Information System Networks

 Why do information systems need networks?
 Remote access: Users with a PC or terminal at one location need to use computer hardware or software at another  Information sharing: User may need to share information via email, common database access, and general documents
Chapter 6. Information System Networks 1

Information System Networks (cont’d)
 Why do information systems need
networks? (cont’d)  Resource sharing: Users share expensive computer resources like printers  Interorganizational communication: Computers in different businesses may need to communicate with each other (e.g., EDI, EFT, etc.)
Chapter 6. Information System Networks 2

Communications Hardware
 Communications Channel  Communications Devices

Chapter 6. Information System Networks

3

Communications Hardware (cont’d)

 Communications channel characteristics
 A channel is the link over which data is transmitted in data communications  Data is transmitted as groups of bits  Method of transmission determines 4 characteristics: signal type, data rate, data flow, and data transmission method
Chapter 6. Information System Networks 4

Communications Hardware (cont’d)

 Channel characteristics (cont’d)
 Signal type  Digital  transmits bits as high and low pulses  High pulse = 1 and low pulse = 0  Analog - Transmits data as a continuously changing wave form
Chapter 6. Information System Networks 5

Information System Networks 6 .Communications Hardware (cont’d)  Channel characteristics (cont’d)  Signal type (cont’d)  Some channels can only send digital or analog signals  Computers use digital  Telephones use analog  Data over telephone lines is converted Chapter 6.

Communications Hardware (cont’d)  Channel characteristics (cont’d)  Data rate  How fast data is sent over a channel  Bandwidth is another term  Measured in bits per second (bps)  Baud rate is times per second the pulse changes from high to low Chapter 6. Information System Networks 7 .

Information System Networks 8 .Communications Hardware (cont’d)  Channel characteristics (cont’d)  Data flow Chapter 6.

Communications Hardware (cont’d)  Channel characteristics (cont’d)  Transmission methods  Asynchronous  Synchronous Chapter 6. Information System Networks 9 .

Information System Networks 10 .Communications Hardware (cont’d)  Channel characteristics (cont’d)  Transmission methods (cont’d) Chapter 6.

Information System Networks 11 .Communications Hardware (cont’d)  Communications channel media  Wire cables  Fiber-optic cables  Microwave systems  Wireless systems Chapter 6.

used since the 1800s  Twisted pair is 2 wires twisted together  Also used for telephone lines  Inexpensive  Slow data transmission rate Chapter 6.Communications Hardware (cont’d)  Communications channel media (cont’d)  Wire cables  Oldest media. Information System Networks 12 .

Communications Hardware (cont’d)  Communications channel media (cont’d)  Wire cables (cont’d)  Coaxial cable  Heavily insulated copper wire  Also used for cable television  More expensive  Faster data transmission rate Chapter 6. Information System Networks 13 .

Information System Networks 14 .Communications Hardware (cont’d)  Communications channel media (cont’d)  Fiber-optic cables  Bundles of glass or plastic wires  Each fiber is 1/2000 inch thick  Data is transmitted by laser light pulses  Each pulse is a bit  Very fast (one billion bps) Chapter 6.

a codec is needed because is voice is analog and must be converted Chapter 6.Communications Hardware (cont’d)  Communications channel media (cont’d)  Fiber-optic cables (cont’d)  Computer signals are already digital  For voice. Information System Networks 15 .

Communications Hardware (cont’d)  Communications channel media (cont’d)  Microwave systems  Special types of radio signals  Must be sent “line-of-sight”  Can transmit both voice and data  Analog or digital form  Very expensive. but fast and no cables Chapter 6. Information System Networks 16 .

Communications Hardware (cont’d)  Communication s channel media (cont’d)  Microwave systems (cont’d) Chapter 6. Information System Networks 17 .

similar to cordless telephones  Infrared. Information System Networks 18 .Communications Hardware (cont’d)  Communications channel media (cont’d)  Wireless systems  Microwave is good for long distances  For short distances:  Radio. similar to TV remotes  Used for wireless LANs Chapter 6.

