Chapter 20

An Industrial Society, 1890-1920

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Sources of Economic Growth
• Innovations and Breakthroughs
– Technology combined with new corporate structures and pioneering management techniques

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Technology
• Electrical industries
– Thomas Edison – George Westinghouse – Nikola Tesla

• Henry Ford
– Model T (1909)

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Corporate Growth
• Demand for mass-production allowed for growth in sophisticated, organized corporations • Employment numbers in corporations grew
– Chicago International Harvester – DuPont Corp. – Ford Motor Company

• Nationwide transportation and communication created huge national market

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Change in Distribution of American Workforce, 1870-1920

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Mass Production and Distribution
• Mass production techniques resulted in
– Increased speed in production – Lower unit costs – Replace skilled workers

• James Buchanan Duke
– Innovations in mass distribution
• Advertising • Regional sales offices

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Corporate Consolidation
• Corporate expansion wanted to avoid market instability • “Pools,” “cartels,” “trusts” • American Tobacco Company
• James B. Duke

• U.S. Steel Corporation (1901)
• Andrew Carnegie • J.P. Morgan

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Revolution in Management
• Senior managers take over long term planning from owners • Middle managers do day to day operations • Scientific management and university trained managers • Research departments
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Scientific Management on the Factory Floor
• Frederick Winslow Taylor
– Scientific management – The Principles of Scientific Management (1911)

• Henry Ford
– Highland Park – Assembly line

• Led to mental stupor and physical exhaustion • Ford’s solution
– $5 day – Sociology department
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Model T Prices and Sales, 1909-1923
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“Robber Barons” No More
• Upper class scared into moderating its image
– Alexander Berkman’s attempted assassination of Henry Clay Frick – Controversy over Bradley Martin ball

• Andrew Carnegie
– “Gospel of wealth"

• John D. Rockefeller
– Rockefeller Foundation

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Obsession with Physical and Racial Fitness
• Theodore Roosevelt: “the strenuous life” • Fitness craze
– – – – Bicycle riding Healthier eating Sport competitions in American universities Reflected dissatisfaction with regimentation of industrial society

• Native-born, often wealthy, Americans and their quest for racial fitness
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Social Darwinism
• Charles Darwin: “survival of the fittest”
– Social Darwinism: Darwin’s principles used to describe a struggle among races

• 19th C. Social Sciences took shape:
– Economics, psychology, sociology, political science and anthropology

• Increasingly global economy heightens awareness of differences in civilizations
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Immigration
• High rates of immigration between 1880-1920
– In many northern cities more than half of the population were immigrants or 1st generation Americans

• Few immigrants from Latin America before 1810 • “Old immigrants”
– Northwestern Europe (Britain, Scandinavia, Germany) – Racially fit, culturally sophisticated, politically mature

• “new immigrants”
– From Eastern and Southern Europe – Seen as racially inferior, culturally impoverished, incapable of assimilating American values and traditions
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Immigrants and Their Children as a Percentage of the Population of Selected Cities, 1920
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Sources of Immigration
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Causes of Immigration
• Religious or political persecution • Main reason: economic hardship
– European population expanded faster than lands there could support their people
• Rural ways of life in Europe were threatened by industrialization and urbanization • European village artisans unable to compete with mass-produced goods • Commercial agriculture and competition from American grain exports force peasants off land
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Patterns of Immigration
• Need for a contact in America (family member, former neighbor) • Temporary residency was sought by many immigrants • Many Jews came as families, intending to stay in the U.S., rather than return to religious persecution • Immigration moved in tandem with U.S. business cycles

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Chinese and Japanese Immigrants
• Chinese and Japanese immigrants contributed greatly to 2 important western economic sectors: railroads and agriculture • Chinese Exclusion Act (1882) • Japanese immigration banned in 1907 • 1790 Naturalization Act interpreted to preclude citizenship for East Asian immigrants • Motive for immigration similar to European • Angel Island San Francisco

Immigrant Labor
• Immigrants did arduous work in most major industries • Triangle Shirtwaist Company (1911) • Problems for workers
– Chronic fatigue and malnourishment – 60 work week average – Average yearly income $400-500

• Immigrants most vulnerable during Depression • Robert Hunter
– Poverty (1904)
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Living Conditions
• Many families lived in crowded, dilapidated 2 or 3 room apartments • Tenements
– – – – Lower East Side of NYC Crowded Lack of windows, ventilation Poor sanitary conditions
• High rates of deadly infectious diseases (Typhoid, Diptheria, Pneumonia)

• By 1900 some cities make improvements
– Housing inspections – Sewer systems
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Building Ethnic Communities
• Immigrants:
– Resourceful – Self-helping – Mutual aid

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A Network of Institutions
• Many groups reestablished institutions of homeland • Clan Na Gael • Turnevereins • Foreign language newspapers • Fraternal Societies
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The Emergence of an Ethnic Middle Class
• • • • Small retail businesses and peddlers “Sweatshops" Padroni Amadeo P. Giannini
– Bank of America

• Japanese fruit and vegetable farms • Led way for future generations to Americanize and assimilate
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Political Machines and Organized Crime
• Corruption and organized crime • Bosses and Graft
– – – – – “King Richard” Croker, N.Y. James Michael Curley, Boston Vice protection Kickbacks Vote fraud

• Kennedy Family • Underworld of Urban Life
– Mafia, Gangsters, and Tongs
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African American Labor and Community
• Many Blacks remained predominantly rural and Southern
– Sharecroppers and tenant farmers

• Some blacks migrated to industrial areas for better opportunities • Black were still treated worse than newest immigrants in labor force • Jim Crow laws • Blacks used as strikebreakers • Intensifying racial discrimination
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Workers and Unions
• Middle-class success still eluded most immigrants and black in pre-WWI era • A better life for many factory workers meant improving their working conditions

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Samuel F. Gompers and the AFL
• Legal environment hostile to unions
– Government often crushed strikes – Strikes seen as violation of Sherman Anti-Trust Act – Injunctions often prohibited strikes

• American Federation of Labor (AFL)
– “bread and butter” issues – Many local prohibited Blacks from joining

• • • •

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Lochner v. New York (1905) National Civic Federation United Mine Workers (UMW) International Ladies Garment Workers Union (ILGWU)

“Big Bill” Haywood and the IWW
• Industrial Workers of the World (IWW)
– Accepted immigrants – Big Bill Haywood – Anti-Capitalist

• "Ludlow massacre" (1913)

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The Joys of the City
• “Nickelodeons” • Early movies

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The New Sexuality and the New Woman
• Vamps vs. Victorianism
– “Separate spheres”

• “New women”
– Educated, middle class women – Young, single, working class women

• Dance Halls • More premarital sex
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The Rise of Feminism
• • • • • Charlotte Perkins Gilman Margaret Sanger and birth control Emma Goldman and “free love” Alice Paul and militant women’s suffrage Greenwich Village
– Crystal Eastman and Heterodoxy – Max Eastman and The Masses

• Cultural Conservatism
– Vice Commissions – Mann Act
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Conclusion
• 1890-1920:
– Corporate power, innovations and demand for manufactured products stimulate urban growth – Millions of immigrants came to America – Many thrived, many remained impoverished
• African American status

– Working-class Americans make gains through political machines and unions – Growing gap between Rich and Poor
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