Chapter 16

A New Birth of Freedom, 1862-1865

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Slavery and the War
• At outset: both Union and Confederate leaders tried to keep the issue of slavery out of the war
– South: if slavery is an issue, Southern nonslaveholders would not be committed to cause – North: if slavery is an issue, Democrats and border-state Unionists would not fight

• Frederick Douglass
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The “Contrabands”
• As Union forces moved into the South, many slaves fled on foot over to Union lines • Most Union commanders allowed escaped slaves to enter their camps
– General Benjamin Butler – Slaves considered “contraband of war”

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The Border States
• Freemont frees slaves of Missouri rebels, Lincoln hastily countermands that • Lincoln’s offer of “compensated emancipation” to the border states
– Congressional resolution offering federal compensation to states that voluntarily abolished slavery – Border states rejected Lincoln’s ultimatum
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The Decision for Emancipation
• Pushed by other Republicans and field commanders • Compromise with border states was futile • Lincoln: prepared his Emancipation Proclamation • Peace Democrats
– “Copperheads”

• Cabinet supports Lincoln almost unanimously

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New Calls for Troops
• Lincoln called for 300,000 new 3-year volunteers for the army • Suspension of the writ of habeas corpus
– Rioters and antiwar activists arrested

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The Battle of Antietam
• George B. McClellan
– Union soldiers found copy of Lee’s orders – A cautious leader

• Robert E. Lee • Sharpsburg, Maryland
– Union forces outnumbered Confederates – 23,000 casualties in total
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The Emancipation Proclamation
• Lincoln portrayed emancipation as a means to saving the Union • Did not go into effect until 1-1-1863 • Only freed slaves in areas under rebellion
– Excluded states that did not secede – Excluded states that were occupied already(c) 2003 Wadsworth Group All rights reserved

A Winter of Discontent
• Ambrose E. Burnside
– Fredericksburg, Va.

• Ulysses S. Grant and William T. Sherman
– Vicksburg, MS

• William S. Rosecrans vs. Braxton Bragg
– Stones River (Murfreesboro)

• Joseph Hooker
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The Rise of the Copperheads
• Lincoln’s support waned significantly in winter, 1863 • Clement L. Vallandigham, of Ohio
– Powerful Peace Democratic spokesman – Arrested and convicted for treason and aiding and abetting the enemy – Banished to the Confederacy for his sentence – Runs for governor of Ohio from exile in Canada, but loses
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Economic Problems in the South
• South suffered from food shortages and hyperinflation • Richmond Bread Riot (1863)

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The Wartime Draft and Class Tensions
• Confederate draft
– Paid substitutes – Twenty Negro Law – “rich man’s war, poor man’s fight”

• Union draft
– – – – Bounty jumpers Substitutes Democrats inflame tensions over draft New York City Draft Riot (1863)

• Class tensions
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A Poor Man’s Fight?
• Property, excise and income taxes required for war efforts weighed more on the wealthy than the poor • Wealthy southerners lost more than poor • Southern planter class and northern middle class volunteered in high numbers • Substitution in the Confederacy • Commutation fees
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Blueprint for Modern America
• 37th Congress
– Homestead Act – Morrill Land-Grant College Act – Pacific Railroad Act

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Women and the War
• • • • Female casualties Clerical jobs open to women in the north Clara Barton Women’s Central Association for Relief
– Dr. Elizabeth Blackwell – United States Sanitary Commission

• National Woman Suffrage Association
– Elizabeth Cady Stanton – Susan B. Anthony
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The Battle of Chancellorsville
• Army of the Potomac • Army of Northern Virginia
– Won battle – Lost “Stonewall” Jackson

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The Gettysburg Campaign
• Lee invades north June 1863 • Lee’s forces meet Union army under George Gordon Meade 7-1-1863 • James Longstreet • Lee orders attacks on union flanks, they fail • “Pickett’s Charge”: attack in the center, it fails • Lee retreats 7-4-1863
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The Vicksburg Campaign
• Grant’s campaign and control of the Mississippi River • Joseph Johnston
– Confederate leader – Surrendered Vicksburg 7-4-1863