Information System Networks 19 .Communications Hardware (cont’d)  Communications channel sources  Private  Any organization can buy equipment  Common for small geographic areas  Not practical for long distance Chapter 6.

Communications Hardware (cont’d)  Communications channel sources (cont’d)  Public  Main system is telephone network  Owned by common carriers  Local companies do short distances  Others handle long distances  Some governments own services Chapter 6. Information System Networks 20 .

Information System Networks 21 .1 2 4 3 Chapter 6.

Communications Hardware (cont’d)  Communications channel sources (cont’d)  ISDN  Integrated Services Digital Network  Telephone signals are digital  Voice and data can be sent over the same line at the same time  Faster. Information System Networks 22 . but more expensive Chapter 6.

Information System Networks 23 .84 Mbps) ATM (Asynchronous transfer mode .up to 10.000 Mbps) Cable Modem (27 Mbps) Chapter 6. and T3 (128 kbps.54 Mbps.73 Mbps) DSL (Digital Subscriber Line-51. 1. T1.Communications Hardware (cont’d) Using Digital Telephone Lines Common Digital Services The most commonly used digital telephone services are: • • • • ISDN. 44.

Communications Hardware (cont’d)  Communications devices  Channel Interface Devices  Modems Chapter 6. Information System Networks 24 .

Information System Networks 25 . and transmission method  Modems on both ends must match characteristics  Can be internal or external (Figure 6. data flow.Communications Hardware (cont’d)  Communications devices (cont’d)  Modems (cont’d)  Determine data rate.9) Chapter 6.

Information System Networks 26 . telephone lines Chapter 6.Communications Hardware (cont’d)  Communications devices (cont’d)  ISDN terminal adapters  Needed to connect computers to ISDN  Adjusts the form of the signal  Adapters are needed at both ends of the channel  Faster than modems.

controls traffic  Multiplexers  Controller  Front-end processor Chapter 6.Communications Hardware (cont’d)  Communications devices (cont’d)  Communications control units  Allows several computer devices to share a channel. Information System Networks 27 .

Information System Networks 28 .Communications Hardware (cont’d)  Communications devices (cont’d)  Communications control units (cont’d)  INSERT Figure 6.10 Chapter 6.

EBCDIC)  Protocol converters allow incompatible computers to communicate Chapter 6. Information System Networks 29 .Communications Hardware (cont’d)  Communications devices (cont’d)  Protocol converters  When computers communicate they follow protocols (ASCII.

Information System Networks 30 .Communications Hardware (cont’d)  Communications devices (cont’d)  Data encryption devices  Used to secure date for transmission  Scrambles data  A key is requires to decode the data at the destination Chapter 6.

Information System Networks 31 .Communications Hardware (cont’d)  Communications devices (cont’d)  LAN Adapters (NIC)  Connects a computer to a LAN and allows the computer to send and receive data over the network  The adapter plugs into the computer’s circuit board  LAN channel plugs into the adapter Chapter 6.

Information System Networks 32 .COMMUNICATIONS SOFTWARE  Needed in addition to hardware  Receives data from communication devices and passes data to programs for processing  Gets results of processing and sends the results to communications devices for transmission over the channel Chapter 6.

Information System Networks 33 . not a PC  Makes the computer on the other end think it is talking to a terminal Chapter 6.Communications Software (cont’d)  PC communications software  Terminal emulation  Makes the computer act like many types of terminals  Some computers expect a terminal.

transfer data from a remote computer to a PC Chapter 6.Communications Software (cont’d)  PC communications software  File transfer  Uses a protocol (FTP)  Upload .transfer data from a PC to a remote computer  Download . Information System Networks 34 .

