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Issues: Challenges and barriers to learning Approaches to teaching and learning Functional Skills Resources
Equality, diversity and inclusion
Visual aids Consider colours and their effectiveness. Write clearly in a legible style of writing. User expressions such as wipe board and chalkboard rather that whiteboard and blackboard.
Offer alternative formats, i.e. electronic, paper, large print, Braille, whenever possible.
Ensure coats, bags, etc. Are not left around the room, ensure there is sufficient space for moving around the classroom. Ensure that learners needs are addressed, which may involve using a specialist team of physical and educational support workers.
Challenges and barriers to learning
Think about your specialism and environment and consider: • Evaluating the effectiveness of approach • Strength of approach in terms of inclusivity • Analyse how create inclusivity • Understand assessment and functional skill opportunities • Motivation and feedback • Don’t forget ground rules!
Challenges and barriers to learning
Challenges, barriers and attitudes to learning and general expressions, which means ‘things that hold back’ learning. Challenges, in this context, usually mean ‘making learning difficult’; barriers mean ‘things that prevent learning’.
Challenges and barriers to learning Attitudes are feelings and emotions brought into the class room by leaner's. . Some learners may present themselves in our classes with more long term barriers challenges and attitudes. As a teacher we want our learners to work to the best of their ability.
if our learners are saying things like this they are demonstrating their lack of motivation or poor selfesteem... barriers and attitudes are often the reason(or occasionally the excuse!) for not learning. For teachers.Challenges and barriers to learning Challenges. ‘I cant do this’ or ‘I've never been any good at.’ or ‘I hate tests’ and any number of similar expressions can be heard in classrooms up and down the country. .
barriers and attitudes which inhibit their learning and so their success. . few people have a phobia of learning (sophophobia) .many have challenges.Challenges and barriers to learning We should think. “how can I make this easier to understand?” or “is there something else behind that behaviour?” Whatever the cry. whatever the remedy.
barriers or attitudes to learning can be made easier by using ‘DELTA’ to classify them: Disability Mobility Visual Hearing Long illness Dyslexia Dyscalculia Mental health Dexterity Chronic pain Emotional Finance Child care or Dependents Concentration Confidence Behaviour and Discipline Personal problems Commitments Previous experience Fear of unknown Peer pressure Parental pressure Employer pressure Stress/worry Hormones New surroundings Returning to education Poverty Language Foreign language Terminology Accent Pace Communication Rapport Basic skill needs Cultural difference Technology Computer skills Car breakdown Transport Heating Lighting Temperature Fear of technology Ability Short illness Absence Punctuality Motivation Resources Support Study support Inaccurate advice Teaching styles Large classes Personal skills .Challenges and barriers to learning Remember some of the challenges.
it is usually a good indicator that you have lost the interest of your learners if you look up and they have gone! . It returns to the idea that we should know our learners. Also. don't forget that people and enjoyment are excellent motivators. NB .Challenges and barriers to learning Learning to recognise the symptoms of these barriers is essential in attempting to resolve the issues.
to increase self-esteem /Cont ... .Curing Your Learners Symptoms • • • • Recognise changes in your learners’ behaviour and make time to listen to their concerns Include lots of smaller activities to build and develop and praise at each stage of development Offer one-to-one support during group activities Use nominated questions. aimed at differentiating to meet learners’ individual levels of ability.
here are some things to look out for: • Limited short-term memory • Carelessness in work • Lack of eye contact • Glazed looks • Repeated and persistent errors • Time .management difficulties • Side effects to prescribed drugs • Poor concentration • Lack of participation • Constantly demanding attention • Poor behaviour • Poor attention span • Lateness .Challenges and barriers to learning Before if gets that far.
Curing Your Learners Symptoms • • • Vary your teaching techniques to ensure a variety of auditory. visual and kinaesthetic learning Offer comfort breaks within longer sessions of work Provide additional or extended work for less able or quick learners Offer rewards for good behaviour or good progress Encourage study skills. Stress key words and when to make notes • • .
what the learners are able to achieve within the time allowed. .Approaches to teaching and learning Teaching and learning strategies will vary according to what you want to get out of the session. what materials and resources are available to you. the subject matter you are delivering. the needs of the learners and your personal style.
