctors
• Rise in legal and medical professions helped spread Enlightenment • Benjamin Rush • William Shippen

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Georgia: the Failure of a Enlightenment Utopia
Background • 1730s: convergence of ideas of humanitarianism and social improvement led to founding of Georgia • Georgia’s purposes
– Make productive use of “worthy” poor – Buffer of armed free men between S. Carolina and Spanish Florida – Produce silk and wine

• • • •

Operation Slaves and Liquor banned Silk and wine production fail No elective assembly Outcome
– Royal govt. imposed 1752 – Economic structure mimics South Carolina

The Great Awakening
• mid-1730s to early 1740s: immense religious revival: Great Awakening • Swept across Protestant lands throughout Europe and the colonies • Methodists and Baptists surged ahead

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Origins of the Revivals
• Theodorus Frelinghuysen • Gilbert Tennent
– The Dangers of an Unconverted Ministry (1740)

• Jonathan Edwards
– A Faithful Narrative of the Surprising Work of God (1737)

• John Wesley
– Methodists
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The Synod of Philadelphia, 1738
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Whitefield Launches the Transatlantic Revival
• George Whitefield • Traveled and preached throughout Atlantic colonies • Anglicans – reserved towards him • Presbyterian, Congregationalists, Baptists – embraced him • Concept that all English Protestants were members of the same church
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Disruptions
• Hugh Bryan: “American Moses” • Gilbert Tennent • James Davenport
– “Shepherd’s Tent”

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Long-Term Consequences of the Revivals
• Evangelical churches “feminized” • Freemasons • Congregational Church and evangelical secession • “Letter days” and the breaking down of localism • Jonathan Edwards and A Treatise concerning Religious Affections (1746)
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New Colleges
• • • • • • College of New Jersey (Princeton) College of Rhode Island (Brown) Queen’s College (Rutgers) Dartmouth College College of Philadelphia (Pennsylvania) King’s College (Columbia)

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Denominational Realignment
Pre-realignment dominant groups • New England Congregationalist • Delaware valley Quakers • South Anglican Groups that gain • Methodists • Baptists • Presbyterians

Political Culture in the Colonies
• Colonists felt they were free because they were British • Mixed constitutions that united monarchy, aristocracy, and democracy in perfect balance • 1720s: every colony (except Connecticut and Rhode Island) had an appointive governor, council and elective assembly
– Governor = monarch – Council = aristocracy – Elected assembly = commons
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The Rise of the Assembly and the Governor
• In all 13 colonies, settlers elected their assembly • Three-fourths of free adult white men in colonies could vote (vs. one-third in England) • Assemblies gain power at expense of councils • Royally appointed governors: success dependent on winning over assembly • “Factions” (political parties) universally condemned in colonies
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“Country” Constitutions: The Southern Colonies
• The “politics of harmony” • VA governors Alexander Spotswood and William Gooch • “Faction” free politics and policy
– Virginia Tobacco Inspection Act

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“Court” Constitutions: The Northern Colonies
• Greater economic diversity, greater factionalism • William Shirley and Benning Wentworth: governance through reward and patronage • Common politics: liberty, property, and no popery • Robert Hunter • Quaker Party

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The Renewal of Imperial Conflict

• 1739-1763: new era of imperial war • English colonies, New France, New Spain and Indians all involved • North America split between Spain and Britain

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Challenges to French Power
• Louisbourg fortress, Cape Breton Island • Company of the Indies and Louisiana • French hold on American interior weakened in both North and South • Indian “republics” and trade with the British • Natchez Indians • France lost influence and prestige in North America
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• Gracia Real de Santa Teresa de Mose (Mose)
– Francisco Menéndez – Yamasees

The Danger of Slave Revolts and War with Spain
Stono Rebellion (1739) War of Jenkins’s Ear New York conspiracy trials Britain defeats Spain
– Oglethorpe’s defense of Georgia – Anson and the capture of the Manila galleon

• • • •

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France versus Britain: King George’s War
• • • • France joins Spain against Britain 1744 Fort Louisbourg falls to British 1745 Boston Impressment riots 1746 Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle (1748)

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The Impending Storm
• War drove British frontiers back, but colonies had promised land grants to volunteers • Areas of frenzied expansion: Maine, New Hampshire and middle colonies
– Colony vs. colony – Settlers vs. Native Americans – British vs. French

• Ohio Company of Virginia
– George Washington

• Marquis Duquesne • French movement to block British settlement west of Alleghenies

The War for North America
• 1755: British professional army conflicted with the householder society and voluntaristic colonists • Colonists and Britain learn to cooperate in order to achieve victory against France

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• War: New France vs. Virginia • Albany Congress

The Albany Congress and the Onset of War

– Keep Six Nations (Iroquois) neutral – Benjamin Franklin and the Albany Plan
• President General and Grand Council • Raise soldiers, levy taxes, deal with Indians • Rejection

– Centralized relations with Indians

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Britain’s Years of Defeat
• Edward Braddock • Fort Duquesne • Acadians
– Cajuns

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A World War
• Pierre de Rigaud de Vaudreuil
– Frontier war to scatter Britain’s superior resources

• Louis-Joseph, marquis de Montcalm
– Traditional European siege warfare

• Fort William Massacre • Britain declares war on France, 1756 • Seven Years’ War (1756-1763): France, Austria, and Russia vs. Prussia (subsidized by Britain) • Spain neutral until 1762
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Imperial Tensions: From Loudoun to Pitt
• Earl of Loudoun, British military commander in N. America 1755
– Coercion to force colonial cooperation

• William Pitt, Prime Minister 1757
– Consent to gain colonial cooperation – Replaces Loudoun with James Abercrombie

• By 1758, Britain finally had a military force capable of overwhelming New France • Cooperation between redcoats and provincials became routine and effective in warfare against French & Indians
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The Years of British Victory
• British navy prevents France from reinforcing Canada • Marquis de Montcalm (French N. America commander) decides on defensive strategy • Peace between Indians and British 1758 • Quebec 1759
– James Wolfe – Marquis de Montcalm – Plains of Abraham

• Montreal and the fall of Canada
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The Cherokee War and Spanish Intervention
• Cherokee attack 1760
– Drive South Carolina settlement back 100 miles – Peace treaty 1761, but backcountry settlers restless

• Spain entered war 1762 • British forces took Havana and Manila in the Philippines • France and Spain sued for peace
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The Peace of Paris
• Peace of Paris ended the war 1763 • Britain returned Martinique and Guadeloupe to France • France surrendered some West Indian islands and mainland North America east of Mississippi • Havana returned to Spain, Florida ceded to Britain • France gives New Orleans and lands W of Mississippi river to Spain • Indians angrily rejected peace settlement and France’s surrender of their lands to Great Britain
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Conclusion
• 1713-1754: expansion and renewed immigration pushed settlements of North America into the interior • Colonies anglicized in many ways due to impacts of a growing population
– Impacts on families, women – Enlightenment and Great Awakening

• Imperial rivalries: French and Indian war • Provincials and redcoats: different perceptions

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