Information System Networks 35 .Communications Software (cont’d)  Multi-user computer communications software  Called a telecommunications monitor  Allows mini and mainframe computers to communication with many terminals  Routes data between computer and the terminals  May do protocol conversion Chapter 6.

this is called a network operating system or NOS  On clients. Information System Networks 36 .Communications Software (cont’d)  Network communications software  On a server. the software allows the computer to send a receive data through the LAN adapter  WANs use telecommunications monitors to optimize speed & talk to PCs/terminals Chapter 6.

Remote Access  Terminal communications Chapter 6. Information System Networks 37 .

Information System Networks 38 .Remote Access (cont’d)  PC communications Chapter 6.

AOL.Remote Access (cont’d)  PC communications (cont'd)  Information utilities  Compuserve. Prodigy. Information System Networks 39 . MSN  Store data of interest to many people  Provide Internet access  Internet service providers (ISP) also offer Internet access only Chapter 6.

Information System Networks 40 .Network Organization Chapter 6.

Network Organization (cont’d) Chapter 6. Information System Networks 41 .

twisted-pair. or fiber-optics Local bus networks are called Ethernets.Local Area Networks  Located in a single building or in several     nearby buildings Usually organized as bus or ring networks Use coaxial. developed by IBM Chapter 6. Information System Networks 42 . developed by Xerox Ring networks are usually token ring.

Information System Networks 43 .Local Area Networks (cont’d)  LANs may contain several types of servers  Print: allows computers on the LAN to use a common printer  File: allows computers on the LAN to share files  Database allows computers on the LAN to use a common database  Users can use any of the resources Chapter 6.

Local Area Networks (cont’d) Chapter 6. Information System Networks 44 .

Information System Networks 45 .Local Area Networks (cont’d)  Client-server computing Chapter 6.

and is replacing some multiple user computers  Advantages:  Shared server does only database management  Relatively easy to add capabilities and more users Chapter 6.Local Area Networks (cont’d)  Client-server computing (cont’d)  Used extensively in business. Information System Networks 46 .

Wide Area Networks  Cover large geographic areas  (international) Metropolitan area networks (MAN) cover single cities Usually organized as hybrid networks Use many channel media A single channel may be a combination of media Used by businesses with distant locations Chapter 6. Information System Networks     47 .

Wide Area Networks (cont’d)  Provide long distance remote access  Allow resources to be easily shared  May be used for long distance email  Make global connectivity a reality for businesses  May use the Internet if properly secured Chapter 6. Information System Networks 48 .

Information System Networks 49 .Internetworks  Many different networks connected  A bridge connects two similar networks  A gateway connects two different networks  A router sends messages through networks  Can be international  Can be interorganizational Chapter 6.

Information System Networks 50 . and research networks  Now global.Internetworks (cont’d)  The Internet  An international collection of interconnected networks  Grew out of military. with millions of computers and users Chapter 6. academic.

Internetworks (cont’d)  The Internet (cont’d)  Part of the information superhighway. using routers to get data to the correct location Chapter 6. a concept for allowing any computer to be connected to any network  Backbones are high speed channels that transmit data between networks. Information System Networks 51 .

Internetworks (cont’d)  The Internet (cont’d)  Uses 2 universal protocols to allow any computer to talk to any other computer  Transmission control protocol (TCP)  Internet protocol (IP)  World Wide Web (WWW) is a hypertext system that links information together for easy access Chapter 6. Information System Networks 52 .

Internetworks (cont’d)  The Internet (cont’d)  Pages on the WWW are stored on web servers  A web browser can view pages  The Internet is increasingly used for electronic commerce  Also. Information System Networks 53 . telnet. FTP. Gopher. email. Usenet or Newsnet or newsgroups Chapter 6.

Information System Networks 54 .Internetworks (cont’d)  Intranets Chapter 6.

Information System Networks 55 .and Internet access Chapter 6.Internetworks (cont’d)  Intranets (cont’d)  Extranets are used by business for electronic commerce. using codes and passwords  Network computers are PCs with limited capabilities for intra.

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