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Chickamauga and Chattanooga
• Confederates abandon Knoxville and Chattanooga, losing only East-West rail link • Chickamauga: Confederate ambush • Lookout Mountain and Missionary Ridge • Grant appoint general-in-chief of union army
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Black Men in Blue
• Frederick Douglass
– Blacks fighting for union would guarantee citizenship

• Field commanders start forming Black regiments from slaves they freed
– Non-combat roles – Paid less than whites – Officers were white
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Black Men in Combat
• Port Hudson • Milliken’s Bend • 54th Massachusetts Infantry
– Robert Gould Shaw

Emancipation Confirmed
• 1863 elections endorse Emancipation • Thirteenth Amendment
– Final Congressional passage after 1864 elections – Ratified by states December 1865

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The Year of Decision
• Southern defeatism • Political uncertainty in the Confederacy
– Hostility towards Davis administration

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Out of the Wilderness
• Spring of 1864: renewed determination in the Confederacy
– War of attrition

• Grant vs. Lee in Virginia
– The Wilderness

• Sherman vs. Johnston in Georgia

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Spotsylvania and Cold Harbor
• Trench warfare • Stalemate in Spotsylvania • Lee skillfully anticipated Grant’s move and blocked his offensive strikes • Cold Harbor

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Stalemate in Virginia
• Confederates hold at Petersburg • Grant continued to move on the offensive • Huge Union losses:
– 65,000 casualties in only 6 weeks – Siege instead of offensive

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The Atlanta Campaign
• Sherman’s army in Georgia
– Accomplished more at less cost than Grant

• Kennesaw Mountain • John Bell Hood
– Replaced Johnston – Three counterattacks left Confederates defeated

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Peace Overtures
• Horace Greeley
– U.S. sentiments yearned for peace

• Lincoln refused to drop the Emancipation Proclamation as a condition of peace • Democrats nominated McClellan for President
– Peace campaign
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The Prisoner-Exchange Controversy
• Prisoner exchanges for 1st part of war, no large prison camps needed • Exchange ends after Confederates threat to kill Black soldiers and their white officers
– Fort Pillow Massacre – Generally not enforced, Blacks returned to their masters

• Prison camps
– Overcrowded, poorly constructed – 12% of Confederate prisoners died, 16% of Union – Andersonville
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• Lincoln refuses to renew exchanges unless Black and White prisoners treated the same

The Issue of Black Soldiers in the Confederate Army
• Winter of 1864-65: Confederates desperate • Confederate government agrees to recruit slaves

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Lincoln’s Reelection and the End of the Confederacy
• Voters made choice based on battlefield situation • Fall of 1864 better for Union armies

The Capture of Atlanta
• Month-long stalemate at Atlanta front • Sherman’s army attacked and captured railroad into Atlanta • Atlanta falls to Sherman September 1864

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The Shenandoah Valley
• • • • • Philip Sheridan vs. Jubal Early Fisher’s Hill Union destroys Shenandoah Valley crops Cedar Creek Lincoln reelected
– Sherman and Sheridan’s victories – Large absentee soldier vote for Lincoln
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From Atlanta to the Sea
• Union armies destroy Confederate property, railroads, factories, farms that supported the Southern Army • Sherman’s forces burned one-third of Atlanta and marched to Savannah, wrecking most everything along the way

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The Battles of Franklin and Nashville
• Hood invades Tennessee, hoping to win it for the Confederacy
– Disastrous defeat

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Fort Fisher and Sherman’s March through the Carolinas
• Fall of Fort Fisher ends blockade running • Sherman’s march of destruction from Savannah into South Carolina • War could not end until Confederate forces surrendered

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The Road to Appomattox
• Sheridan’s cavalry and Five Forks • Lee Abandons Richmond and Petersburg • Lee surrenders to Grant
– Wilmer McLean

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The Assassination of Lincoln
• Ford’s Theatre, April 1865 • John Wilkes Booth • Confederate armies continued to surrender April – June • Jefferson Davis: captured in Georgia

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Conclusion
• Civil War cost 625,000 lives • Since 1865, no state has seriously threatened secession • 1865: Thirteenth Amendment abolished slavery and ensured liberty of all Americans • Regional transfer of power from South to North
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