Approaches to teaching and learning The choice of method will depend on whether you wish to deliver a formal teaching session in which all learners are working on the same topic at the same time. using their own style of leaning. a leanercentred session. or finally a self-study style where learners are working on different aspects of a topic or even different topics. where learners are working on the same broad topic but using different methods and resources. .
Approaches to teaching and learning Factors that influence teaching: • • • • • • • • • How leaner's learn and their preferred learning styles What the teacher wants to achieve The subject matter What the learners are capable of achieving Time constraints Resources implications What the learners want to get out of the session Where you will teach How dependent your learners are .
Each activity in the classroom will consist of teaching and learning activities.Approaches to teaching and learning First of all. In short. learning is what your leaner's will do. . you should separate teaching from learning in order to understand these influences. These should be balanced to meet the different needs of your learners and to develop motivation. teaching is what we do.
Approaches to teaching and learning Modern technology allows for a blended learning style which incorporates traditional and computer based methods. The use of computer based technology to enhance teaching methods and resources or develop learner autonomy is widely promoted. . This is often referred to as information learning technology (ITL) or information communication technology (ICT).
Can be used to deliver to large groups easily Is enhanced by visual aids. Activity Lecture (verbal exposition) Value of teacher High focus on teacher activity Excellent knowledge base required Clarity and tone of voice needs to be clear and interesting. Needs to be well organised before session Explains difficult parts of the task when verbal exposition is not suitable Value to leaner Requires good listening and note-taking skills Passive learning Limited opportunities to clarify understanding Appeals to auditory learners Demonstration Opportunities to see. hear and smell Allows a task to be broken down into smaller chunks .Approaches to teaching and learning The table considers some of the most frequently used approaches and compares them in the context of teaching and leaning activities.
Approaches to teaching and learning Activity Group work Value to teacher Less teacher –focused teacher needs to monitor progress to keep on task Takes a long time to extract key points Free exchange of ideas on a given topic Needs careful management to ensure range of ideas and to keep on task Can be used to support other teaching methods Develops deeper understanding Different styles of technique: can be call-out or nominated in style Need to ensure everyone participates Good way of introducing or summarising a topic Assesses understanding of topic Value to leaner Suits kinaesthetic leaner's weak and strong leaner's work collectively Discussion and debates Allows ideas to be shared and is an opportunity to value other leaner's opinions Suits auditory leaner's Balanced teacher/leaner input. Questioning (Q&A) Challenges leaner's to think Nominated styles will ensure everyone is included in activity Instant feedback on response Appeals to kinaesthetic and auditory leaner's .
taste and smell Reinforces previous learning Can learn from teachers. then deeper understanding acquired through gathering of further information Highly motivational Simulation used for expensive or dangerous activities Builds on previously demonstrated skills Mirrors work place practice Can be costly and time consuming to organise. Simulation.Approaches to teaching and learning Activity Presentations and seminars Value to teacher Similar to lectures with added dimension of learner activity Key information presented. feel. support workers or peers. needs sufficient recourses for all Needs to be carefully managed to ensure skill is practiced accurately Some learners may feel self conscious Will promote and develop safe and healthy practice Value to leaner Able to gather key information and build upon it through their own research Learners investigate their topics and present back to their peers Develop individual styles Balance of teacher and Activities Suits all learning styles Opportunity to practice skills Ideal for kinaesthetic and visual leaner's Can experience emotions. role-play and practical work .
Approaches to teaching and learning Variety in teaching and learning will ensure that you sessions are meeting individuals needs and are addressing different spans of attention. as well as being interesting for you and your leaners. . By using a balance of teacher and learner centred activities you spread the responsibility of learning.
Approaches to teaching and learning Activity Game/quizzes Value of teacher Develop competitive spirit Can be used to open or close a topic Useful to keep as a contingency plan ‘if time allows’ or ‘if you work well’ Teacher is a facilitator or resources rather than leader of learning Promotes independence in leaner's Develops higher levels of understanding on a topic Develops problem solving capabilities Develops critical thinking Value to learner Fun activity Suits kinaesthetic learners Research-style activities Suits visual and kinaesthetic learners Case study Enables leaner's to develop opinions and ideas from a given set of facts ‘safe’ analysis which may impact on later application .
