Chapter 22

Becoming a World Power, 1898-1917

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The United States Looks Abroad
• By the 19th Century, many Americans were looking to extend their reach abroad:
– Protestant Missionaries – Businessmen – Imperialists

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Protestant Missionaries
• Focused mainly on China • Christian duty • “Civilizing”

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Businessmen
• Exports of American manufactured goods rise after 1880
– American tobacco sold 1 billion cigarettes to China

• James J. Hill • Frederick Jackson Turner
– “The Significance of the Frontier in American History"

• Senator Albert Beveridge

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Leading U.S. Exports, 1875 and 1915
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Imperialists
• U.S. should be imperial nation like Britain, France, Germany, and Russia • Alfred Thayer Mahan
– The Influence of Sea Power Upon History (1890)

• “Big navy” policy • Pago Pago, Samoa and Pearl Harbor, Hawaii • Hawaii
– Queen Liliuokalani

• “Jingoism“ • War and imperialism attempt to revive frontier like masculinity
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The Spanish-American War
• Cuban Revolution (1895)
– Valeriano Weyler

• “Yellow journalism"
– William Randolph Hearst – Joseph Pulitzer

• de Lôme letter • Maine • Teller Amendment
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“A Splendid Little War”
• Main reason for U.S. victory was naval superiority • American soldiers racial perceptions of Cubans confused and they refused to work with Cubans • George Dewey
– Manila

• Theodore Roosevelt and the "Rough Riders"
– Kettle Hill and Negro Infantry – San Juan Hill

• Spanish Atlantic fleet destroyed, Spain surrenders • Treaty of Paris, 1898
– U.S. gets Puerto Rico, Guam, Philippines – U.S. pays $20 million
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The United States Becomes a World Power
• • • • McKinley casts his lot with imperialists Hawaiian annexation (1898) Lands gained from Spain colonies not territories Philippines
– Emilio Aguinaldo

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The Debate over the Treaty of Paris
• Anti-Imperialist League • William Jennings Bryan and southern and western democrats
– Against proposed acquisition of Philippines
• • • • An assault on Filipinos’ rights Businessmen and laborers feared competition from Philippines Maintaining outposts more expensive than economic benefit Racist motives not to contaminate America

• Filipinos revolt, Anti-Imperialists lose
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The American-Filipino War
• 4 years of fighting between U.S. soldiers and Filipino rebels • Were American actions in Philippines any different than those of Spain in Cuba? • Arthur MacArthur • William Howard Taft

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Controlling Cuba and Puerto Rico
• Leonard Wood • Platt Amendment • Foraker Act (1900)
– Unincorporated territory – Insular cases

• Caribbean becoming an “American Mediterranean”
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China and the “Open Door”
• Other countries controlled China’s trade through spheres of influence • John Hay
– “Open Door" policy

• Boxer Rebellion (1900) • 2nd Open Door notes

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Theodore Roosevelt, Geopolitician
• Driving force in U.S. foreign policy • Roosevelt believed the nation, like an individual, must strive for greatness
– Americans were racially superior and destined for supremacy in economic and political affairs – Shrewd analyst of international affairs – No patience for small countries’ claims to sovereignty or human rights of weak peoples
• Latin America, Africa, Asia (except Japan) were inferior

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The Roosevelt Corollary
• • • • Roosevelt Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine Venezuela Dominican Republic Roosevelt’s interventions concerned with stability not democratic institutions or social justice

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The Panama Canal
• • • • • Hay-Pauncefote Treaty (1901) Hay-Herran Treaty (1902) Philippe Bunau-Varilla Panamanian revolt and the U.S.S. Nashville Hay-Bunau-Varilla Treaty (1903)
– “The treaty which no Panamanian signed”

• Building canal impressive test of American ingenuity and willpower • Strategic importance of canal increased U.S. determination to preserve order in Central America
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Keeping the Peace in East Asia
• Russo-Japanese War (1904-1905)
– Treaty of Portsmouth, New Hampshire (1905)

• • • •

Taft-Katsura Agreement (1905) Root-Takahira Agreement (1908) “Gentlemen's agreement" (1907) “Great White Fleet”

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William Howard Taft, Dollar Diplomat
• Philander C. Knox and “Dollar diplomacy”
– Substitute “dollars for bullets” – Setback in China – United Fruit

• Nicaragua
– José Santos Zelaya – Adolfo Diaz
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U.S. Global Investments and Investments in Latin America, 1914
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Woodrow Wilson, Struggling Idealist
• Wilson intervened in Caribbean more than any President before
– Haiti and Dominican Republic

• Wilson more concerned with morality and justice than Taft or Roosevelt • Mexican Revolution: Wilson hopes for democracy
– – – – – Francisco Madero Victoriano Huerta Veracruz (1914) Venustiano Carranza and Francisco "Pancho" Villa John Pershing

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Conclusion
• Dramatic turns in U.S. foreign policy
– Control of Western Hemisphere – Moved military and economic power into Asia – Peoples of Philippines, Puerto Rico, Guam, Cuba, and Colombia were regarded as inferior and denied right to govern themselves

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