By following this structure you will be demonstrating an organised approach to teaching and learning. .Approaches to teaching and learning Too many new teachers believe that they should “perform” for the entire lesson. middle and an end. all they do is exhaust themselves to a usually passive (and possibly bored) group of learners The basic strategy for every session should be a beginning. and will also help when you come to plan and prepare for your sessions. This will form the structure.
Issue homework now Middle The content. Aim on board and spoken (Auditory. Prompt and organised start. Give clear instruction on how the activity will progress/time allowed0 Assessment of what has been leaned. End Fro example: Discussion. Visual) Collect any homework.prep for next session . Conclusion and summary. visual and kinaesthetic Learner-centred. Visual/kinaesthetic Leaner-dominated. Opportunity to complete note Leaner-centred. Auditory. Corrected script provides future notes Teacher-centred.Approaches to teaching and learning Simple structures Beginning The induction. Future development. For example: Verbal exposition (VE) Questioning – to check previous knowledge For example: Demo + practical VE + discuss + game Teacher-centred intro. set any rules now Balance of teacher/learner activity. Explain what is going to happen in the session Setting the scene. Move from the known to the unknown. Evaluation Quiz or Q&A Ending in VE.
. remembering to include a variety of techniques.Approaches to teaching and learning In order to ensure that you are meeting individuals’ needs by using visual. auditory and kinaesthetic teaching and learning strategies. look at the following lists for some ideas for your teaching sessions.
Approaches to teaching and learning Visual learning techniques o Use cards. font style/size in visual aids in leaner's handouts o Number sentences or bullet points . posters and prompt sheets o Display session tasks on board o Write key words on board o Collate ideas from group activities on board or flip chart o Supplement verbal exposition with pictures and diagrams o Ask questions which exploit visual imagination: ‘What would it look like?’ o Encourage learners to ‘see’ works/concepts in their mind o Use highlighter pens to annotate work o Use a glossary of terms in a vocabulary book or poster o Vary colour.
boards. handouts o Ask questions which exploit auditory skills: ‘What does it sound like?’ o Introduce new words through language games o Give thinking time in group activities o Use musical connections to words (sing alphabet.Approaches to teaching and learning Auditory learning techniques o Listen to leaner's (teacher and peers) o Talk through ideas on posters. use rhyme) .
Approaches to teaching and learning Kinaesthetic learning techniques o Use breaks/pauses to get leaner's moving. even within the room o Use role play or practical activities o Put words on cards to be sorted into types o Write letters on cards to make works o Use Post-it notes to record questions in lectures or demonstrations o Ask questions which exploit kinaesthetic skills: ‘What did it feel like?’ o Provide opportunities for learners to do things .
In the past they have been known by several different names: Core skills Common skills Basic skills Key skills Minimum core . Maths and ICT.Functional Skills Functional skills are a development initiative to standardise qualifications for English.
. These are the skills that underpin all learning and without them learners will struggle to meet the demands of their qualification. Functional Skills Qualifications were planned to be fully launched in 2010. the world of work and life skills.Functional Skills Irrespective of the name. Maths/Numeracy and ICT/Information Technology. existing qualifications will remain and pilot programmes will gradually introduce the new revised qualification. functional skills refers to the mastery of English/Literacy. In the interim.
. Every activity that occurs in a teaching and learning session had the potential to gather information which demonstrates a leaner's ability against functional skills – the level of the functional skill will be determined by the complexity of the information. By incorporating functional skills into every activity they will become embedded. numeracy and information technology) are taught within the main subject topic in a seamless way. The following table demonstrates some examples of embedded functional skills. they may or may not be in context. Integrating functional skills into your teaching mean that you will set activities which meet the literacy and numeracy standards.Functional Skills Embedding functional skills into teaching and learning activities Embedding skills means that functional skills (things like literacy.
or if it is a written question sheet they will be reading and writing By designing a poster for display in the classroom. • Write text (handwritten or word processed) • Read data sources • Interpret and summarise information • Display image or pictures . etc. books. in addition to the subject matter the learner will have to: • Calculate the overall size of the poster • Estimate the size of the smaller parts to be attached to the poster • Decide on the ratio and proportion of text. picture and white space • Present information in a visual format • Gather data from a variety of sources – the internet. people.Functional Skills A leaner who is listening to the teacher at the beginning of a class is listening for and identifying relevant information In a question and answer session the learner will be both listening and speaking. magazines.
hopefully about the cake! • Solve problems relating to the planned activity A visit to a supermarket will require the leaner's to: • Write a shopping list • Calculate the cost of two or more items • Compare the price/weight of similar items • Talk to shop assistants/cashiers • Follow basic instructions • Listen to total cost of shopping and give money • Calculate the amount of change needed.Functional Skills A catering leaner baking a cake will have to: • read the recipe •Interpret the information into a time plan of work •Calculate the time the task will take Estimate the size and number of bowls required • Measure the ingredients • Talk to the teacher or support worker for advice and listen to their reply • Talk to other leaner's. .
investigate a topic and presenting their findings to the group will: •Respond to extended questions on a range of topics •Speak clearly and confidently using informal and formal language •Design a presentation using IT software •Present information grammatically correct. in a logical order and proofread the work •Present information in graphical format •Contribute within the group. arguments and opinions •Summarise information from a number of sources .Functional Skills A group of leaner's. engage in discussion about findings.
By embedding the functional skills into the curriculum both you and your learners can overcome the fear of English and maths. they will help your leaner's to achieve and succeed in life. Sometimes giving something a different label. . whilst confusing the teacher. which may have been a barrier to earlier success in the subject.Functional Skills Functional skills are essential. may side track the leaner into success.
They can be classified in the same way that learner styles are classified and therefore a teacher will be able to choose resources to meet individual needs (differentiated) .Resources Resources are the equipment and aids that a teacher or learner will use to promote learning.
Some examples of resources and their link to learning styles.Visual o Boards – chalk. overhead projector (OHP). chart or electronic o Printed – handouts. . posters o PowerPoint presentation with note style handout (auditory + visual + kinaesthetic) Auditory o Tape recordings o Video/DVD – hearing + sight Kinaesthetic o Models o Games Resources . wipe.
Resources – Purpose of Using Resources • • • • • • • Increase understanding Reinforce key facts Create deeper learning Motivate Variety Effective use of time Simplify ideas .
flipcharts and stands. white or wipe boards.Boards Includes chalk boards. but may still be found in some teaching venues. beware of the fumes that are given off by some permanent pens. Chalk boards are a little outdated now due to the dust they create. More and more often you will see electronic or interactive boards in rooms.Resources . . electronic boards. you will see the dust-free wipe boards or flip charts and stands. On a safety note. More commonly.
Projectors Overhead projectors (OHPs) are used to display overhead transparencies (OHTs). . The modern equivalent is the laptop computer and a portable or ceiling-mounted projector. They are common in most areas and there are portable varieties for those working in community based venues.Resources . The skill in the use of the OHP is in the creation of professional OHTs.
Their versatility makes them useful in the classroom as information sheets. aides-memoire.Handouts Handouts are the most commonly used resource due to availability of photocopying and printing facilities. question sheets or notes pages. records of key words. When creating a handout. the teacher should always consider the purpose of the resource: .Resource .
Resource .Handouts o Is it to be used to support the session or as additional information? o Are learners expected to write on it? o Does it need hole-punching to put into files? o Would it be better with pictures? o Does it comply with copyright guidance? o Is it user-friendly and does it respect equality of opportunity? o Is the writing eligible o Will learners read it or just file it? o Would coloured paper or coloured font make it clearer to read? .
A model is three-dimensional and can be a tactile way of looking at something .Resource – Model and Games These offer visual and kinaesthetic learners the opportunity to see or feel an item.
Again. you should ensure that you have the necessary permissions for use. DVD. video slide shows. as with teaching with learning activities. but also in terms of meeting needs of learners. These are frequently used resources and offer good ways of visualising an activity or initiating discussion. They are usually of a high standard.Resource – Audio visual resources For example. the success of resources will be variety: variety in terms of resources used and the way in which the teacher uses them. If recording items from the television or radio. .
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